Genetic variation

variationinterindividual variabilitygenetic variationsGeneticgenetic variancesequence variantvariantavailable variationgenes varygenetic difference
Genetic variation is the difference in DNA among individuals.wikipedia
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Mutation

mutationsgenetic mutationmutated
There are multiple sources of genetic variation, including mutation and genetic recombination.
One study on genetic variations between different species of Drosophila suggests that, if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, the result is likely to be harmful, with an estimated 70 percent of amino acid polymorphisms that have damaging effects, and the remainder being either neutral or marginally beneficial.

Genetic drift

driftrandom genetic driftrandom drift
This is caused by natural selection or genetic drift.
Genetic drift may cause gene variants to disappear completely and thereby reduce genetic variation.

Genetic recombination

recombinationmeiotic recombinationDNA recombination
There are multiple sources of genetic variation, including mutation and genetic recombination. Crossing over (genetic recombination) and random segregation during meiosis can result in the production of new alleles or new combinations of alleles.
The shuffling of genes brought about by genetic recombination produces increased genetic variation.

Copy-number variation

copy number variationcopy number variantscopy number
Large-scale structural variation (>1 kb) can be either copy number variation (loss or gain), or chromosomal rearrangement (translocation, inversion, or Segmental acquired uniparental disomy).
It was thought that these large-scale chromosomal rearrangements give rise to normal variation and genetic diseases, including copy number variations.

Meiosis

meioticsyzygymeiosis I
Crossing over (genetic recombination) and random segregation during meiosis can result in the production of new alleles or new combinations of alleles.
The new combinations of DNA created during crossover are a significant source of genetic variation, and result in new combinations of alleles, which may be beneficial.

Genetic diversity

variationgenetically diversegenetic variation
Random mutations consistently generate genetic variation.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
Genetic variation is the difference in DNA among individuals.

Phenotype

phenotypicphenotypesphenotypically
It is possible to identify genetic variation from observations of phenotypic variation in either quantitative traits (traits that vary continuously and are coded for by many genes (e.g., leg length in dogs)) or discrete traits (traits that fall into discrete categories and are coded for by one or a few genes (e.g., white, pink, red petal color in certain flowers)).

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
Genetic variation can also be identified by examining variation at the level of enzymes using the process of protein electrophoresis.

Gel electrophoresis of proteins

protein electrophoresiselectrophoresisgel electrophoresis
Genetic variation can also be identified by examining variation at the level of enzymes using the process of protein electrophoresis.

Nucleotide

nucleotidesntdinucleotide
Ultimately, genetic variation is caused by variation in the order of bases in the nucleotides in genes.

DNA sequencing

DNA sequencesequencesequencing
Genetic variation will result in phenotypic variation if variation in the order of nucleotides in the DNA sequence results in a difference in the order of amino acids in proteins coded by that DNA sequence, and if the resultant differences in amino acid sequence influence the shape, and thus the function of the enzyme.

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
Genetic variation will result in phenotypic variation if variation in the order of nucleotides in the DNA sequence results in a difference in the order of amino acids in proteins coded by that DNA sequence, and if the resultant differences in amino acid sequence influence the shape, and thus the function of the enzyme.

Protein primary structure

amino acid sequenceprotein sequencesequence
Genetic variation will result in phenotypic variation if variation in the order of nucleotides in the DNA sequence results in a difference in the order of amino acids in proteins coded by that DNA sequence, and if the resultant differences in amino acid sequence influence the shape, and thus the function of the enzyme.

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
This is caused by natural selection or genetic drift.

Polyploidy

tetraploidpolyploidtriploid
Polyploidy is an example of chromosomal mutation.

Allele

allelesallelicmultiple alleles
Crossing over (genetic recombination) and random segregation during meiosis can result in the production of new alleles or new combinations of alleles.

Transposable element

transposontransposable elementstransposons
Variation and recombination can be facilitated by transposable genetic elements, endogenous retroviruses, LINEs, SINEs, etc.

Endogenous retrovirus

endogenous retrovirusesHuman endogenous retroviruseshuman endogenous retrovirus
Variation and recombination can be facilitated by transposable genetic elements, endogenous retroviruses, LINEs, SINEs, etc.

Point mutation

point mutationsbase-pair substitutionsubstitution
Small-scale sequence variation (

Indel

indelsinsertions and deletionsdeletion
Small-scale sequence variation (

Structural variation

structural variantsstructural variationsacross populations
Large-scale structural variation (>1 kb) can be either copy number variation (loss or gain), or chromosomal rearrangement (translocation, inversion, or Segmental acquired uniparental disomy).

Deletion (genetics)

deletiondeletionsmicrodeletion
Large-scale structural variation (>1 kb) can be either copy number variation (loss or gain), or chromosomal rearrangement (translocation, inversion, or Segmental acquired uniparental disomy).

Gene duplication

duplicationduplicationsamplification
Large-scale structural variation (>1 kb) can be either copy number variation (loss or gain), or chromosomal rearrangement (translocation, inversion, or Segmental acquired uniparental disomy).

Chromosomal rearrangement

rearrangementschromosomal rearrangementschromosomes rearrangements
Large-scale structural variation (>1 kb) can be either copy number variation (loss or gain), or chromosomal rearrangement (translocation, inversion, or Segmental acquired uniparental disomy).