The logarithm of fitness as a function of the number of deleterious mutations. Synergistic epistasis is represented by the red line - each subsequent deleterious mutation has a larger proportionate effect on the organism's fitness. Antagonistic epistasis is in blue. The black line shows the non-epistatic case, where fitness is the product of the contributions from each of its loci.
Synagogue at Qırmızı Qəsəbə, Azerbaijan
Synagogue in Gilaki quarter of Qırmızı Qəsəbə which was reopened in 1941 after initially being closed by Bolsheviks.
Mountain Jew Eric Sireni and his family with chokha resting after a day of work.
Jewish Cemetery in Nalchik
Class held at a primary Mountain Jewish school in Quba. Early 1920s.
Mountain Jewish woman, painted by Max Tilke in the early 20th century.
Mountain Jew Eric Sireni wearing a chokha and a papakha on his head. Circa 1898.
Jewish Girls of the Caucasus in Dagestan (1913).
Mountain Jewish delegates with Theodor Herzl at the First Zionist Congress, held in Basel, Switzerland (1897).
Mountain Jew. Circa 1898.
Mountain Jewish woman from Dagestan. 1870-1880.
Mountain Jewish woman and her children. Circa 1900.
Mountain Jews of the Caucasus. Circa 1900.

In addition, Y-DNA testing of Mountain Jews has shown they have Y-DNA haplotypes related to those of other Jewish communities.

- Mountain Jews

A 2002 study by geneticist Dror Rosengarten found that the paternal haplotypes of Mountain Jews "were shared with other Jewish communities and were consistent with a Mediterranean origin."

- Genetic studies on Jews

3 related topics


History of the Jews in Georgia

Georgian Jews (ქართველი ებრაელები) are a community of Jews who migrated to Georgia during the Babylonian captivity in the 6th century BCE.

Georgian Jews (ქართველი ებრაელები) are a community of Jews who migrated to Georgia during the Babylonian captivity in the 6th century BCE.

The location of Georgia (dark and light green) in Eurasia
The ancient Georgian capital of Mtskheta, where Jews lived for thousands of years
A Judeo-Aramaic inscription of Abraham, son of Sarah, from Mtskheta from the 4th to 6th centuries
Georgian Jews of Tbilisi probably around 1900
Old Jewish cemetery in Kutaisi
Old Synagogue (20th century) in Bandza, Martvili Municipality
Feast of Sukkot, Shalom Koboshvili, 1938
Old Synagogue in Oni
Israel's 60th independence day celebration in Tbilisi, Georgia attended by Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili
Tbilisi Synagogue, Hanukkah prayer

The Georgian Jews were considered ethnically and culturally distinct from neighboring Mountain Jews.

Genetic studies carried out on Georgian Jews as part of a wider survey showed close genetic links with other Jews, and in particular with Iraqi and Persian Jews.

Map of Canaan


Ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah.

Ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah.

Map of Canaan
Egyptian depiction of the visit of Western Asiatics in colorful garments, labeled as Aamu. The painting is from the tomb of a 12th dynasty official Khnumhotep II at Beni Hasan, and dated to c. 1900 BCE. Their nearest Biblical contemporaries were the earliest of Hebrews, such as Abraham and Joseph.
Depiction of King Jehu, tenth king of the northern Kingdom of Israel, on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, 841–840 BCE. This is "the only portrayal we have in ancient Near Eastern art of an Israelite or Judaean monarch".
Tombstone of the Maharal in the Old Jewish Cemetery, Prague. The tombstones are inscribed in Hebrew.
Bible manuscript in Hebrew, 14th century. Hebrew language and alphabet were the cornerstones of the Jewish national identity in antiquity.
Ashkenazi Jews of late-19th-century Eastern Europe portrayed in Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur (1878), by Maurycy Gottlieb
Sephardi Jewish couple from Sarajevo in traditional clothing. Photo taken in 1900.
Yemenite Jew blows shofar, 1947
New York City is home to 1.1 million Jews, making it the largest Jewish community outside of Israel.
Jewish people in Jerusalem, Israel
In this Rosh Hashana greeting card from the early 1900s, Russian Jews, packs in hand, gaze at the American relatives beckoning them to the United States. Over two million Jews fled the pogroms of the Russian Empire to the safety of the U.S. between 1881 and 1924.
A menorah dominating the main square in Birobidzhan. An estimated 70,000 Jews live in Siberia.
The Jewish Zionist Youth Movement in Tallinn, Estonia on 1 September 1933.
The Roman Emperor Nero sends Vespasian with an army to destroy the Jews, 69 CE.
World War I poster showing a soldier cutting the bonds from a Jewish man, who says, "You have cut my bonds and set me free—now let me help you set others free!"
Jews in Minsk, 1941. Before World War II some 40 percent of the population was Jewish. By the time the Red Army retook the city on 3 July 1944, there were only a few Jewish survivors.
Expulsions of Jews in Europe from 1100 to 1600
Etching of the expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt in 1614. The text says: "1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the gate".
Jews fleeing pogroms, 1882
Praying at the Western Wall

Genetic studies on Jews show that most Jews worldwide bear a common genetic heritage which originates in the Middle East, and that they share certain genetic traits with other Gentile peoples of the Fertile Crescent.

Thus, among Mizrahim there are Egyptian Jews, Iraqi Jews, Lebanese Jews, Kurdish Jews, Moroccan Jews, Libyan Jews, Syrian Jews, Bukharian Jews, Mountain Jews, Georgian Jews, Iranian Jews, Afghan Jews, and various others.

Persian Jews



Cyrus the Great allowing Hebrew pilgrims to return to the Land of Israel and rebuild Jerusalem, painting by Jean Fouquet circa 1470
Hebrew version of Nizami's "Khosrow va Shirin"
Synagogue in Tehran. A postcard from the Qajar (1794–1925) period.
Hamedan Jews in 1918
A Jewish gathering celebrates the second anniversary of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in Tehran.
Yusef Abad synagogue in Tehran
A Persian Jew prays in a synagogue in Shiraz, Iran, 1999.
Rita Jahanforuz, an Israeli pop star of Persian descent
Sean Rad, founder of Tinder
Mandana Dayani, activist and entrepreneur
The shrine of Habakkuk in Toyserkan
The Tomb of Esther and Mordechai in Hamadan
The Shrine of Daniel in Susa
Peyghambarieh ("the place of the prophets"), Qazvin: Here, four Jewish prophets are said to be buried. Their Arabic names are Salam, Solum, al-Qiya, and Sohuli.

Persian Jews lived in the ancient (and until the mid-20th century still extant) communities not only of Iran, but also the Armenian, Georgian, Iraqi, Bukharan, and Mountain Jewish communities.

Genetic studies show that Persian and Iraqi Jews form a distinct cluster amongst the Jewish People and that the MtDNA of Persian Jews and Bukharan Jews descend from a small number of female ancestors.