Genetic engineering

genetically engineeredgenetically modifiedgenetic modificationgenetic manipulationgenetically-engineeredgenetically engineergenetically enhancedgenetic engineerengineeredgenetically altered
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.wikipedia
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Genetic engineering techniques

genetically modifiedtechnologiesvariety of techniques
It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms.
Genetic engineering can be accomplished using multiple techniques.

Genetically modified organism

genetically modified organismsGMOgenetically modified
An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified (GM) and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism (GMO).
The exact definition of a genetically modified organism and what constitutes genetic engineering varies, with the most common being an organism altered in a way that "does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination".

Biotechnology

biotechbiotechnologicalbiotechnologies
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies.

Genetically modified food

genetically modified foodsgenetically modifiedGM food
Genetically modified food has been sold since 1994, with the release of the Flavr Savr tomato. In 1994 Calgene attained approval to commercially release the first genetically modified food, the Flavr Savr, a tomato engineered to have a longer shelf life.
Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods), or bioengineered foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.

Herbert Boyer

Herb BoyerHerbert W. BoyerHerbert W Boyer
The first GMO was a bacterium generated by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973. In 1973 Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen created the first transgenic organism by inserting antibiotic resistance genes into the plasmid of an Escherichia coli bacterium.
Along with Stanley N. Cohen and Paul Berg he discovered a method to coax bacteria into producing foreign proteins, thereby jump starting the field of genetic engineering.

Genetically modified crops

genetically modifiedtransgenic cropsgenetically modified crop
The rise of commercialised genetically modified crops has provided economic benefit to farmers in many different countries, but has also been the source of most of the controversy surrounding the technology.
Genetically modified crops (GM crops or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.

Genetically modified food controversies

controversiescontroversy over GMOsdebate over genetically modified foods
The rise of commercialised genetically modified crops has provided economic benefit to farmers in many different countries, but has also been the source of most of the controversy surrounding the technology.
Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production.

GloFish

GloFish, the first GMO designed as a pet, was sold in the United States in December 2003.
The GloFish is a patented and trademarked brand of genetically engineered fluorescent fish.

Flavr Savr

Genetically modified food has been sold since 1994, with the release of the Flavr Savr tomato. In 1994 Calgene attained approval to commercially release the first genetically modified food, the Flavr Savr, a tomato engineered to have a longer shelf life.
Flavr Savr (also known as CGN-89564-2; pronounced "flavor saver"), a genetically modified tomato, was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food to be granted a license for human consumption.

List of genetically modified crops

Crops
Crops have been developed that aid food security by increasing yield, nutritional value and tolerance to environmental stresses.
Genetically modified crops are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering techniques.

Synthetic biology

synthetic lifesynthetic biologistsynthetic
Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline that takes genetic engineering a step further by introducing artificially synthesised material into an organism.
The subject combines disciplines from within these domains, such as biotechnology, genetic engineering, molecular biology, molecular engineering, systems biology, membrane science, biophysics, chemical and biological engineering, electrical and computer engineering, control engineering and evolutionary biology.

Cisgenesis

cisgenicintragenicproposed designation
If genetic material from the same species or a species that can naturally breed with the host is used the resulting organism is called cisgenic.
Cisgenesis is a product designation for a category of genetically engineered plants.

Transgene

transgenictransgenesknockout
If genetic material from another species is added to the host, the resulting organism is called transgenic. In 1973 Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen created the first transgenic organism by inserting antibiotic resistance genes into the plasmid of an Escherichia coli bacterium.
A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, or by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another.

Monsanto

Monsanto CompanyCalgeneGenuity
In 1994 Calgene attained approval to commercially release the first genetically modified food, the Flavr Savr, a tomato engineered to have a longer shelf life.
Monsanto developed Roundup, a glyphosate-based herbicide, in the 1970s, and became a major producer of genetically engineered crops.

Genetically modified mouse

transgenic micetransgenic mouseGenetically modified mice
Rudolf Jaenisch created the first GM animal when he inserted foreign DNA into a mouse in 1974.
A genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) is a mouse that has had its genome altered through the use of genetic engineering techniques.

