A report on Geneva

A view of Geneva by Frances Elizabeth Wynne, 4 August 1858
L'Escalade is what Genevans call the failed surprise attack of 12 December 1602 by troops sent by Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy, to take Geneva. This imaginative image was drawn by Matthias Quad, or the workshop of Frans Hogenberg, around 1603. Invaders are pictured crossing the moat in the center left while reinforcements are entering Plainpalais at the bottom. A column of defenders is in the center, headed toward the Savoyards. Lake Léman is at center top.
Aerial view (1966)
Satellite view of Geneva; Cointrin Airport is centre left.
The Geneva area seen from the Salève in France. The Jura mountains are on the horizon.
Confluence of the Rhône and the Arve
Average temperature and precipitation 1961–1990
Coat of arms of Geneva as part of the pavement in front of the Reformation Wall, 2013
The Flowered Clock at the Quai du Général-Guisan (English Garden), during the 2012 Geneva Festival
Rue Pierre-Fatio in Geneva
Apartment buildings in the Quartier des Grottes
Geneva, with Lake Geneva in the background
Reformation Wall in Geneva; from left to right: William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox
Fireworks at the Fêtes de Genève, 2012
Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies
The University of Geneva.
Geneva railway station
TCMC (Tramway Cornavin – Meyrin – CERN)
Geneva Sécheron railway station
TOSA Bus at PALEXPO Flash bus stops
The World Intellectual Property Organization.
The assembly hall of the Palace of Nations.
Gustave Ador
Christiane Brunner
John Calvin, c. 1550
Isaac Casaubon
Michel Decastel, 2012
Jean Henri Dunant, 1901
Kat Graham, 2017
Francois Huber
Paul Lachenal, 1939
Lenin in Switzerland, 1916
Amelie Mauresmo, 2014
Liliane Maury Pasquier, 2007
Pierre Prévost
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Ferdinand de Saussure
Michael Schade, 2012
Michel Simon, 1964
Johann Vogel, 2006
Voltaire
St. Pierre Cathedral
Collège Calvin
International Committee of the Red Cross (CICR)
Conservatory and Botanical Garden of the City of Geneva
Notre-Dame Church
Russian Orthodox Church
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Hôtel de Ville and the Tour Baudet
Institut et Musée Voltaire
Mallet House and Museum international de la Réforme
Tavel House
Brunswick Monument
Musée d'Art et d'Histoire
The Villa La Grange

Second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

- Geneva
A view of Geneva by Frances Elizabeth Wynne, 4 August 1858

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Switzerland

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Landlocked country located at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe.

Landlocked country located at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe.

