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Genetic engineering

genetically engineeredgenetically modifiedgenetic modification
Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods), or bioengineered foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.
Genetically modified food has been sold since 1994, with the release of the Flavr Savr tomato.

Genetically modified food controversies

GMO labelingTrade war over genetically modified foodcontroversies
However, there are ongoing public concerns related to food safety, regulation, labelling, environmental impact, research methods, and the fact that some GM seeds, along with all new plant varieties, are subject to plant breeders' rights owned by corporations.
The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified food (GM food or GMO food) are whether such food should be labeled, the role of government regulators, the objectivity of scientific research and publication, the effect of genetically modified crops on health and the environment, the effect on pesticide resistance, the impact of such crops for farmers, and the role of the crops in feeding the world population.

Genetically modified organism

GMOgenetically modified organismsgenetically modified
Genetically modified microbial enzymes were the first application of genetically modified organisms in food production and were approved in 1988 by the US Food and Drug Administration.
In 1994 the Flavr Savr tomato was released, the first commercialized genetically modified food.

Bacillus thuringiensis

B. thuringiensisBtBt toxin
In 1995, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Potato was approved for cultivation, making it the first pesticide producing crop to be approved in the US.
thuringiensis'' serves as an important reservoir of Cry toxins for production of biological insecticides and insect-resistant genetically modified crops.

Golden rice

vitamin A
With the creation of golden rice in 2000, scientists had genetically modified food to increase its nutrient value for the first time.
Because many children in VAD-affected countries rely on rice as a staple food, genetic modification to make rice produce the vitamin A precursor beta-carotene was seen as a simple and less expensive alternative to ongoing vitamin supplements or an increase in the consumption of green vegetables or animal products.

Agriculture

farmingagriculturalAgriculturist
Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are genetically modified plants that are used in agriculture.
Recent mainstream technological developments include genetically modified food.

Papaya

Carica papayapawpawpapayas
Papaya was genetically modified to resist the ringspot virus (PSRV).
In 2011, Philippine researchers reported that by hybridizing papaya with Vasconcellea quercifolia, they had developed conventionally bred, nongenetically engineered papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRV).

Maize

cornZea mayscorn (maize)
Most vegetable oil used in the US is produced from GM crops canola, corn, cotton and soybeans.
Genetically modified (GM) maize was one of the 26 GM crops grown commercially in 2016.

Lecithin

soy lecithinsoya lecithinE322
Lecithin is a naturally occurring lipid.
Nonetheless, consumer concerns about genetically modified food have extended to highly purified derivatives from GM food, such as lecithin.

Soybean

soysoybeansGlycine max
Most vegetable oil used in the US is produced from GM crops canola, corn, cotton and soybeans. Other genetically modified crops receiving marketing approval in 1995 were: canola with modified oil composition, Bt maize, cotton resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil, Bt cotton, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, virus-resistant squash, and another delayed ripening tomato.
Soybeans are one of the "biotech food" crops that have been genetically modified, and genetically modified soybeans are being used in an increasing number of products.

Public Law 114-214

114-214The bill passed, and President Obama signed it on July 29, 2016
In July 2016, Public Law 114-214 was enacted to regulate labeling of GMO food on a national basis.
Public Law 114-216 is the federal law of the United States that regulates GMO food labeling.

Gene silencing

silencingsilencedtranscriptional silencing
Gene silencing is used to reduce the expression of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus preventing the fruit from browning.
Potato lines expressing viral replicase sequences that confer resistance to potato leafroll virus were sold under the trade names NewLeaf Y and NewLeaf Plus, and were widely accepted in commercial production in 1999–2001, until McDonald's Corp. decided not to purchase GM potatoes and Monsanto decided to close their NatureMark potato business.

2012 California Proposition 37

Proposition 37California Proposition 37California Proposition 37 (2012)
This initiative statute would have required labeling of genetically engineered food, with some exceptions.

Vitamin A deficiency

shortage of dietary vitamin Avitamin AA
It is intended to produce a fortified food to be grown and consumed in areas with a shortage of dietary vitamin A, a deficiency which each year is estimated to kill 670,000 children under the age of 5 and cause an additional 500,000 cases of irreversible childhood blindness.

Genetically modified wheat

GM wheatMON 71800transgenic wheat
As of December 2017, genetically modified wheat has been evaluated in field trials, but has not been released commercially.
The unexplained presence of this type of wheat presents a problem to wheat growers when buyers demand GMO-free wheat.

Genetically modified maize

genetically modified cornBt cornBt maize
Other genetically modified crops receiving marketing approval in 1995 were: canola with modified oil composition, Bt maize, cotton resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil, Bt cotton, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, virus-resistant squash, and another delayed ripening tomato. Most food modifications have primarily focused on cash crops in high demand by farmers such as soybean, corn, canola, and cotton.

Modified starch

modified food starchmodifiedmodified corn starch
Modified starch should not be confused with genetically modified starch, which refers to starch from genetically engineered plants, such as those that have been genetically modified to produce novel fatty acids or carbohydrates which might not occur in the plant species being harvested.

Genetically modified sugar beet

Sugar Beetglyphosate-resistant sugar beetgenetically modified
After deregulation in 2005, glyphosate-resistant sugar beet was extensively adopted in the United States.

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

American Dietetic AssociationADAAND
The FDA, World Health Organization, American Medical Association, American Dietetic Association and the National Institutes of Health have independently stated that dairy products and meat from rBST-treated cows are safe for human consumption.
In April 2013, a dietitian working on a panel charged with setting policy on genetically modified foods for the academy contended she was removed for pointing out that two of its members had ties to Monsanto, one of the biggest makers of genetically modified seeds.

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods), or bioengineered foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods), or bioengineered foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.

Mutation breeding

mutation bredMutagenesismutagenized
Genetic engineering techniques allow for the introduction of new traits as well as greater control over traits when compared to previous methods, such as selective breeding and mutation breeding.

Flavr Savr

FlavrSavrFlavr Savr tomato
Commercial sale of genetically modified foods began in 1994, when Calgene first marketed its unsuccessful Flavr Savr delayed-ripening tomato.

Cash crop

cash cropscommodity cropcash-crop
Most food modifications have primarily focused on cash crops in high demand by farmers such as soybean, corn, canola, and cotton.