Genetic engineering techniques

genetically modifiedtechnologiesvariety of techniques
Genetic engineering can be accomplished using multiple techniques.wikipedia
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Genetic engineering

genetically engineeredgenetically modifiedgenetic modification
Genetic engineering can be accomplished using multiple techniques.
It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms.

Genetically modified organism

genetically modified organismsGMOgenetically modified
There are a number of steps that are followed before a genetically modified organism (GMO) is created.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
Genetic engineers must first choose what gene they wish to insert, modify or delete.
Since the 1970s, a variety of techniques have been developed to specifically add, remove and edit genes in an organism.

Vector (molecular biology)

vectorvectorsvector DNA
The gene must then be isolated and incorporated, along with other genetic elements, into a suitable vector.

Gregor Mendel

MendelMendelianGregor Johann Mendel
Following the discovery of genes by Gregor Mendel and the proof that they were involved in inheritance tools were developed that allowed their direct manipulation.

Griffith's experiment

transforming principleexperimentproof
Following the discovery of genes by Gregor Mendel and the proof that they were involved in inheritance tools were developed that allowed their direct manipulation.

DNA ligase

ligationligatedligase
Important advances included the discovery of restriction enzymes and DNA ligases and the development of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.

Polymerase chain reaction

PCRpolymerase chain reaction (PCR)amplification
Important advances included the discovery of restriction enzymes and DNA ligases and the development of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.

Sequencing

sequencedsequencemolecular data
Important advances included the discovery of restriction enzymes and DNA ligases and the development of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.

Terminator (genetics)

terminatorterminatorstranscription termination
Often a promoter and terminator region was added as well as a selectable marker gene.

Genome

genomesgenetic materialgenomic
This vector is then inserted into the host organism's genome.

Tissue culture

culturedcultureanimal tissue culture
For animals, the gene is typically inserted into embryonic stem cells, while in plants it can be inserted into any tissue that can be cultured into a fully developed plant.

Microinjection

micro-injectionmicroinjectedmicroinjections
Common techniques include microinjection, virus-mediated, Agrobacterium-mediated or biolistics.

Agrobacterium

crown gallAgrobacterium''-mediated recombinationAgrobacteria
Common techniques include microinjection, virus-mediated, Agrobacterium-mediated or biolistics.

Mendelian inheritance

MendelianMendelian geneticslaws of inheritance
Further tests are carried out on the resulting organism to ensure stable integration, inheritance and expression.

Meganuclease

Early targeting systems relied on meganucleases and zinc finger nucleases.

Zinc finger nuclease

zinc finger nucleasesZinc-Finger NucleasesZFNs
Early targeting systems relied on meganucleases and zinc finger nucleases.

Transcription activator-like effector nuclease

TALENTALENsTAL effector nucleases
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the Cas9-guideRNA system (adapted from CRISPR) are the two most commonly used.

Cas9

Cas9 proteinCas9-guideRNA systemdCas9
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the Cas9-guideRNA system (adapted from CRISPR) are the two most commonly used.

CRISPR

CRISPR/Cas9CRISPR/CasCRISPR-Cas9
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the Cas9-guideRNA system (adapted from CRISPR) are the two most commonly used.

Gene therapy

human genetic engineeringgene therapiesgene
They may potentially be useful in gene therapy and other procedures that require accurate or high through put targeting.

Domestication

domesticateddomesticdomesticate
Human-directed genetic manipulation began with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection in about 12,000 BC.

Selective breeding

artificial selectionselectively bredbreeding
Human-directed genetic manipulation began with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection in about 12,000 BC.

Hybrid (biology)

hybridhybridshybridization
Hybridization was one way rapid changes in an organisms makeup could be introduced.

Vegetative reproduction

vegetativelyvegetativevegetative propagation
Some plants were able to be propagated by vegetative cloning.