Jewish ethnic divisions map
The logarithm of fitness as a function of the number of deleterious mutations. Synergistic epistasis is represented by the red line - each subsequent deleterious mutation has a larger proportionate effect on the organism's fitness. Antagonistic epistasis is in blue. The black line shows the non-epistatic case, where fitness is the product of the contributions from each of its loci.
Painting of a Jewish man from the Ottoman Empire, 1779
Jewish women in Algeria, 1851
The Suleiman ben Pinchas Cohen family of Yemen, circa 1944
Maltese Jews in Valletta, 19th century
Sephardi Jewish family descendants of Spanish expellees in Bosnia, 19th century
An Eastern Ashkenazic family living in the Shtetl of Romanivka, circa 1905
Yemenite Jews in Sa'dah, smoking Nargile.
Ethiopian Jewish women at Jerusalem's Western Wall, 2006
Bukharan Jewish teacher and students in Samarkand, modern-day Uzbekistan, circa 1910
Berber Jews from the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, circa 1900
Chinese Jews from the city of Kaifeng, China, circa 1900
Kurdish Jews in Rawanduz, Iraqi Kurdistan, 1905
Juhur Imuni (Mountain Jews) girls of the Caucasus, 1913
Bnei Menashe Jews from Northern India, celebrating Purim, in Karmiel, Israel.
An Malabar Jewish family in Cochin, India, circa 1900
Chief Karaite rabbi, Moshe Fairouz (left) and vice chairman, Eli Eltahan. Jerusalem, Israel.

In particular, they investigate whether there is a common genetic heritage among various Jewish populations.

- Genetic studies on Jews

Today, the manifestation of these differences among the Jews can be observed in Jewish cultural expressions of each community, including Jewish linguistic diversity, culinary preferences, liturgical practices, religious interpretations, and degrees and sources of genetic admixture.

- Jewish ethnic divisions
Jewish ethnic divisions map

2 related topics

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The Jews in Central Europe (1881)

Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews (יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז, ; אַשכּנזישע ייִדן), also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim, are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium CE.

Ashkenazi Jews (יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז, ; אַשכּנזישע ייִדן), also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim, are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium CE.

The Jews in Central Europe (1881)
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent.
Jews from Worms (Germany) wearing the mandatory yellow badge.
The example of the chevra kadisha, the Jewish burial society, Prague, 1772

Genetic studies on Ashkenazi Jews—researching both their paternal and maternal lineages as well as autosomal DNA—indicate that they are of mixed Levantine and European (mainly western European and southern European) ancestry.

Collectively, Ashkenazi Jews are less genetically diverse than other Jewish ethnic divisions, due to their genetic bottleneck.

Map of Canaan

Jews

Ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah.

Ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah.

Map of Canaan
Egyptian depiction of the visit of Western Asiatics in colorful garments, labeled as Aamu. The painting is from the tomb of a 12th dynasty official Khnumhotep II at Beni Hasan, and dated to c. 1900 BCE. Their nearest Biblical contemporaries were the earliest of Hebrews, such as Abraham and Joseph.
Depiction of King Jehu, tenth king of the northern Kingdom of Israel, on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, 841–840 BCE. This is "the only portrayal we have in ancient Near Eastern art of an Israelite or Judaean monarch".
Tombstone of the Maharal in the Old Jewish Cemetery, Prague. The tombstones are inscribed in Hebrew.
Bible manuscript in Hebrew, 14th century. Hebrew language and alphabet were the cornerstones of the Jewish national identity in antiquity.
Ashkenazi Jews of late-19th-century Eastern Europe portrayed in Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur (1878), by Maurycy Gottlieb
Sephardi Jewish couple from Sarajevo in traditional clothing. Photo taken in 1900.
Yemenite Jew blows shofar, 1947
New York City is home to 1.1 million Jews, making it the largest Jewish community outside of Israel.
Jewish people in Jerusalem, Israel
In this Rosh Hashana greeting card from the early 1900s, Russian Jews, packs in hand, gaze at the American relatives beckoning them to the United States. Over two million Jews fled the pogroms of the Russian Empire to the safety of the U.S. between 1881 and 1924.
A menorah dominating the main square in Birobidzhan. An estimated 70,000 Jews live in Siberia.
The Jewish Zionist Youth Movement in Tallinn, Estonia on 1 September 1933.
The Roman Emperor Nero sends Vespasian with an army to destroy the Jews, 69 CE.
World War I poster showing a soldier cutting the bonds from a Jewish man, who says, "You have cut my bonds and set me free—now let me help you set others free!"
Jews in Minsk, 1941. Before World War II some 40 percent of the population was Jewish. By the time the Red Army retook the city on 3 July 1944, there were only a few Jewish survivors.
Expulsions of Jews in Europe from 1100 to 1600
Etching of the expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt in 1614. The text says: "1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the gate".
Jews fleeing pogroms, 1882
Praying at the Western Wall

In the following millennia, Jewish diaspora communities coalesced into three major ethnic subdivisions according to where their ancestors settled: the Ashkenazim (Central and Eastern Europe), the Sephardim (initially in the Iberian Peninsula), and the Mizrahim (Middle East and North Africa).

Genetic studies on Jews show that most Jews worldwide bear a common genetic heritage which originates in the Middle East, and that they share certain genetic traits with other Gentile peoples of the Fertile Crescent.