Plants (Solanum chacoense) being transformed using agrobacterium
Transgenic maize containing a gene from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis
Genetically modified King Edward potato (right) next to King Edward which has not been genetically modified (left). Research field belonging to the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in 2019.
Land area used for genetically modified crops by country (1996–2009), in millions of hectares. In 2011, the land area used was 160 million hectares, or 1.6 million square kilometers.

Monsanto was one of four groups to introduce genes into plants in 1983, and was among the first to conduct field trials of genetically modified crops in 1987.

- Monsanto

In 1994 Calgene attained approval to commercially release the Flavr Savr tomato, a tomato engineered to have a longer shelf life.

- Genetically modified crops

5 related topics

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Anti-GMO and anti-Monsanto protests in Washington, DC

Genetically modified food controversies

Anti-GMO and anti-Monsanto protests in Washington, DC
March Against Monsanto in Stockholm, Sweden, May 2013
Comparison of conventional plant breeding with transgenic and cisgenic genetic modification.

Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production.

Protests during this period against Calgene's Flavr Savr GM tomato mistakenly described it as containing fish genes, confusing it with DNA Plant Technology's fish tomato experimental transgenic organism, which was never commercialized.

Bacillus thuringiensis

Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, the most commonly used biological pesticide worldwide.

Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, the most commonly used biological pesticide worldwide.

Gram stain of Bacillus thuringiensis under 1000 × magnification
Bt toxins present in peanut leaves (bottom dish) protect it from extensive damage caused to unprotected peanut leaves by lesser cornstalk borer larvae (top dish).
Agriculture enthusiasts examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn
An ovitrap collects eggs from mosquitoes. The brown granules in the water are a B. t. israelensis preparation that kills hatched larvae.

This has led to their use as insecticides, and more recently to genetically modified crops using Bt genes, such as Bt corn.

Monsanto developed a soybean expressing Cry1Ac and the glyphosate-resistance gene for the Brazilian market, which completed the Brazilian regulatory process in 2010.

Comparison of conventional plant breeding with transgenic and cisgenic genetic modification

Genetic engineering

Modification and manipulation of an organism's genes using technology.

Modification and manipulation of an organism's genes using technology.

Comparison of conventional plant breeding with transgenic and cisgenic genetic modification
In 1974 Rudolf Jaenisch created a genetically modified mouse, the first GM animal.
Polymerase chain reaction is a powerful tool used in molecular cloning
A gene gun uses biolistics to insert DNA into plant tissue
A. tumefaciens attaching itself to a carrot cell
Knockout mice
Human cells in which some proteins are fused with green fluorescent protein to allow them to be visualised
Products of genetic engineering
Bt-toxins present in peanut leaves (bottom image) protect it from extensive damage caused by lesser cornstalk borer larvae (top image).

The rise of commercialised genetically modified crops has provided economic benefit to farmers in many different countries, but has also been the source of most of the controversy surrounding the technology.

In 1994 Calgene attained approval to commercially release the first genetically modified food, the Flavr Savr, a tomato engineered to have a longer shelf life.

Syngenta

Provider of agricultural science and technology, in particular seeds and pesticides, with its management headquarters in Basel, Switzerland, and further locations in Chicago, Tel Aviv, and Shanghai.

Provider of agricultural science and technology, in particular seeds and pesticides, with its management headquarters in Basel, Switzerland, and further locations in Chicago, Tel Aviv, and Shanghai.

Syngenta's main competitors were Monsanto Company, BASF, Dow AgroSciences, Bayer CropScience and DuPont Pioneer.

The following year Syngenta filed suits against Monsanto and other companies claiming infringement of its U.S. biotechnology patents covering genetically modified corn and cotton.

Weeds controlled with herbicide

Dicamba

Broad-spectrum herbicide first registered in 1967.

Broad-spectrum herbicide first registered in 1967.

Weeds controlled with herbicide

Increasing use of dicamba has been reported with the release of dicamba-resistant genetically modified plants by Monsanto.

Some farmers and researchers have expressed concern about herbicide resistance after the introduction of resistant crops.