Founded in 44 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus, Augusta Raurica (near Basel) was the first Roman settlement on the Rhine and is now among the most important archaeological sites in Switzerland.
The Old Swiss Confederacy from 1291 (dark green) to the sixteenth century (light green) and its associates (blue). In the other colours shown are the subject territories.
The 1291 Bundesbrief (federal charter)
The Act of Mediation was Napoleon's attempt at a compromise between the Ancien Régime and a Republic.
The first Federal Palace in Bern (1857). One of the three cantons presiding over the Tagsatzung (former legislative and executive council), Bern was chosen as the permanent seat of federal legislative and executive institutions in 1848, in part because of its closeness to the French-speaking area.
Inauguration in 1882 of the Gotthard Rail Tunnel connecting the southern canton of Ticino, the longest in the world at the time
General Ulrich Wille, appointed commander-in-chief of the Swiss Army for the duration of World War I
In 2003, by granting the Swiss People's Party a second seat in the governing cabinet, the Parliament altered the coalition that had dominated Swiss politics since 1959.
Physical map of Switzerland (in German)
Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for Switzerland
The Swiss Federal Council in 2022 with President Ignazio Cassis (bottom) standing on an abstract, reduced railway lines map and positioned at their respective political origins
The Federal Palace, seat of the Federal Assembly and the Federal Council
The Landsgemeinde is an old form of direct democracy, still in practice in two cantons.
The colour-reversed Swiss flag became the symbol of the Red Cross Movement, founded in 1863 by Henry Dunant.
A Swiss Air Force F/A-18 Hornet at Axalp Air Show
Swiss-built Mowag Eagles of the Land Forces
The Old City of Bern
A proportional representation of Switzerland exports, 2019
The city of Basel (Roche Tower) is the capital of the country's pharmaceutical industry, which accounts for around 38% of Swiss exports worldwide.
The Greater Zürich area, home to 1.5 million inhabitants and 150,000 companies, is one of the most important economic centres in the world.
The University of Basel is Switzerland's oldest university (1460).
Some Swiss scientists who played a key role in their discipline (clockwise):
Leonhard Euler (mathematics)
Louis Agassiz (glaciology)
Auguste Piccard (aeronautics)
Albert Einstein (physics)
The LHC tunnel. CERN is the world's largest laboratory and also the birthplace of the World Wide Web.
Members of the European Free Trade Association (green) participate in the European Single Market and are part of the Schengen Area.
Switzerland has the tallest dams in Europe, among which the Mauvoisin Dam, in the Alps. Hydroelectricity is the most important domestic source of energy in the country.
Entrance of the new Lötschberg Base Tunnel, the third-longest railway tunnel in the world, under the old Lötschberg railway line. It was the first completed tunnel of the greater project NRLA.
Population density in Switzerland (2019)
Percentage of foreigners in Switzerland (2019)
Urbanisation in the Rhone Valley (outskirts of Sion)
Alphorn concert in Vals
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was not only a writer but also an influential philosopher of the eighteenth century.
Ski area over the glaciers of Saas-Fee
Roger Federer has won 20 Grand Slam singles titles, making him among the most successful men's tennis players ever.
Fondue is melted cheese, into which bread is dipped
National languages in Switzerland (2016): 
German (62.8%)
French (22.9%)
Italian (8.2%)
Romansh (0.5%)

Although the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8.7 million is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities and economic centres are, among them Zürich, Geneva and Basel.

Canton of Geneva

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One of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation.

One of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation.

The cantons and allies of the Old Swiss Confederacy in the 18th century. Geneva is a group of small territories in the southwest.
The County of Geneva and surrounding territories in around 1200.
Territories acquired by Berne from Geneva, 1339-1798
L'Escalade, the last attempt by Savoy to take Geneva by force, 1602
Place du Temple in Carouge
Charles Pictet de Rochemont, the Geneva envoy to the Congress of Vienna who negotiated the canton’s borders
Borders after the Congress of Vienna: in yellow, the previous lands of Geneva; in blue, towns ceded by France; in pink, towns ceded by Savoy.
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View from Reculet mountain towards Geneva. The canton occupies most of the Geneva basin, the valley between the Reculet (France) and Mount Salève (France). The Alps are visible in the background, covered by clouds
Municipalities of the canton of Geneva
Village square in Meyrin
The headquarters of the local cantonal bank, the BCGE
Geneva has the densest vineyards of Switzerland. Here, the largest wine-making municipality of Switzerland, Satigny.
The Léman Express network
A tram in Carouge
Map of the French département of Léman established in 1798
Map of the canton of Geneva after the first peace of Paris May 1814
Map of the canton of Geneva after the treaty of Paris 1815
Map of the canton of Geneva after the treaty of Turin 1816

It is composed of forty-five municipalities and the seat of the government and parliament is in the City of Geneva.

John Calvin

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Calvin was originally interested in the priesthood, but he changed course to study law in Orléans and Bourges. Painting titled Portrait of Young John Calvin from the collection of the Library of Geneva.
William Farel was the reformer who persuaded Calvin to stay in Geneva. 16th-century painting. In the Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire, Geneva.
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral, the main church in Geneva.
Idelette and Calvin had no children survive infancy.
Sixteenth-century portrait of John Calvin by an unknown artist. From the collection of the Bibliothèque de Genève (Library of Geneva)
Michael Servetus exchanged many letters with Calvin until he was denounced by Calvin and executed.
John Calvin at 53 years old in an engraving by René Boyvin
The Collège Calvin is now a college preparatory school for the Swiss Maturité.
Traditional grave of Calvin in the Cimetière de Plainpalais in Geneva; the exact location of his grave is unknown.
Title page from the final edition of Calvin's magnum opus, Institutio Christiane Religionis, which summarises his theology.
Joachim Westphal disagreed with Calvin's theology on the eucharist.
Calvin wrote many letters to religious and political leaders throughout Europe, including this one sent to Edward VI of England.
Portrait of Calvin by Titian
The last moments of Calvin (Barcelona: Montaner y Simón, 1880–1883)
John Calvin memorial medal by László Szlávics, Jr., 2008

