A report on Geneva and Particle physics

A view of Geneva by Frances Elizabeth Wynne, 4 August 1858
The Standard Model of particle physics, listing all elementary particles
L'Escalade is what Genevans call the failed surprise attack of 12 December 1602 by troops sent by Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy, to take Geneva. This imaginative image was drawn by Matthias Quad, or the workshop of Frans Hogenberg, around 1603. Invaders are pictured crossing the moat in the center left while reinforcements are entering Plainpalais at the bottom. A column of defenders is in the center, headed toward the Savoyards. Lake Léman is at center top.
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA
Aerial view (1966)
A beam of electrons deflected by a magnetic field into a circle, ionizing the gas inside to fluoresce a purple ring
Satellite view of Geneva; Cointrin Airport is centre left.
The Geiger–Marsden experiments observed that a small fraction of the alpha particles experienced strong deflection when being struck by the gold foil.
The Geneva area seen from the Salève in France. The Jura mountains are on the horizon.
The Standard Model of particle physics, listing elementary particles
Confluence of the Rhône and the Arve
Average temperature and precipitation 1961–1990
Coat of arms of Geneva as part of the pavement in front of the Reformation Wall, 2013
The Flowered Clock at the Quai du Général-Guisan (English Garden), during the 2012 Geneva Festival
Rue Pierre-Fatio in Geneva
Apartment buildings in the Quartier des Grottes
Geneva, with Lake Geneva in the background
Reformation Wall in Geneva; from left to right: William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox
Fireworks at the Fêtes de Genève, 2012
Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies
The University of Geneva.
Geneva railway station
TCMC (Tramway Cornavin – Meyrin – CERN)
Geneva Sécheron railway station
TOSA Bus at PALEXPO Flash bus stops
The World Intellectual Property Organization.
The assembly hall of the Palace of Nations.
Gustave Ador
Christiane Brunner
John Calvin, c. 1550
Isaac Casaubon
Michel Decastel, 2012
Jean Henri Dunant, 1901
Kat Graham, 2017
Francois Huber
Paul Lachenal, 1939
Lenin in Switzerland, 1916
Amelie Mauresmo, 2014
Liliane Maury Pasquier, 2007
Pierre Prévost
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Ferdinand de Saussure
Michael Schade, 2012
Michel Simon, 1964
Johann Vogel, 2006
St. Pierre Cathedral
Collège Calvin
International Committee of the Red Cross (CICR)
Conservatory and Botanical Garden of the City of Geneva
Notre-Dame Church
Russian Orthodox Church
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Hôtel de Ville and the Tour Baudet
Institut et Musée Voltaire
Mallet House and Museum international de la Réforme
Tavel House
Brunswick Monument
Musée d'Art et d'Histoire
The Villa La Grange

CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) (Franco-Swiss border, near Geneva). Its main project is now the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which had its first beam circulation on 10 September 2008, and is now the world's most energetic collider of protons. It also became the most energetic collider of heavy ions after it began colliding lead ions. Earlier facilities include the Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP), which was stopped on 2 November 2000 and then dismantled to give way for LHC; and the Super Proton Synchrotron, which is being reused as a pre-accelerator for the LHC and for fixed-target experiments.

- Particle physics

Founded in 1954, CERN was one of Europe's first joint ventures and has developed as the world's largest particle physics laboratory.

- Geneva
A view of Geneva by Frances Elizabeth Wynne, 4 August 1858

3 related topics with Alpha


CERN's main site, from Switzerland looking towards France


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CERN's main site, from Switzerland looking towards France
CERN's main site, from Switzerland looking towards France
CERN's main site, from Switzerland looking towards France
1954 (12 members): CERN is founded {{Cref|a}} (1954-1990 borders)
Map of the Large Hadron Collider together with the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN
CMS detector for LHC
Interior of office building 40 at the Meyrin site. Building 40 hosts many offices for scientists from the CMS and ATLAS collaborations.
ESO and CERN have a cooperation agreement.
The Globe of Science and Innovation at CERN
1959 (13 members): Austria joins (1954-1990 borders)
1983 (13 members): Spain re-joins (1954-1990 borders)
1969 (12 members): Spain leaves (1954-1990 borders)
1985 (14 members): Portugal joins (1954-1990 borders)
1991 (16 members): Poland and Finland join, and Germany has been reunified (post 1993 borders)
1992 (17 members): Hungary joins (post 1993 borders)
1993 (19 members): Czech Republic and Slovakia join (post 1993 borders)
1999 (20 members): Bulgaria joins (post 1993 borders)
Animated map showing changes in CERN membership from 1954 until 1999 (borders are as at dates of change)
CERN building 40 at the Meyrin site.

