Genetic code

codoncodonsencodedcodecodesdegeneracy of the genetic codesense codontriplet codecodedcoding
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.wikipedia
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Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
The sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is encoded in the genetic code.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
The vast majority of genes are encoded with a single scheme (see the RNA codon table).
In biology, a gene is a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that encodes the synthesis of a gene product, either RNA or protein.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Under the genetic code, these RNA strands specify the sequence of amino acids within proteins in a process called translation.

Translation (biology)

translationtranslatedprotein translation
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins. They used a cell-free system to translate a poly-uracil RNA sequence (i.e., UUUUU...) and discovered that the polypeptide that they had synthesized consisted of only the amino acid phenylalanine.
The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of complementary tRNA anticodon sequences to mRNA codons.

Marshall Warren Nirenberg

Marshall NirenbergMarshall W. NirenbergDr. Marshall Nirenberg
Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich J. Matthaei were the first to reveal the nature of a codon in 1961.
He shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968 with Har Gobind Khorana and Robert W. Holley for "breaking the genetic code" and describing how it operates in protein synthesis.

Lysine

Lyslysine degradationL-lysine
This was followed by experiments in Severo Ochoa's laboratory that demonstrated that the poly-adenine RNA sequence (AAAAA...) coded for the polypeptide poly-lysine and that the poly-cytosine RNA sequence (CCCCC...) coded for the polypeptide poly-proline. Therefore, the codon AAA specified the amino acid lysine, and the codon CCC specified the amino acid proline.
It is encoded by the codons, AAA and AAG.

J. Heinrich Matthaei

Heinrich J. MatthaeiHeinrich MatthaeiHeinrick Matthaei
Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich J. Matthaei were the first to reveal the nature of a codon in 1961.
He is best known for his unique contribution to solving the genetic code on 15 May 1961.

Har Gobind Khorana

H. Gobind KhoranaGobind KhoranaHargobind Khorana
Subsequent work by Har Gobind Khorana identified the rest of the genetic code.
While on the faculty of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, he shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley for research that showed the order of nucleotides in nucleic acids, which carry the genetic code of the cell and control the cell's synthesis of proteins.

Proline

ProL-proline L -proline
Therefore, the codon AAA specified the amino acid lysine, and the codon CCC specified the amino acid proline.
It is encoded by all the codons starting with CC (CCU, CCC, CCA, and CCG).

Phenylalanine

PheL-phenylalaninephenylalanine metabolism
They used a cell-free system to translate a poly-uracil RNA sequence (i.e., UUUUU...) and discovered that the polypeptide that they had synthesized consisted of only the amino acid phenylalanine.
It is encoded by the codons UUU and UUC.

Crick, Brenner et al. experiment

Crick, Brenner, Barnett, Watts-Tobin et al. experiment of 1961Crick and BrennerCrick, Brenner, Barnett and Watts-Tobin experiment
The Crick, Brenner, Barnett and Watts-Tobin experiment first demonstrated that codons consist of three DNA bases.
This study demonstrated that the genetic code is made up of a series of three base pair codons which code for individual amino acids.

Nediljko Budisa

BudisaN. Budisa
In 2015 N. Budisa, D. Söll and co-workers reported the full substitution of all 20,899 tryptophan residues (UGG codons) with unnatural thienopyrrole-alanine in the genetic code of the bacterium Escherichia coli.
As pioneer in the areas of genetic code engineering and chemical synthetic biology (Xenobiology), his research has a wide range of applications in biotechnology and engineering biology in general.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
The biological information contained in an organism is encoded in its DNA sequence.

Tryptophan

L-tryptophanTrptryptophan metabolism
In 2015 N. Budisa, D. Söll and co-workers reported the full substitution of all 20,899 tryptophan residues (UGG codons) with unnatural thienopyrrole-alanine in the genetic code of the bacterium Escherichia coli.
It is encoded by the codon UGG.

Messenger RNA

mRNAmRNAstranscripts
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins. Translation is accomplished by the ribosome, which links amino acids in an order specified by messenger RNA (mRNA), using transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to carry amino acids and to read the mRNA three nucleotides at a time.
As in DNA, mRNA genetic information is in the sequence of nucleotides, which are arranged into codons consisting of three base pairs each.

Start codon

initiation codonstartAUG
Protein-coding frames are defined by a start codon, usually the first AUG (ATG) codon in the RNA (DNA) sequence.
The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome.

Open reading frame

open reading framesORFORFs
It sets the frame for a run of successive, non-overlapping codons, which is known as an "open reading frame" (ORF).
An ORF is a continuous stretch of codons that begins with a start codon (usually AUG) and ends at a stop codon (usually UAA, UAG or UGA).

Philip Leder

Extending this work, Nirenberg and Philip Leder revealed the code's triplet nature and deciphered its codons.
He is perhaps best known for his early work with Marshall Nirenberg in the elucidation of the genetic code and the Nirenberg and Leder experiment.

Synthetic biology

synthetic lifesyntheticsynthetic biologist
In May 2019, researchers, in a milestone effort, reported the creation of a new synthetic (possibly artificial) form of viable life, a variant of the bacteria Escherichia coli, by reducing the natural number of 64 codons in the bacterial genome to 59 codons instead, in order to encode 20 amino acids.
May 2019: researchers, in a milestone effort, reported the creation of a new synthetic (possibly artificial) form of viable life, a variant of the bacteria Escherichia coli, by reducing the natural number of 64 codons in the bacterial genome to 59 codons instead, in order to encode 20 amino acids.

Methionine

Metmethionine metabolismL-methionine
The most common start codon is AUG, which is read as methionine or, in bacteria, as formylmethionine.
It is encoded by the codon AUG.

Protein structure

structureconformationconformational
Since 2001, 40 non-natural amino acids have been added into protein by creating a unique codon (recoding) and a corresponding transfer-RNA:aminoacyl – tRNA-synthetase pair to encode it with diverse physicochemical and biological properties in order to be used as a tool to exploring protein structure and function or to create novel or enhanced proteins.
Often, however, it is read directly from the sequence of the gene using the genetic code.

Stop codon

termination codonstop codonsamber stop codon
The three stop codons have names: UAG is amber, UGA is opal (sometimes also called umber), and UAA is ochre.
In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins.

Ribosome

ribosomesribosomal70S
Translation is accomplished by the ribosome, which links amino acids in an order specified by messenger RNA (mRNA), using transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to carry amino acids and to read the mRNA three nucleotides at a time.
The mRNA comprises a series of codons which are decoded by the ribosome so as to make the protein.

Leucine

LeuL-leucineL
Alternative start codons depending on the organism include "GUG" or "UUG"; these codons normally represent valine and leucine, respectively, but as start codons they are translated as methionine or formylmethionine.
It is encoded by the codons UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, and CUG.

Protein biosynthesis

protein synthesissynthesissynthesized
The code defines how sequences of nucleotide triplets, called codons, specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis.
In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) is decoded to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the trinucleotide genetic code.