The logarithm of fitness as a function of the number of deleterious mutations. Synergistic epistasis is represented by the red line - each subsequent deleterious mutation has a larger proportionate effect on the organism's fitness. Antagonistic epistasis is in blue. The black line shows the non-epistatic case, where fitness is the product of the contributions from each of its loci.
Cyrus the Great allowing Hebrew pilgrims to return to the Land of Israel and rebuild Jerusalem, painting by Jean Fouquet circa 1470
Hebrew version of Nizami's "Khosrow va Shirin"
Synagogue in Tehran. A postcard from the Qajar (1794–1925) period.
Hamedan Jews in 1918
A Jewish gathering celebrates the second anniversary of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in Tehran.
Yusef Abad synagogue in Tehran
A Persian Jew prays in a synagogue in Shiraz, Iran, 1999.
Rita Jahanforuz, an Israeli pop star of Persian descent
Sean Rad, founder of Tinder
Mandana Dayani, activist and entrepreneur
The shrine of Habakkuk in Toyserkan
The Tomb of Esther and Mordechai in Hamadan
The Shrine of Daniel in Susa
Peyghambarieh ("the place of the prophets"), Qazvin: Here, four Jewish prophets are said to be buried. Their Arabic names are Salam, Solum, al-Qiya, and Sohuli.

Genetic studies show that Persian and Bukharan Jews descend from a small number of female ancestors.

- Genetic studies on Jews

Genetic studies show that Persian and Iraqi Jews form a distinct cluster amongst the Jewish People and that the MtDNA of Persian Jews and Bukharan Jews descend from a small number of female ancestors.

- Persian Jews

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Mountain Jews

Mountain Jews or Caucasus Jews also known as Juhuro, Juvuro, Juhuri, Juwuri, Juhurim, Kavkazi Jews or Gorsky Jews (יהודי קווקז Yehudey Kavkaz or Yehudey he-Harim; Горские евреи, Dağ Yəhudiləri) are Jews of the eastern and northern Caucasus, mainly Azerbaijan, and various republics in the Russian Federation: Chechnya, Ingushetia, Dagestan, Karachay-Cherkessia, and Kabardino-Balkaria.

Mountain Jews or Caucasus Jews also known as Juhuro, Juvuro, Juhuri, Juwuri, Juhurim, Kavkazi Jews or Gorsky Jews (יהודי קווקז Yehudey Kavkaz or Yehudey he-Harim; Горские евреи, Dağ Yəhudiləri) are Jews of the eastern and northern Caucasus, mainly Azerbaijan, and various republics in the Russian Federation: Chechnya, Ingushetia, Dagestan, Karachay-Cherkessia, and Kabardino-Balkaria.

Synagogue at Qırmızı Qəsəbə, Azerbaijan
Synagogue in Gilaki quarter of Qırmızı Qəsəbə which was reopened in 1941 after initially being closed by Bolsheviks.
Mountain Jew Eric Sireni and his family with chokha resting after a day of work.
Jewish Cemetery in Nalchik
Class held at a primary Mountain Jewish school in Quba. Early 1920s.
Mountain Jewish woman, painted by Max Tilke in the early 20th century.
Mountain Jew Eric Sireni wearing a chokha and a papakha on his head. Circa 1898.
Jewish Girls of the Caucasus in Dagestan (1913).
Mountain Jewish delegates with Theodor Herzl at the First Zionist Congress, held in Basel, Switzerland (1897).
Mountain Jew. Circa 1898.
Mountain Jewish woman from Dagestan. 1870-1880.
Mountain Jewish woman and her children. Circa 1900.
Mountain Jews of the Caucasus. Circa 1900.

Mountain Jews are the descendants of Persian Jews from Iran.

In addition, Y-DNA testing of Mountain Jews has shown they have Y-DNA haplotypes related to those of other Jewish communities.