Genetically modified food controversies

controversiescontroversy over GMOsdebate over genetically modified foodsgenetically modified foodgenetically modified foodspublic concernsagricultural genetic modificationanti-GMOanti-GMO opinionbelief that existing genetically modified foods are harmful
Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production.wikipedia
425 Related Articles

Genetic engineering

genetically engineeredgenetically modifiedgenetic modification
Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production.
The rise of commercialised genetically modified crops has provided economic benefit to farmers in many different countries, but has also been the source of most of the controversy surrounding the technology.

Genetically modified food

genetically modified foodsgenetically modifiedGM food
The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified food (GM food or GMO food) are whether such food should be labeled, the role of government regulators, the objectivity of scientific research and publication, the effect of genetically modified crops on health and the environment, the effect on pesticide resistance, the impact of such crops for farmers, and the role of the crops in feeding the world population.
However, there are ongoing public concerns related to food safety, regulation, labelling, environmental impact, research methods, and the fact that some GM seeds, along with all new plant varieties, are subject to plant breeders' rights owned by corporations.

2012 California Proposition 37

California Proposition 37Proposition 3737
The movement was founded by Tami Canal in response to the failure of California Proposition 37, a ballot initiative which would have required labeling food products made from GMOs.
It would have disallowed the practice of labeling genetically engineered food with the word "natural."

Genetically modified tomato

fish tomatoTomatotransgenic tomato
Protests during this period against Calgene's Flavr Savr GM tomato mistakenly described it as containing fish genes, confusing it with DNA Plant Technology's fish tomato experimental transgenic organism, which was never commercialized.
An early tomato was developed that contained an antifreeze gene (afa3) from the winter flounder with the aim of increasing the tomato's tolerance to frost, which became an icon in the early years of the debate over genetically modified foods, especially in relation to the perceived ethical dilemma of combining genes from different species.

Organic Consumers Association

Organic Consumers Fund
Advocacy groups such as the Center for Food Safety, Organic Consumers Association, Union of Concerned Scientists, and Greenpeace say risks have not been adequately identified and managed, and they have questioned the objectivity of regulatory authorities.
The OCA's "Organic Agenda" is to encourage the U.S. government to expand organic agriculture, utilize fair trade, eliminate genetically modified food, implement universal health care, and obtain energy independence through renewable energy.

Plant breeding

breedingplant breederplant biotechnology
Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production.
The debate surrounding genetically modified food during the 1990s peaked in 1999 in terms of media coverage and risk perception, and continues today – for example, "Germany has thrown its weight behind a growing European mutiny over genetically modified crops by banning the planting of a widely grown pest-resistant corn variety." The debate encompasses the ecological impact of genetically modified plants, the safety of genetically modified food and concepts used for safety evaluation like substantial equivalence.

Monsanto

Monsanto CompanyCalgeneGenuity
Protests during this period against Calgene's Flavr Savr GM tomato mistakenly described it as containing fish genes, confusing it with DNA Plant Technology's fish tomato experimental transgenic organism, which was never commercialized.
California's 2012 Proposition 37 would have mandated the disclosure of genetically modified crops used in the production of California food products.

Genetically modified crops

genetically modifiedtransgenic cropsgenetically modified crop
Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production.
See Genetically modified food controversies article for information.

Science Moms

These included Food Evolution and Science Moms.
Genetically modified food controversies

Genetically modified soybean

soybeanRoundup Ready soybeanglyphosate-resistant soybean
The research concluded that mother goats fed GM soybean meal secreted fragments of the foreign gene in their milk.
See the genetically modified food controversies article for discussion of issues about GM crops and GM food.

Recombinant DNA

recombinantrecombinant proteingene splicing
Two studies on the possible effects of feeding animals with genetically modified food found no residues of recombinant DNA or novel proteins in any organ or tissue samples.
These concerns are discussed in the articles on genetically modified organisms and genetically modified food controversies.

StarLink corn recall

Starlinkrecallrecalled
During the Starlink corn recalls in 2000, a variety of GM maize containing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein Cry9C, was found contaminating corn products in U.S. supermarkets and restaurants.
Genetically modified food controversies

Árpád Pusztai

Arpad PuztaiProf. Arpad Pusztai
Árpád Pusztai published the first peer-reviewed paper to find negative effects from GM food consumption in 1999.
Genetically modified food controversies

Bt cotton

genetically modified cotton
Several studies documented surges in secondary pests within a few years of adoption of Bt cotton.
Genetically modified food controversies

Genetically modified maize

genetically modified cornBt cornBt maize
During the Starlink corn recalls in 2000, a variety of GM maize containing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein Cry9C, was found contaminating corn products in U.S. supermarkets and restaurants. One of the first incidents occurred in 1999, when Nature published a paper on potential toxic effects of Bt maize on butterflies.
Genetically modified food controversies

Genetically modified brinjal

brinjalEggplantgenetically modified eggplant
Indian regulators cleared the Bt brinjal, a genetically modified eggplant, for commercialisation in October 2009.
Many controversies surround the development and release of genetically modified foods, ranging from human safety and environmental impacts to ethical concerns such as corporate control of the food supply and intellectual property rights.

Consumer

consumersconsumer marketend consumer
The disputes involve consumers, farmers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, and scientists.

Farmer

farmersagriculturalistsplanter
The disputes involve consumers, farmers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, and scientists.

Biotechnology

biotechbiotechnologicalbiotechnologies
The disputes involve consumers, farmers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, and scientists.

Pesticide resistance

insecticide resistanceresistanceherbicide resistance
The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified food (GM food or GMO food) are whether such food should be labeled, the role of government regulators, the objectivity of scientific research and publication, the effect of genetically modified crops on health and the environment, the effect on pesticide resistance, the impact of such crops for farmers, and the role of the crops in feeding the world population.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
In addition, products derived from GMO organisms play a role in the production of ethanol fuels and pharmaceuticals.

Advocacy group

interest grouppressure grouplobby group
Advocacy groups such as the Center for Food Safety, Organic Consumers Association, Union of Concerned Scientists, and Greenpeace say risks have not been adequately identified and managed, and they have questioned the objectivity of regulatory authorities.

Center for Food Safety

The Center for Food Safety
Advocacy groups such as the Center for Food Safety, Organic Consumers Association, Union of Concerned Scientists, and Greenpeace say risks have not been adequately identified and managed, and they have questioned the objectivity of regulatory authorities.

Union of Concerned Scientists

UCS
Advocacy groups such as the Center for Food Safety, Organic Consumers Association, Union of Concerned Scientists, and Greenpeace say risks have not been adequately identified and managed, and they have questioned the objectivity of regulatory authorities.

Greenpeace

Greenpeace InternationalGreenpeace CanadaGreenpeace USA
Advocacy groups such as the Center for Food Safety, Organic Consumers Association, Union of Concerned Scientists, and Greenpeace say risks have not been adequately identified and managed, and they have questioned the objectivity of regulatory authorities.