Genetic discrimination

forbiddenGenismgenoism
Genetic discrimination occurs when people treat others (or are treated) differently because they have or are perceived to have a gene mutation(s) that causes or increases the risk of an inherited disorder.wikipedia
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Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act

Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008Genetic Information Non-discrimination ActGenetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA)
Genetic discrimination is illegal in the U.S. after passage of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) on May 21, 2008.
The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (, GINA ), is an Act of Congress in the United States designed to prohibit some types of genetic discrimination.

23andMe

23 and MeDNA tests
These tests are easily accessible on the market and popularized by companies such as 23andMe and Ancestry.com.
The new genetic testing service and ability to map significant portions of the genome has raised controversial questions, including whether the results can be interpreted meaningfully and whether they will lead to genetic discrimination.

Gattaca

1997 science fiction movieGattaca'' critical reception
Genoism is a neologism coined by Andrew Niccol, director and writer of the 1997 film Gattaca, used to describe unethical and illegal genetic discrimination.
The film centers on Vincent Freeman, played by Hawke, who was conceived outside the eugenics program and struggles to overcome genetic discrimination to realize his dream of going into space.

Genetic privacy

genetic datagenetic information privacyprivacy of genetic information
Legal regulations, such as the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) in the United States have been created to mandate that an individual's genomic sequence information cannot be requested or used as a basis for genetic discrimination by employers or health insurance providers, though this protection did not extend to other forms of insurance such as life insurance.

Genetic testing

DNA testingDNA analysisDNA test
Upon birth, a number of genetically-induced characteristics are calculated: physical and intellectual capacity, life expectancy, probable successful diseases, and likely causes of death, all determined via blood samples and genetic testing.
The possibility of genetic discrimination in employment or insurance is also a concern.

Whole genome sequencing

genome sequencingfull genome sequencingsequenced
Job interviews, health insurance purchasing, and even potential dates can be sized up according to the perceived quality of the person's DNA due to advancements in genome sequencing.
On the other hand, genetic testing has potential downsides such as genetic discrimination, loss of anonymity, and psychological impacts such as discovery of non-paternity.

Mutation

mutationsgenetic mutationmutated
Genetic discrimination occurs when people treat others (or are treated) differently because they have or are perceived to have a gene mutation(s) that causes or increases the risk of an inherited disorder.

Genetic disorder

genetic diseasegenetic disordersgenetic diseases
Genetic discrimination occurs when people treat others (or are treated) differently because they have or are perceived to have a gene mutation(s) that causes or increases the risk of an inherited disorder.

Genotype

genotypesgenotypicgenotypically
It may also refer to any and all discrimination based on the genotype of a person rather than their individual merits, including that related to race.

Biological determinism

genetic determinismbiologismbiological determinist
Genetic Discrimination is considered to have its foundations in genetic determinism and genetic essentialism, and is based on the concept of genism, i.e. distinctive human characteristics and capacities are determined by genes.

George W. Bush

BushPresident BushPresident George W. Bush
It was signed into law by President George W. Bush, and passed in the US Senate by a vote of 49-0 and in the House of Representatives by 414-1.

Recruitment

recruiterrecruitinghiring
The legislation bars employers from using individuals’ genetic information when making hiring, firing, job placement, or promotion decisions.

Dismissal (employment)

releasefiredsacked
The legislation bars employers from using individuals’ genetic information when making hiring, firing, job placement, or promotion decisions.

Promotion (rank)

promotionpromotedpromotions
The legislation bars employers from using individuals’ genetic information when making hiring, firing, job placement, or promotion decisions.

The New York Times

New York TimesNY TimesNYT
In 2008, The New York Times reported that some individuals avoid genetic testing out of fear that it will would impede their ability to purchase insurance or find a job.

GeneTree

Direct-to-consumer genetic testing was first offered in 1997 by GeneTree, a now defunct family history website.

Ancestry.com

RootsWebNewspapers.comRootsWeb.com
These tests are easily accessible on the market and popularized by companies such as 23andMe and Ancestry.com.

Food and Drug Administration

FDAU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationUnited States Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration additionally halted all 23andMe marketing in 2013 over unsubstantiated claims 23andMe made regarding disease diagnosis and prevention.

Conservative Party of Canada

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
Despite government opposition in the House of Commons, it survived the lower house by the support of backbench Liberals and the totality of the Conservative, NDP and Green Party MPs.

New Democratic Party

New DemocraticNDPNew Democrat
Despite government opposition in the House of Commons, it survived the lower house by the support of backbench Liberals and the totality of the Conservative, NDP and Green Party MPs.

Green Party of Canada

GreenGreen PartyGreens
Despite government opposition in the House of Commons, it survived the lower house by the support of backbench Liberals and the totality of the Conservative, NDP and Green Party MPs.

Berylliosis

beryllium diseaseChronic beryllium diseaseberyllium was toxic
For example, workers with beryllium sensitivity and chronic beryllium disease are more likely to carry the gene HLA-DPB1 than workers without these conditions.

HLA-DPB1

HLA-'''DPB1β1
For example, workers with beryllium sensitivity and chronic beryllium disease are more likely to carry the gene HLA-DPB1 than workers without these conditions.

Race and genetics

differences between themgenetic basis to racial groupsinferred from multilocus genetic data
See main article Race and genetics.

Neologism

neologismscoinedneologistic
Genoism is a neologism coined by Andrew Niccol, director and writer of the 1997 film Gattaca, used to describe unethical and illegal genetic discrimination.