Genetically modified food

genetically modified foodsgenetically modifiedGM foodGMgenetically modified cropsGM cropsGMOgenetic modificationgenetically modified ingredientsgenetically engineered foods
Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods), or bioengineered foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.wikipedia
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Genetically modified food controversies

controversiespublic concernsgenetically modified food
However, there are ongoing public concerns related to food safety, regulation, labelling, environmental impact, research methods, and the fact that some GM seeds, along with all new plant varieties, are subject to plant breeders' rights owned by corporations.
The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified food (GM food or GMO food) are whether such food should be labeled, the role of government regulators, the objectivity of scientific research and publication, the effect of genetically modified crops on health and the environment, the effect on pesticide resistance, the impact of such crops for farmers, and the role of the crops in feeding the world population.

Genetic engineering

genetically engineeredgenetic modificationgenetically modified
Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods), or bioengineered foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.
Genetically modified food has been sold since 1994, with the release of the Flavr Savr tomato.

Genetically modified organism

genetically modifiedgenetically modified organismsGMO
Genetically modified microbial enzymes were the first application of genetically modified organisms in food production and were approved in 1988 by the US Food and Drug Administration.
GMOs are used to produce many medications and genetically modified foods and are widely used in scientific research and the production of other goods.

Bacillus thuringiensis

BtB. thuringiensisB . thuringiensis
In 1995, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Potato was approved for cultivation, making it the first pesticide producing crop to be approved in the US. Other genetically modified crops receiving marketing approval in 1995 were: canola with modified oil composition, Bt maize, cotton resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil, Bt cotton, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, virus-resistant squash, and another delayed ripening tomato.
Thus, B. thuringiensis serves as an important reservoir of Cry toxins for production of biological insecticides and insect-resistant genetically modified crops.

Public Law 114-214

114-214
In July 2016, Public Law 114-214 was enacted to regulate labeling of GMO food on a national basis.
Public Law 114-216 is the federal law of the United States that regulates GMO food labeling.

StarLink corn recall

Starlinkrecalledseries of recalls starting in 2000
StarLink corn recall in 2000
It was the first-ever recall of a genetically modified food.

Golden rice

vitamin A
With the creation of golden rice in 2000, scientists had genetically modified food to increase its nutrient value for the first time.
Because many children in VAD-affected countries rely on rice as a staple food, genetic modification to make rice produce the vitamin A precursor beta-carotene was seen as a simple and less expensive alternative to ongoing vitamin supplements or an increase in the consumption of green vegetables or animal products.

Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
Most vegetable oil used in the US is produced from GM crops canola, corn, cotton and soybeans.
Genetically modified (GM) maize was one of the 26 GM crops grown commercially in 2016.

2012 California Proposition 37

California Proposition 37Proposition 3737
California Proposition 37 (2012) - rejected labeling iniative
This initiative statute would have required labeling of genetically engineered food, with some exceptions.

Lecithin

soy lecithinsoya lecithinsoybean lecithin
Lecithin is a naturally occurring lipid.
Nonetheless, consumer concerns about genetically modified food have extended to highly purified derivatives from GM food, such as lecithin.

Gene silencing

silencingsilencedtranscriptional silencing
Less commonly, genes are removed or their expression is increased or silenced or the number of copies of a gene is increased or decreased.
Potato lines expressing viral replicase sequences that confer resistance to potato leafroll virus were sold under the trade names NewLeaf Y and NewLeaf Plus, and were widely accepted in commercial production in 1999–2001, until McDonald's Corp. decided not to purchase GM potatoes and Monsanto decided to close their NatureMark potato business.

Soybean

soysoybeanssoya
In 1995, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Potato was approved for cultivation, making it the first pesticide producing crop to be approved in the US. Other genetically modified crops receiving marketing approval in 1995 were: canola with modified oil composition, Bt maize, cotton resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil, Bt cotton, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, virus-resistant squash, and another delayed ripening tomato. Most vegetable oil used in the US is produced from GM crops canola, corn, cotton and soybeans.
Soybeans are one of the "biotech food" crops that have been genetically modified, and genetically modified soybeans are being used in an increasing number of products.

Modified starch

modifiedmodified food starchstarch derivatives
Starch can be further modified to create modified starch for specific purposes, including creation of many of the sugars in processed foods.
Modified starch should not be confused with genetically modified starch, which refers to starch from genetically engineered plants, such as those that have been genetically modified to produce novel fatty acids or carbohydrates which might not occur in the plant species being harvested.

Genetically modified maize

genetically modified cornBt cornBt maize
In 1995, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Potato was approved for cultivation, making it the first pesticide producing crop to be approved in the US. Other genetically modified crops receiving marketing approval in 1995 were: canola with modified oil composition, Bt maize, cotton resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil, Bt cotton, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, virus-resistant squash, and another delayed ripening tomato. Most food modifications have primarily focused on cash crops in high demand by farmers such as soybean, corn, canola, and cotton.
Genetically modified food

Genetically modified wheat

wheatGM wheattransgenic wheat
As of December 2017, genetically modified wheat has been evaluated in field trials, but has not been released commercially.
The unexplained presence of this type of wheat presents a problem to wheat growers when buyers demand GMO-free wheat.

Genetically modified sugar beet

Sugar Beetglyphosate-resistant sugar beet
After deregulation in 2005, glyphosate-resistant sugar beet was extensively adopted in the United States.
Genetically modified food

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

American Dietetic AssociationADAAND
The FDA, World Health Organization, American Medical Association, American Dietetic Association and the National Institutes of Health have independently stated that dairy products and meat from rBST-treated cows are safe for human consumption.
In April 2013, a dietitian working on a panel charged with setting policy on genetically modified foods for the academy contended she was removed for pointing out that two of its members had ties to Monsanto, one of the biggest makers of genetically modified seeds.

Genetically modified tomato

fish tomatotransgenic tomatoTomato
The first commercially available genetically modified food was a tomato engineered to have a longer shelf life (the Flavr Savr).

Genetic use restriction technology

terminator technologyterminator geneGenetic use restriction technologies
Genetic use restriction technology (GURT), also known as terminator technology or suicide seeds, is the name given to proposed methods for restricting the use of genetically modified plants by activating some genes only in response to certain stimuli, in particular to cause second generation seeds to be infertile.

Dan Jason

Dan Jason (born July 22, 1946) is a Canadian active in food politics, as an opponent of genetically modified foods and proponent of heirloom plants and seedbanks.

Asis Datta

Asis Datta is an Indian biochemist, molecular biologist and genetic engineer, known for his research on genetically modified foods and food nutritional security.

2012 in science

2012
Scientists refute a Greenpeace claim that genetically modified corn has caused a new insect pest.

Gilles-Éric Séralini

Gilles-Éric Séralini (born 23 August 1960) is a French molecular biologist, political advisor and activist on genetically modified organisms and foods.

GMO conspiracy theories

GMO conspiracy theories are conspiracy theories related to the production and sale of genetically modified crops and genetically modified food (also referred to as genetically modified organisms or "GMOs").