Genetically modified maize

genetically modified cornBt cornBt maizecornMaizeStarLinkBtBt'' cornBt'' maizegenetic modification
Genetically modified maize (corn) is a genetically modified crop.wikipedia
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Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
Genetically modified maize (corn) is a genetically modified crop. Bt corn is a variant of maize that has been genetically altered to express one or more proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis including Delta endotoxins.
Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009.

Bacillus thuringiensis

BtB. thuringiensisB . thuringiensis
Bt corn is a variant of maize that has been genetically altered to express one or more proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis including Delta endotoxins.
This has led to their use as insecticides, and more recently to genetically modified crops using Bt genes, such as Bt corn.

MON 810

MON810
Approved Bt genes include single and stacked (event names bracketed) configurations of: Cry1A.105 (MON89034), CryIAb (MON810), CryIF (1507), Cry2Ab (MON89034), Cry3Bb1 (MON863 and MON88017), Cry34Ab1 (59122), Cry35Ab1 (59122), mCry3A (MIR604), and Vip3A (MIR162), in both corn and cotton.
The MON 810 corn is a genetically modified maize used around the world.

Monsanto

Monsanto CompanyCalgeneGenuity
Corn varieties resistant to glyphosate herbicides were first commercialized in 1996 by Monsanto, and are known as "Roundup Ready Corn".
Monsanto subsequently developed Bt maize (MON 802, MON 809, MON 863, MON 810), Bt soybean and Bt cotton.

MON 863

MON863
Approved Bt genes include single and stacked (event names bracketed) configurations of: Cry1A.105 (MON89034), CryIAb (MON810), CryIF (1507), Cry2Ab (MON89034), Cry3Bb1 (MON863 and MON88017), Cry34Ab1 (59122), Cry35Ab1 (59122), mCry3A (MIR604), and Vip3A (MIR162), in both corn and cotton.
MON 863 is a genetically engineered variety of maize produced by Monsanto.

Delta endotoxin

cry proteinδ-endotoxinscry toxin
Bt corn is a variant of maize that has been genetically altered to express one or more proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis including Delta endotoxins.
They are useful for their insecticidal action and are the primary toxin produced by Bt corn.

Syngenta

Agricultural Research StationNovartisNovartis Seed Co.
GM sweet corn varieties include "Attribute", the brand name for insect-resistant sweet corn developed by Syngenta and Performance Series™ insect-resistant sweet corn developed by Monsanto.
On 5 December 2004, the European Union ended a six-year moratorium when it approved imports of two varieties of genetically modified corn sold by Monsanto and its Swiss rival, Syngenta.

Maize streak virus

maize streak
In 2007, South African researchers announced the production of transgenic maize resistant to maize streak virus (MSV), although it has not been released as a product.
Transgenically resistant or genetically modified maize varieties were under development in South Africa, but the project has terminated without field trials of the candidate maize lines that were developed.

European corn borer

Ostrinia nubilalisEuropean corn borersO. nubilalis
The European corn borer causes about a billion dollars in damage to corn crops each year.
Bt corn, a variety of genetically modified corn, has had its genome modified to include a synthetic version of an insecticidal gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki.

StarLink corn recall

Starlinkrecallrecalled
One strain, called Starlink, was approved only for animal feed in the US, but was found in food, leading to a series of recalls starting in 2000. This corn became the subject of the widely publicized Starlink corn recall, which started when Taco Bell-branded taco shells sold in supermarkets were found to contain the corn.
The StarLink corn recalls occurred in the autumn of 2000, when over 300 food products were found to contain a genetically modified corn that had not been approved for human consumption.

Taco Bell

Paco BellTaco Bell CorporationTaco Bell®
This corn became the subject of the widely publicized Starlink corn recall, which started when Taco Bell-branded taco shells sold in supermarkets were found to contain the corn.
The shells contained a variety of genetically modified corn called StarLink that was not approved for human consumption.

Genetically modified food

genetically modified foodsgenetically modifiedGM food
Genetically modified food
Most food modifications have primarily focused on cash crops in high demand by farmers such as soybean, corn, canola, and cotton.

Genetically modified crops

genetically modifiedtransgenic cropsgenetically modified crop
Genetically modified maize (corn) is a genetically modified crop.
In 1995 canola with modified oil composition (Calgene), Bt maize (Ciba-Geigy), bromoxynil-tolerant cotton (Calgene), Bt cotton (Monsanto), glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (Monsanto), virus-tolerant squash (Asgrow), and additional delayed ripening tomatoes (DNAP, Zeneca/Peto and Monsanto) were approved.

Genetically modified food controversies

controversiescontroversy over GMOsdebate over genetically modified foods
Genetically modified food controversies
One of the first incidents occurred in 1999, when Nature published a paper on potential toxic effects of Bt maize on butterflies.

Monarch butterfly

monarch butterfliesmonarchDanaus plexippus plexippus
A 1999 study found that in a lab environment, pollen from Bt maize dusted onto milkweed could harm the monarch butterfly.
A number of researchers believe milkweed loss during the breeding season is the cause because declines in milkweed abundance are highly correlated with the adoption of herbicide-tolerant genetically modified corn and soybeans, which now constitute 89% and 94% of these crops, respectively, in the U.S. However, correlative evidence does not prove causation, and other possible causes of the overwintering declines have been proposed.

Genetic engineering

genetically engineeredgenetically modifiedgenetic modification
Bt corn is a variant of maize that has been genetically altered to express one or more proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis including Delta endotoxins. Specific maize strains have been genetically engineered to express agriculturally-desirable traits, including resistance to pests and to herbicides. Pioneer Hi-Bred has developed and markets corn hybrids with tolerance to imidazoline herbicides under the trademark "Clearfield" – though in these hybrids, the herbicide-tolerance trait was bred using tissue culture selection and the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate, not genetic engineering.

Phenotypic trait

traittraitscharacters
Specific maize strains have been genetically engineered to express agriculturally-desirable traits, including resistance to pests and to herbicides.

Gene flow

geneflowgenetic exchangemigration
GM maize has also caused controversy with respect to possible health effects, impact on other insects and impact on other plants via gene flow.

Glyphosate

Roundupglycosphateglyphosates
Corn varieties resistant to glyphosate herbicides were first commercialized in 1996 by Monsanto, and are known as "Roundup Ready Corn".

Roundup (herbicide)

Roundupround-upRoundup ready crops
They tolerate the use of Roundup.

Bayer

Bayer AGBayer CropScienceBayer Pharmaceuticals
Bayer CropScience developed "Liberty Link Corn" that is resistant to glufosinate.

Glufosinate

phosphinothricinglufosinate ammonium
Bayer CropScience developed "Liberty Link Corn" that is resistant to glufosinate.

DuPont Pioneer

DuPontHi-Bred Corn CompanyPioneer
Pioneer Hi-Bred has developed and markets corn hybrids with tolerance to imidazoline herbicides under the trademark "Clearfield" – though in these hybrids, the herbicide-tolerance trait was bred using tissue culture selection and the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate, not genetic engineering.

Imidazoline

imidazolonedihydroimidazoleimidazolines
Pioneer Hi-Bred has developed and markets corn hybrids with tolerance to imidazoline herbicides under the trademark "Clearfield" – though in these hybrids, the herbicide-tolerance trait was bred using tissue culture selection and the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate, not genetic engineering.

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
By 2012, 26 varieties herbicide-resistant GM maize were authorised for import into the European Union., but such imports remain controversial.