Genetic engineering techniques

technologiesgenetically modifiedvariety of techniques
Genetic engineering can be accomplished using multiple techniques.wikipedia
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Genetic engineering

genetically engineeredgenetic modificationgenetically modified
Genetic engineering can be accomplished using multiple techniques.
It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
Genetic engineers must first choose what gene they wish to insert, modify or delete.
Since the 1970s, a variety of techniques have been developed to specifically add, remove and edit genes in an organism.

Genome editing

gene editinggenome engineeringedited
Unlike early genetic engineering techniques that randomly inserts genetic material into a host genome, genome editing targets the insertions to site specific locations.

Substantial equivalence

substantially equivalentSubstantial-Equivalency
In food safety, the concept of substantial equivalence holds that the safety of a new food, particularly one that has been genetically modified (GM), may be assessed by comparing it with a similar traditional food that has proven safe in normal use over time.

Vector (molecular biology)

vectorvectorsvector DNA
The gene must then be isolated and incorporated, along with other genetic elements, into a suitable vector.

Domestication

domesticateddomesticdomesticate
The ability to genetically engineer organisms is built on years of research and discovery on how genes function and how we can manipulate them.Humans have been manipulating genetics since early domestication attempts around 12,000 BC. Following the discovery of genes by Gregor Mendel and the proof that they were involved in inheritance tools were developed that allowed there direct manipulation. Human-directed genetic manipulation began with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection in about 12,000 BC.

Gregor Mendel

MendelMendelianGregor Johann Mendel
The ability to genetically engineer organisms is built on years of research and discovery on how genes function and how we can manipulate them.Humans have been manipulating genetics since early domestication attempts around 12,000 BC. Following the discovery of genes by Gregor Mendel and the proof that they were involved in inheritance tools were developed that allowed there direct manipulation.

Griffith's experiment

transforming principleexperimentproved
The ability to genetically engineer organisms is built on years of research and discovery on how genes function and how we can manipulate them.Humans have been manipulating genetics since early domestication attempts around 12,000 BC. Following the discovery of genes by Gregor Mendel and the proof that they were involved in inheritance tools were developed that allowed there direct manipulation.

DNA ligase

ligationligatedligating
Important advances included the discovery of restriction enzymes and DNA ligases and the development of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.

Polymerase chain reaction

PCRpolymerase chain reaction (PCR)DNA amplification
Important advances included the discovery of restriction enzymes and DNA ligases and the development of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.

Sequencing

sequencedsequencebase sequence
Important advances included the discovery of restriction enzymes and DNA ligases and the development of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.

Terminator (genetics)

terminatorterminatorstranscription termination
Often a promoter and terminator region was added as well as a selectable marker gene.

Genome

genomesgenetic materialgenomic
This vector is then inserted into the host organism's genome.

Tissue culture

culturedculturecultured cells
For animals, the gene is typically inserted into embryonic stem cells, while in plants it can be inserted into any tissue that can be cultured into a fully developed plant.

Microinjection

micro-injectionmicroinjectionspronuclear injection
Common techniques include microinjection, virus-mediated, Agrobacterium-mediated or biolistics.

Agrobacterium

crown gallAgrobacterium''-mediated recombinationAgrobacteria
Common techniques include microinjection, virus-mediated, Agrobacterium-mediated or biolistics.

Mendelian inheritance

MendelianMendelian geneticslaws of inheritance
Further tests are carried out on the resulting organism to ensure stable integration, inheritance and expression.

Meganuclease

Early targeting systems relied on meganucleases and zinc finger nucleases.

Zinc finger nuclease

zinc finger nucleasesZinc-finger nucleasesZFNs
Early targeting systems relied on meganucleases and zinc finger nucleases.

Transcription activator-like effector nuclease

TALENTALENstranscription activator-like effector nucleases
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the Cas9-guideRNA system (adapted from CRISPR) are the two most commonly used.

Cas9

Cas9 proteindCas9Cas9-guideRNA system
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the Cas9-guideRNA system (adapted from CRISPR) are the two most commonly used.

CRISPR

CRISPR/Cas9CRISPR/CasCRISPR-Cas9
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the Cas9-guideRNA system (adapted from CRISPR) are the two most commonly used.

Gene therapy

human genetic engineeringgene therapiesgene
They may potentially be useful in gene therapy and other procedures that require accurate or high through put targeting.

Selective breeding

artificial selectionselectively bredbreeding
Human-directed genetic manipulation began with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection in about 12,000 BC.