Model organism

animal modelmodel organismsanimal models
By knocking out genes responsible for certain conditions it is possible to create animal model organisms of human diseases.
The increase in knowledge of the genomes of non-human primates and other mammals that are genetically close to humans is allowing the production of genetically engineered animal tissues, organs and even animal species which express human diseases, providing a more robust model of human diseases in an animal model.

Genetically modified potato

PotatoBt PotatoInnate
In 1995, Bt Potato was approved safe by the Environmental Protection Agency, after having been approved by the FDA, making it the first pesticide producing crop to be approved in the US. In 2009 11 transgenic crops were grown commercially in 25 countries, the largest of which by area grown were the US, Brazil, Argentina, India, Canada, China, Paraguay and South Africa.
A genetically modified potato is a potato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering.

Stanley Norman Cohen

Stanley CohenStanley N. Cohen
The first GMO was a bacterium generated by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973. In 1973 Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen created the first transgenic organism by inserting antibiotic resistance genes into the plasmid of an Escherichia coli bacterium.
These discoveries signaled the birth of genetic engineering, and earned Cohen a number of significant awards, beginning with the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 1980 for "his imaginative and persevering studies of bacterial plasmids, for discovering new opportunities for manipulating and investigating the genetics of cells, and for establishing the biological promise of recombinant DNA methodology."

Plant breeding

breedingplant breederplant biotechnology
Unlike traditional animal and plant breeding, which involves doing multiple crosses and then selecting for the organism with the desired phenotype, genetic engineering takes the gene directly from one organism and inserts it in the other.
Some scientists therefore argue that plants produced by classical breeding methods should undergo the same safety testing regime as genetically modified plants.

Gene gun

biolisticsbiolistic transformationgold bead
Other methods include biolistics, where particles of gold or tungsten are coated with DNA and then shot into young plant cells, and electroporation, which involves using an electric shock to make the cell membrane permeable to plasmid DNA.
In genetic engineering, a gene gun or a biolistic particle delivery system, originally designed for plant transformation, is a device for delivering exogenous DNA (transgenes) to cells.

Plasmid

plasmidsepisomeplasmid vector
In 1973 Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen created the first transgenic organism by inserting antibiotic resistance genes into the plasmid of an Escherichia coli bacterium.
Artificially constructed plasmids may be used as vectors in genetic engineering.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. The term "genetic engineering" was first coined by Jack Williamson in his science fiction novel Dragon's Island, published in 1951 – one year before DNA's role in heredity was confirmed by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase, and two years before James Watson and Francis Crick showed that the DNA molecule has a double-helix structure – though the general concept of direct genetic manipulation was explored in rudimentary form in Stanley G. Weinbaum's 1936 science fiction story Proteus Island.
The genetically modified organisms produced can be used to produce products such as recombinant proteins, used in medical research, or be grown in agriculture.

Genome editing

gene editinggenome engineeringgene-edited
The frequency of gene targeting can be greatly enhanced through genome editing.
Genome editing, or genome engineering, is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified or replaced in the genome of a living organism.

Agrobacterium

crown gallAgrobacterium''-mediated recombinationAgrobacteria
In plants the DNA is often inserted using Agrobacterium-mediated recombination, taking advantage of the Agrobacteriums T-DNA sequence that allows natural insertion of genetic material into plant cells.
Agrobacterium is well known for its ability to transfer DNA between itself and plants, and for this reason it has become an important tool for genetic engineering.

James Watson

WatsonJames D. WatsonJames Dewey Watson
The term "genetic engineering" was first coined by Jack Williamson in his science fiction novel Dragon's Island, published in 1951 – one year before DNA's role in heredity was confirmed by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase, and two years before James Watson and Francis Crick showed that the DNA molecule has a double-helix structure – though the general concept of direct genetic manipulation was explored in rudimentary form in Stanley G. Weinbaum's 1936 science fiction story Proteus Island.
His third textbook was Recombinant DNA, which described the ways in which genetic engineering has brought much new information about how organisms function.