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border and has 23 member states.

Layout of the LHC complex

Large Hadron Collider

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World's largest and highest-energy particle collider.

World's largest and highest-energy particle collider.

Layout of the LHC complex
Map of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN
Superconducting quadrupole electromagnets are used to direct the beams to four intersection points, where interactions between accelerated protons will take place.
The LHC protons originate from the small red hydrogen tank.
CMS detector for LHC
Seminar on the physics of LHC by John Iliopoulos (2009).
A section of the LHC
A Feynman diagram of one way the Higgs boson may be produced at the LHC. Here, two quarks each emit a W or Z boson, which combine to make a neutral Higgs.

It lies in a tunnel 27 km in circumference and as deep as 175 m beneath the France–Switzerland border near Geneva.

The LHC's goal is to allow physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics, including measuring the properties of the Higgs boson searching for the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories, and other unresolved questions in particle physics.


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Landlocked country located at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe.

Landlocked country located at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe.

Founded in 44 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus, Augusta Raurica (near Basel) was the first Roman settlement on the Rhine and is now among the most important archaeological sites in Switzerland.
The Old Swiss Confederacy from 1291 (dark green) to the sixteenth century (light green) and its associates (blue). In the other colours shown are the subject territories.
The 1291 Bundesbrief (federal charter)
The Act of Mediation was Napoleon's attempt at a compromise between the Ancien Régime and a Republic.
The first Federal Palace in Bern (1857). One of the three cantons presiding over the Tagsatzung (former legislative and executive council), Bern was chosen as the permanent seat of federal legislative and executive institutions in 1848, in part because of its closeness to the French-speaking area.
Inauguration in 1882 of the Gotthard Rail Tunnel connecting the southern canton of Ticino, the longest in the world at the time
General Ulrich Wille, appointed commander-in-chief of the Swiss Army for the duration of World War I
In 2003, by granting the Swiss People's Party a second seat in the governing cabinet, the Parliament altered the coalition that had dominated Swiss politics since 1959.
Physical map of Switzerland (in German)
Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for Switzerland
The Swiss Federal Council in 2022 with President Ignazio Cassis (bottom) standing on an abstract, reduced railway lines map and positioned at their respective political origins
The Federal Palace, seat of the Federal Assembly and the Federal Council
The Landsgemeinde is an old form of direct democracy, still in practice in two cantons.
The colour-reversed Swiss flag became the symbol of the Red Cross Movement, founded in 1863 by Henry Dunant.
A Swiss Air Force F/A-18 Hornet at Axalp Air Show
Swiss-built Mowag Eagles of the Land Forces
The Old City of Bern
A proportional representation of Switzerland exports, 2019
The city of Basel (Roche Tower) is the capital of the country's pharmaceutical industry, which accounts for around 38% of Swiss exports worldwide.
The Greater Zürich area, home to 1.5 million inhabitants and 150,000 companies, is one of the most important economic centres in the world.
The University of Basel is Switzerland's oldest university (1460).
Some Swiss scientists who played a key role in their discipline (clockwise):
Leonhard Euler (mathematics)
Louis Agassiz (glaciology)
Auguste Piccard (aeronautics)
Albert Einstein (physics)
The LHC tunnel. CERN is the world's largest laboratory and also the birthplace of the World Wide Web.
Members of the European Free Trade Association (green) participate in the European Single Market and are part of the Schengen Area.
Switzerland has the tallest dams in Europe, among which the Mauvoisin Dam, in the Alps. Hydroelectricity is the most important domestic source of energy in the country.
Entrance of the new Lötschberg Base Tunnel, the third-longest railway tunnel in the world, under the old Lötschberg railway line. It was the first completed tunnel of the greater project NRLA.
Population density in Switzerland (2019)
Percentage of foreigners in Switzerland (2019)
Urbanisation in the Rhone Valley (outskirts of Sion)
Alphorn concert in Vals
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was not only a writer but also an influential philosopher of the eighteenth century.
Ski area over the glaciers of Saas-Fee
Roger Federer has won 20 Grand Slam singles titles, making him among the most successful men's tennis players ever.
Fondue is melted cheese, into which bread is dipped
National languages in Switzerland (2016): 
German (62.8%)
French (22.9%)
Italian (8.2%)
Romansh (0.5%)

Although the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8.7 million is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities and economic centres are, among them Zürich, Geneva and Basel.

Geneva and the nearby French department of Ain co-host the world's largest laboratory, CERN, dedicated to particle physics research.