Genetics

geneticgeneticistgeneticallygenetic researchgenetic factorsgenesgenetic studygeneticistsgenetic studiesgenetics studies
Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.wikipedia
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Population genetics

population geneticistevolutionary geneticspopulation genetic
Genetics has given rise to a number of subfields, including molecular genetics, epigenetics and population genetics.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.

Behavioural genetics

behavioral geneticsbehavior geneticsbehavior geneticist
Genetic processes work in combination with an organism's environment and experiences to influence development and behavior, often referred to as nature versus nurture.
Behavioural genetics, also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.

Heredity

hereditaryinheritedinheritance
Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.
The study of heredity in biology is genetics.

Gregor Mendel

MendelGregor Johann MendelMendelian
Though heredity had been observed for millennia, Gregor Mendel, a scientist and Augustinian friar working in the 19th century, was the first to study genetics scientifically.
Mendel was born in a German-speaking family in the Silesian part of the Austrian Empire (today's Czech Republic) and gained posthumous recognition as the founder of the modern science of genetics.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.
Sixteen years later, in 1905, Wilhelm Johannsen introduced the term 'gene' and William Bateson that of 'genetics' while Eduard Strasburger, amongst others, still used the term 'pangene' for the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity.

William Bateson

BatesonBateson, WilliamBateson's rule
William Bateson, a proponent of Mendel's work, coined the word genetics in 1905 (the adjective genetic, derived from the Greek word genesis—γένεσις, "origin", predates the noun and was first used in a biological sense in 1860 ).
William Bateson (8 August 1861 – 8 February 1926) was an English biologist who was the first person to use the term genetics to describe the study of heredity, and the chief populariser of the ideas of Gregor Mendel following their rediscovery in 1900 by Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns.

Drosophila melanogaster

fruit fliesDrosophilafruit fly
In 1911, Thomas Hunt Morgan argued that genes are on chromosomes, based on observations of a sex-linked white eye mutation in fruit flies.
melanogaster'' continues to be widely used for biological research in genetics, physiology, microbial pathogenesis, and life history evolution.

Lamarckism

Lamarckianinheritance of acquired characteristicsneo-Lamarckism
Another theory that had some support at that time was the inheritance of acquired characteristics: the belief that individuals inherit traits strengthened by their parents.
Studies in the field of epigenetics, genetics and somatic hypermutation have highlighted the possible inheritance of traits acquired by the previous generation.

Nora Barlow

Emma Nora DarwinNoraNora Darwin
Bateson both acted as a mentor and was aided significantly by the work of other scientists from Newnham College at Cambridge, specifically the work of Becky Saunders, Nora Darwin Barlow, and Muriel Wheldale Onslow.
Emma Nora Barlow, Lady Barlow (née Darwin; 22 December 1885 – 29 May 1989), was a British botanist and geneticist.

James Watson

James D. WatsonWatsonJames Dewey Watson
James Watson and Francis Crick determined the structure of DNA in 1953, using the X-ray crystallography work of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins that indicated DNA has a helical structure (i.e., shaped like a corkscrew).
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist.

Thomas Hunt Morgan

T. H. MorganThomas H. MorganT.H. Morgan
In 1911, Thomas Hunt Morgan argued that genes are on chromosomes, based on observations of a sex-linked white eye mutation in fruit flies.
These discoveries formed the basis of the modern science of genetics.

Brno

BrünnBrno, Czech RepublicBrunn
In his paper "Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden" ("Experiments on Plant Hybridization"), presented in 1865 to the Naturforschender Verein (Society for Research in Nature) in Brünn, Mendel traced the inheritance patterns of certain traits in pea plants and described them mathematically.
Gregor Mendel conducted his groundbreaking experiments in genetics while he was a monk at St. Thomas's Abbey in Brno in the 1850s.

Blending inheritance

blendingapparent blendingLamarkian evolution
A popular theory during the 19th century, and implied by Charles Darwin's 1859 On the Origin of Species, was blending inheritance: the idea that individuals inherit a smooth blend of traits from their parents.
Blending inheritance was discarded with the general acceptance of particulate Mendelian inheritance during the development of modern genetics after 1900.

Acetabularia

Mermaid's wineglass
The role of the nucleus as the repository of genetic information in eukaryotes had been established by Hämmerling in 1943 in his work on the single celled alga Acetabularia.
In the 1930s–1950s Joachim Hämmerling conducted experiments in which he demonstrated Acetabularia's genetic information is contained in the nucleus.

Experiments on Plant Hybridization

His workhybridization experimentsVersuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden
In his paper "Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden" ("Experiments on Plant Hybridization"), presented in 1865 to the Naturforschender Verein (Society for Research in Nature) in Brünn, Mendel traced the inheritance patterns of certain traits in pea plants and described them mathematically.
"Experiments on Plant Hybridization" (German: Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden) is a seminal paper written in 1865 and published in 1866 by Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian friar considered to be the founder of modern genetics.

Genotype

genotypesgenotypicgenotypically
The set of alleles for a given organism is called its genotype, while the observable traits of the organism are called its phenotype.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of any individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).

Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.
This field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly those of genetics and biochemistry.

Phenotype

phenotypicphenotypesphenotypically
The set of alleles for a given organism is called its genotype, while the observable traits of the organism are called its phenotype.
In genetics, the phenotype of an organism is the composite of the organism's observable characteristics or traits.

Locus (genetics)

locuslociq arm
Diploid organisms with two copies of the same allele of a given gene are called homozygous at that gene locus, while organisms with two different alleles of a given gene are called heterozygous.
In genetics, a locus (plural loci) is a specific, fixed position on a chromosome where a particular gene or genetic marker is located.

Dominance (genetics)

autosomal recessiverecessiveautosomal dominant
Gene structure and function, variation, and distribution are studied within the context of the cell, the organism (e.g. dominance), and within the context of a population.
Dominance, in genetics, is the phenomenon of one variant (allele) of a gene on a chromosome masking or overriding the effect of a different variant of the same gene on the other copy of the chromosome.

Human skin color

skin colorskin pigmentationskin tone
Many traits are not discrete features (e.g. purple or white flowers) but are instead continuous features (e.g. human height and skin color).
An individual's skin pigmentation is the result of genetics, being the product of both of the individual's biological parents' genetic makeup, and exposure to sun.

Epistasis

epistaticgene interactiongenetic interactions
This interaction between genes is called epistasis, with the second gene epistatic to the first.
Epistasis was originally a concept from genetics, but is now used in biochemistry, computational biology, and in evolutionary biology; it arises due to interactions, either between genes, or within them, leading to non-linear effects.

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.
The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Schleiden and Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells; all cells come from preexisting cells; and cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.

Heritability

heritablebreeder's equationheritabilities
The degree to which an organism's genes contribute to a complex trait is called heritability.
Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.

Francis Crick

CrickFrancis Harry Compton CrickFrancis H.C. Crick
James Watson and Francis Crick determined the structure of DNA in 1953, using the X-ray crystallography work of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins that indicated DNA has a helical structure (i.e., shaped like a corkscrew).
It was clear in theory that covalent bonds in biological molecules could provide the structural stability needed to hold genetic information in cells.