Genetically modified organism

genetically modified organismsGMOgenetically modifiedtransgenicGMOstransgenicsgenetically engineeredgenetic modificationtransgenic micegenetically modified foods
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.wikipedia
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Genetic engineering

genetically engineeredgenetically modifiedgenetic modification
The exact definition of a genetically modified organism and what constitutes genetic engineering varies, with the most common being an organism altered in a way that "does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination".
An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified (GM) and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism (GMO).

Rudolf Jaenisch

Jaenisch, RudolfRudolf Jaensich
The first genetically modified animal, a mouse, was created in 1974 by Rudolf Jaenisch, and the first plant was produced in 1983.
He is a pioneer of transgenic science, in which an animal’s genetic makeup is altered.

Genetically modified food

genetically modified foodsgenetically modifiedGM food
In 1994 the Flavr Savr tomato was released, the first commersialised genetically modified food.
Genetically modified microbial enzymes were the first application of genetically modified organisms in food production and were approved in 1988 by the US Food and Drug Administration.

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

biosafety protocolCartagena ProtocolCartagena
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in 2000 used the synonym living modified organism (LMO) and defined it as "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology."
The Biosafety Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by genetically modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.

Zebrafish

Danio reriozebra fishzebra danio
The first genetically modified animal to be commercialised was the GloFish, a Zebra fish with a fluorescent gene added that allows it to glow in the dark under ultraviolet light.
It is also notable for its regenerative abilities, and has been modified by researchers to produce many transgenic strains.

Cisgenesis

cisgenicintragenicproposed designation
Genes have been transferred within the same species, across species (creating transgenic organisms) and even across kingdoms.
A variety of classification schemes have been proposed that order genetically modified organisms based on the nature of introduced genotypical changes, rather than the process of genetic engineering.

Agriculture

farmingagriculturalagriculturist
Genetically modified crops are genetically modified plants that are used in agriculture.
Genetically modified organisms are widely used, although they are banned in several countries.

Pharming (genetics)

pharmingmolecular farmingplant-made pharmaceuticals
Plants and plant cells have been genetically engineered for production of biopharmaceuticals in bioreactors, a process known as pharming.
Pharming, a portmanteau of "farming" and "pharmaceutical", refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that would otherwise not express those genes, thus creating a genetically modified organism (GMO).

Genetically modified fish

genetically modified
Genetically modified fish are used for scientific research, as pets and as a food source.
Genetically modified fish (GM fish) are organisms from the taxonomic clade which includes the classes Agnatha (jawless fish), Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) and Osteichthyes (bony fish) whose genetic material (DNA) has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.

Library (biology)

librarylibrariesDNA libraries
If the chosen gene or the donor organism's genome has been well studied it may already be accessible from a genetic library.

Mary-Dell Chilton

In 1983 the first genetically engineered plant was developed by Michael W. Bevan, Richard B. Flavell and Mary-Dell Chilton.

Ice-minus bacteria

ice-minus strain of ''P. syringaeice-minusice-minus strain
This led to the development of ice-minus bacteria, that have the ice-forming genes removed.
Field-testing of Frostban in 1987 was the first release of a genetically modified organism into the environment.

Greenpeace

Greenpeace InternationalGreenpeace CanadaGreenpeace USA
The Organic Consumers Association, and the Union of Concerned Scientists, and Greenpeace stated that risks have not been adequately identified and managed, and have questioned the objectivity of regulatory authorities.
Greenpeace has also been a source of controversy; its motives and methods (some of the latter being illegal) have received criticism, including an open letter from more than 100 Nobel laureates urging Greenpeace to end its campaign against genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

Genome editing

gene editinggenome engineeringgene-edited
Recent advancements using genome editing techniques, notably CRISPR, have made the production of GMO's much simpler.

Transgene

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However it took another eight years before transgenic mice were developed that passed the transgene to their offspring.
Transgenic or genetically modified organisms, be they bacteria, viruses or fungi, serve all kinds of research purposes.

Huntington's disease

HuntingtonHuntington’s diseaseHuntington's Chorea
Their first research target for these marmosets was Parkinson's disease, but they were also considering amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease.
In animals genetically modified to exhibit HD, several functions of HTT have been found.

Precautionary principle

precautionaryprecautionprecautionary approach
Some medical organizations, including the British Medical Association, advocate further caution based upon the precautionary principle: Nonetheless, members of the public are much less likely than scientists to perceive GM foods as safe.
The January 2000 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety says, in regard to controversies over GMO s: "Lack of scientific certainty due to insufficient relevant scientific information ... shall not prevent the Party of [I]mport, in order to avoid or minimize such potential adverse effects, from taking a decision, as appropriate, with regard to the import of the living modified organism in question."

Ocean pout

Zoarces americanus
Approval is for fish raised in Panama and sold in the US. The salmon were transformed with a growth hormone-regulating gene from a Pacific Chinook salmon and a promoter from an ocean pout enabling it to grow year-round instead of only during spring and summer.

Golden rice

vitamin A
Golden rice has been engineered with three genes that increase its nutritional value.
Greenpeace opposes the use of any patented genetically modified organisms in agriculture and opposes the cultivation of golden rice, claiming it will open the door to more widespread use of GMOs.

Physcomitrella patens

mossP. patenspatens
Work has been done with duckweed Lemna minor, the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the moss Physcomitrella patens.
Physcomitrella ecotypes, mutants, and transgenics are stored and made freely available to the scientific community by the International Moss Stock Center (IMSC).

Homologous recombination

recombinationrecombinational repairhomolog recombination
Gene targeting techniques, which creates double-stranded breaks and takes advantage on the cells natural homologous recombination repair systems, have been developed to target insertion to exact locations.
Many methods for introducing DNA sequences into organisms to create recombinant DNA and genetically modified organisms use the process of homologous recombination.

Genetics

geneticgeneticistgenetically
Various advancements in genetics allowed humans to directly alter the DNA and therefore genes of organisms.
By binding ("ligating") fragments of DNA together from different sources, researchers can create recombinant DNA, the DNA often associated with genetically modified organisms.

Recombinant DNA

recombinantrecombinant proteingene splicing
Modern biotechnology is further defined as "In vitro nucleic acid techniques, including recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and direct injection of nucleic acid into cells or organelles, or fusion of cells beyond the taxonomic family."
These concerns are discussed in the articles on genetically modified organisms and genetically modified food controversies.

Knockout mouse

knockout miceknockoutknock-out mice
Mice with genes removed (termed a knockout mouse) were created in 1989.
Genetically modified organism

Synthetic biology

synthetic lifesynthetic biologistsynthetic
They named it Synthia and it was the world's first synthetic life form.
With the exception of regulating DNA synthesis companies, however, the issues are not seen as new because they were raised during the earlier recombinant DNA and genetically modified organism (GMO) debates and extensive regulations of genetic engineering and pathogen research were in place in many jurisdictions.