John Calvin (Middle French: Jean Cauvin; French: Jean Calvin ; 10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor, and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

The Rhine with the old town of Basel to the right

Basel

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City in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.

City in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.

The Rhine with the old town of Basel to the right
The Roman theatre in Augusta Raurica, one of the most important Roman archaeological sites in Switzerland
Basel Minster, built between 1019 and 1500
1493 woodcut of Basel, from the Nuremberg Chronicle
Map of Basel in 1642, engraved by Matthäus Merian, oriented with SW at the top and NE at the bottom.
First World Zionist Congress in Basel, 1897 (Stadtcasino)
Basel (in the upper left corner) as seen from Bettingen (television tower St. Chrischona) facing France
The main synagogue of Basel
The Rhine in Basel as Switzerland's gateway to the sea
Basel Bahnhof SBB, self-proclaimed "world's first international railway station."
Cable ferry across the Rhine in Basel
Basel tram network
Tram in the city centre (Bankverein)
University Children's Hospital Basel
Novartis Campus Basel
Roche Tower, the tallest building in Switzerland
Art Basel (2009)
Inauguration ceremony of the University of Basel, 1460
The Gymnasium Leonhard
Tinguely's Carnival Fountain (Fasnachtsbrunnen)
Elisabethenkirche (inside)
Wildt'sches Haus, Petersplatz
The Kunstmuseum Basel, oldest public museum of art in Europe
The Fondation Beyeler by Renzo Piano, located in Riehen
Top Secret Drum Corps at the 2009 Basel Tattoo
The Antelope House at Zoo Basel
St. Jakob-Park
Roger Federer at the 2010 Australian Open
Arnold Böcklin, 1873
Roger Federer, 2016
St. Alban Gate
Rathaus, Basel's Town Hall
Protestant Cathedral
Gemsberg
University of Basel (est. in 1460)
Barfüsserplatz
Münsterplatz
Wettsteinbrücke
Global seat of the Bank for International Settlements
Haus zum Kirschgarten
Spalentor
People swimming in the Rhine

Basel is Switzerland's third-most-populous city (after Zürich and Geneva) with about 175,000 inhabitants.

The three emblems in use: Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

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Humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide, and was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.

Humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide, and was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.

