Generalized phrase structure grammar

Generalised phrase structure grammargeneralized phrase structureGeneralized phrase structure grammar (GPSG)GPSG
Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages.wikipedia
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Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages.

Phrase structure grammar

phrase structureconstituencyconstituency grammar
It is a type of constraint-based phrase structure grammar.

Model-theoretic grammars

constraint-basedconstraint-based grammar
It is a type of constraint-based phrase structure grammar.

Feature structure

attribute value matricesAttribute value matrixfeature constraints
Among these conventions are a sophisticated feature structure system and so-called "meta-rules", which are rules generating the productions of a context-free grammar.
In phrase structure grammars, such as generalised phrase structure grammar, head-driven phrase structure grammar and lexical functional grammar, a feature structure is essentially a set of attribute–value pairs.

ID/LP grammar

immediate dominance ruleimmediate dominance rules
One of the chief goals of GPSG is to show that the syntax of natural languages can be described by CFGs (written as ID/LP grammars), with some suitable conventions intended to make writing such grammars easier for syntacticians.
The idea first came to prominence as part of Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar; the ID/LP Grammar approach is also used in head-driven phrase structure grammar, lexical functional grammar, and other unification grammars.

Gerald Gazdar

Gazdar, GeraldG. M. J. Gazdar
GPSG was initially developed in the late 1970s by Gerald Gazdar.
Gazdar defined Linear Indexed Grammars and pioneered, along with his colleagues Ewan Klein, Geoffrey Pullum and Ivan Sag, the framework of Generalized Phrase Structure Grammars.

Ivan Sag

Sag, IvanI. SagSag, I.
Other contributors include Ewan Klein, Ivan Sag, and Geoffrey Pullum.
His early work was as a member of the research teams that invented and developed head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) as well as generalized phrase structure grammar, HPSG's immediate intellectual predecessor.

Head-driven phrase structure grammar

HPSGHead-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG)
Most of the syntactic innovations of GPSG were subsequently incorporated into head-driven phrase structure grammar.
It is a type of phrase structure grammar, as opposed to a dependency grammar, and it is the immediate successor to generalized phrase structure grammar.

Geoffrey K. Pullum

Geoffrey PullumPullum, Geoffrey K.Geoff Pullum
Other contributors include Ewan Klein, Ivan Sag, and Geoffrey Pullum.

Transformational grammar

transformational generative grammartransformationaltransformational-generative grammar
GPSG was in part a reaction against transformational theories of syntax.

Semantics

semanticsemanticallymeaning
Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages.

Natural language

linguisticnaturalnatural languages
Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages.

Grammaticality

ungrammaticalgrammaticalungrammaticality
Constraint based grammars are based around defining certain syntactic processes as ungrammatical for a given language and assuming everything not thus dismissed is grammatical within that language.

Dependency grammar

dependentdependencydependency grammars
This view stands in contrast to dependency grammars, which base their assumed structure on the relationship between a single word in a sentence (the sentence head) and its dependents.

Context-free grammar

context-free grammarscontext-freecontext free grammar
In fact, the notational extensions to context-free grammars (CFGs) developed in GPSG are claimed to make transformations redundant.

Parsing

parserparseparsed
However, it has been argued (for example by Robert Berwick) that these extensions require parsing algorithms of a higher order of computational complexity than those used for basic CFGs.

Analysis of algorithms

computational complexitycomplexity analysiscomputationally expensive
However, it has been argued (for example by Robert Berwick) that these extensions require parsing algorithms of a higher order of computational complexity than those used for basic CFGs.

Parse tree

concrete syntax treesyntax treeconcrete syntax
One such method is a Syntax tree, which represents all of the words in a sentence as leaf nodes in a parsing tree, as can be seen in the provided image.

Lexical functional grammar

Lexical-functional grammarLFGLexical functional grammar (LFG)

X-bar theory

X-bar schemaX' theoryX-bar
X-bar theory was incorporated into both transformational and nontransformational theories of syntax, including GB, GPSG, LFG, and HPSG.

Universal grammar

linguistic nativismnativismuniversal
Syntacticians generally hold that there are parametric points of variation between languages, although heated debate occurs over whether UG constraints are essentially universal due to being "hard-wired" (Chomsky's principles and parameters approach), a logical consequence of a specific syntactic architecture (the generalized phrase structure approach) or the result of functional constraints on communication (the functionalist approach).

Merge (linguistics)

Merge
This bottom-up view of structure generation is rejected by representational (non-derivational) theories (e.g. Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar, Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Lexical Functional Grammar, most dependency grammars, etc.), and it is contrary to early work in Transformational Grammar.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language