Genetically modified maize

genetically modified cornBt cornBt maizecornStarLinkmaizepesticidestransgenic maizeBt'' maizeStarLink corn
Genetically modified maize (corn) is a genetically modified crop.wikipedia
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Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
Genetically modified maize (corn) is a genetically modified crop. Bt corn is a variant of maize that has been genetically altered to express one or more proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis including Delta endotoxins.
Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009.

MON 810

MON810
Approved Bt genes include single and stacked (event names bracketed) configurations of: Cry1A.105 (MON89034), CryIAb (MON810), CryIF (1507), Cry2Ab (MON89034), Cry3Bb1 (MON863 and MON88017), Cry34Ab1 (59122), Cry35Ab1 (59122), mCry3A (MIR604), and Vip3A (MIR162), in both corn and cotton.
The MON 810 corn is a genetically modified maize used around the world.

Bacillus thuringiensis

BtB. thuringiensisB . thuringiensis
Bt corn is a variant of maize that has been genetically altered to express one or more proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis including Delta endotoxins.
This has led to their use as insecticides, and more recently to genetically modified crops using Bt genes, such as Bt corn.

MON 863

MON863
Approved Bt genes include single and stacked (event names bracketed) configurations of: Cry1A.105 (MON89034), CryIAb (MON810), CryIF (1507), Cry2Ab (MON89034), Cry3Bb1 (MON863 and MON88017), Cry34Ab1 (59122), Cry35Ab1 (59122), mCry3A (MIR604), and Vip3A (MIR162), in both corn and cotton.
MON 863 is a genetically engineered variety of maize produced by Monsanto.

Syngenta

Syngenta UKNovartis Seed Co.Syngenta Agro GmbH
GM sweet corn varieties include "Attribute", the brand name for insect-resistant sweet corn developed by Syngenta and Performance Series™ insect-resistant sweet corn developed by Monsanto.
On 5 December 2004, the European Union ended a six-year moratorium when it approved imports of two varieties of genetically modified corn sold by Monsanto and its Swiss rival, Syngenta.

Delta endotoxin

δ-endotoxinscry proteinδ-endotoxin
Bt corn is a variant of maize that has been genetically altered to express one or more proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis including Delta endotoxins.
They are useful for their insecticidal action and are the primary toxin produced by Bt corn.

Monsanto

Monsanto CompanyCalgeneMonsanto Industrial Chemicals Co.
Corn varieties resistant to glyphosate herbicides were first commercialized in 1996 by Monsanto, and are known as "Roundup Ready Corn".
Monsanto subsequently developed Bt maize (MON 802, MON 809, MON 863, MON 810), Bt soybean and Bt cotton.

StarLink corn recall

Starlinkrecalledseries of recalls starting in 2000
One strain, called Starlink, was approved only for animal feed in the US, but was found in food, leading to a series of recalls starting in 2000. This corn became the subject of the widely publicized Starlink corn recall, which started when Taco Bell-branded taco shells sold in supermarkets were found to contain the corn.
The StarLink corn recalls occurred in the autumn of 2000, when over 300 food products were found to contain a genetically modified corn that had not been approved for human consumption.

Genetically modified food

genetically modified foodsgenetically modifiedGM food
Genetically modified food
Most food modifications have primarily focused on cash crops in high demand by farmers such as soybean, corn, canola, and cotton.

Taco Bell

Yo quieroTaco HellTaco Political Action Committee
This corn became the subject of the widely publicized Starlink corn recall, which started when Taco Bell-branded taco shells sold in supermarkets were found to contain the corn.
The shells contained a variety of genetically modified corn called StarLink that was not approved for human consumption.

Maize streak virus

In 2007, South African researchers announced the production of transgenic maize resistant to maize streak virus (MSV), although it has not been released as a product.
Transgenically resistant or genetically modified maize varieties were under development in South Africa, but the project has terminated without field trials of the candidate maize lines that were developed.

Genetically modified crops

genetically modifiedtransgenic planttransgenic plants
Genetically modified maize (corn) is a genetically modified crop.
In 1995 canola with modified oil composition (Calgene), Bt maize (Ciba-Geigy), bromoxynil-tolerant cotton (Calgene), Bt cotton (Monsanto), glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (Monsanto), virus-tolerant squash (Asgrow), and additional delayed ripening tomatoes (DNAP, Zeneca/Peto and Monsanto) were approved.

Genetically modified food controversies

controversiespublic concernsgenetically modified food
Genetically modified food controversies
One of the first incidents occurred in 1999, when Nature published a paper on potential toxic effects of Bt maize on butterflies.

European corn borer

Ostrinia nubilalisO. nubilalis
The European corn borer causes about a billion dollars in damage to corn crops each year.
Bt corn, a variety of genetically modified corn, has had its genome modified to include a synthetic version of an insecticidal gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki.

Monarch butterfly

monarch butterfliesmonarchDanaus plexippus plexippus
A 1999 study found that in a lab environment, pollen from Bt maize dusted onto milkweed could harm the monarch butterfly.
A number of researchers believe milkweed loss during the breeding season is the cause because declines in milkweed abundance are highly correlated with the adoption of herbicide-tolerant genetically modified corn and soybeans, which now constitute 89% and 94% of these crops, respectively, in the U.S. However, correlative evidence does not prove causation, and other possible causes of the overwintering declines have been proposed.

Séralini affair

2013major controversyhis study
First published by Food and Chemical Toxicology in September 2012, the article presented a two-year feeding study in rats, and reported an increase in tumors among rats fed genetically modified corn and the herbicide RoundUp.

Margot Wallström

Margot WallstromWallströmsenior U.N. official
In 2004, she approved the importation of a genetically modified corn from the United States for animal feed after a six-year moratorium, arguing in a statement that the corn produced by biotechnology company Monsanto, known as NK603 maize, had been rigorously tested and was considered “as safe as any conventional maize.”

Corngate

incident in November 2000
"Corngate" was a political scandal which took place in New Zealand in 2002 and involved the suspected release of genetically modified maize (corn) seed in 2000.

Sanofi

Sanofi-AventisSanofi AventisSanofi S.A.
In late 2000, in the midst of the recall of Starlink, its genetically modified maize product, Aventis announced that it had determined to sell off Aventis Cropscience, the seed and pesticide business unit it had created from the agriculture businesses of its predecessors.

BASF Plant Science

The company genetically modified crops like maize, soy, cotton, canola, sugarcane, sugar beet and potatoes "for a more efficient agriculture".

Cry6Aa

Along with several other Cry protein genes, cry6aa can be genetically recombined in Bt corn and Bt cotton so the plants produce specific toxins.

Retraction

retractedretractionsretract
2012 - Séralini affair - Article suggesting reported an increase in tumors among rats fed genetically modified corn and the herbicide RoundUp retracted due to criticism of experimental design. According to the editor of the journal, a "more in-depth look at the raw data revealed that no definitive conclusions can be reached with this small sample size".

Seeds of Destruction

This is a new genetically-engineered strain of fast-growing corn that could increase yields and make the company millions of dollars.

Botany

botanistbotanicalplant biology
These technologies enable the biotechnological use of whole plants or plant cell cultures grown in bioreactors to synthesise pesticides, antibiotics or other pharmaceuticals, as well as the practical application of genetically modified crops designed for traits such as improved yield.