The three emblems in use: Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal
The three emblems in use: Red Cross, Red Crescent, Red Crystal
The Red Cross, after the Battle of Gravelotte in 1870.
Henry Dunant, author of A Memory of Solferino
Original document of the First Geneva Convention, 1864
Cross of the Serbian Red Cross Society
"Committee of the Five": Gustave Moynier, Guillaume-Henri Dufour, Henry Dunant, Louis Appia, Théodore Maunoir
Memorial commemorating the first use of the Red Cross symbol in an armed conflict during the Battle of Dybbøl (Denmark) in 1864; jointly erected in 1989 by the national Red Cross societies of Denmark and Germany
War 1914–1918. Geneva, Rath Museum. International Prisoners-of-War Agency. Researches department. German section. Express messages and communications to families.
Group picture of the volunteers – mostly women – in front of the Musée Rath in 1914
Red Cross ambulance from 1917
Ernest Hemingway in a US Red Cross Hospital in 1918
War 1939–1945. Geneva, Central Prisoners of war Agency, Electoral building / Palace of the General Council
Photo taken by Rossel at Theresienstadt. Most of the children were murdered at Auschwitz in the fall of 1944.
Marcel Junod, delegate of the ICRC, visiting POWs in Germany
Telegram by ICRC delegate Fritz Bilfinger from Hiroshima three weeks after the atomic bombing
Budapest 1945. Repatriation of 2000 Italian prisoners of war.
The ICRC Headquarters in Geneva
Henry Davison, Founding father of the League of Red Cross societies
A stamp from the Faroe Islands
A stamp from Turkey
Peace Nobel Prize ceremony in 1963. From left to right: Crown Prince Harald of Norway, King Olav of Norway, ICRC president Leopold Boissier, League Chairman John A. MacAulay.
Entry to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Museum in Geneva
A Turkish Red Crescent staff conducting activities for children
The emblem of the International Committee of the Red Cross (French: Comité international de la Croix-rouge)
Emblem of the IFRC
Ambulance of the Italian Red Cross
An ambulance owned by the Mexican Red Cross
An Israeli stamp commemorating the 25th anniversary of Magen David Adom, issued 11 January 1955
The Logistics Centre of the Finnish Red Cross in Tampere, Finland
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The flag of Switzerland – basis of the original Red Cross
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Flag of the Ottoman Empire (later Turkey) – basis of original Red Crescent
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International emblem for Magen David Adom outside Israel.
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A Magen David Adom worker in the Tel Aviv civil defense, 1939
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Gōtarō Mikami's Red Cross flag with which in 1905 he deflected from his field hospital in Manchuria the onslaught of the Russian army
The MV Red Cross in New York harbour ca 1915

Back at his home in Geneva, he decided to write a book entitled A Memory of Solferino which he published using his own money in 1862.

Satellite image

Lake Geneva

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Deep lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France.

Deep lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France.

Satellite image
View of Lake Geneva about between Vevey in front, Lausanne in the back behind Mont Pèlerin (CH) on the right and Évian-les-Bains (F) on the left, shot from a place between Caux and Glion above Montreux
View of the lake and the Chablais Alps from Caux
CGN paddle steamer in 1926 near Vevey with the Dents du Midi in background
Île de Peilz

The river has its source at the Rhône Glacier near the Grimsel Pass to the east of the lake and flows down through the canton of Valais, entering the lake between Villeneuve and Le Bouveret, before flowing slowly towards its egress at Geneva.

United Nations

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Intergovernmental organization whose purposes are to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.

Intergovernmental organization whose purposes are to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.

Members of the United Nations
1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the UN original three branches: The Four Policemen, an executive branch, and an international assembly of forty UN member states
The UN in 1945: founding members in light blue, protectorates and territories of the founding members in dark blue
Dag Hammarskjöld was a particularly active secretary-general from 1953 until his death in 1961.
Kofi Annan, secretary-general from 1997 to 2006
Flags of member nations at the United Nations Headquarters, seen in 2007
Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet general secretary, addressing the UN General Assembly in December 1988
Colin Powell, the US Secretary of State, demonstrates a vial with alleged Iraq chemical weapon probes to the UN Security Council on Iraq war hearings, 5 February 2003
Current secretary-general, António Guterres
The ICJ ruled that Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence from Serbia in 2008 did not violate international law.
Under Sukarno, Indonesia became the first and only country to leave the United Nations.
A Nepalese soldier on a peacekeeping deployment providing security at a rice distribution site in Haiti during 2010
The UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus was established in 1974 following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
Eleanor Roosevelt with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1949
Three former directors of the Global Smallpox Eradication Programme reading the news that smallpox has been globally eradicated in 1980
In Jordan, UNHCR remains responsible for the Syrian refugees and the Zaatari refugee camp.
The 2001 Nobel Peace Prize to the UN—diploma in the lobby of the UN Headquarters in New York City
Marking of the UN's 70th anniversary – Budapest, 2015

Its site—like UN headquarters buildings in Geneva, Vienna, and Nairobi—is designated as international territory.

International Committee of the Red Cross

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Henry Dunant, author of A Memory of Solferino
Original document of the first Geneva Convention, 1864
The Red Cross in action in 1864
Memorial commemorating the first use of the Red Cross symbol in an armed conflict during the Battle of Dybbøl (Denmark) in 1864; jointly erected in 1989 by the national Red Cross societies of Denmark and Germany
French postcard celebrating the role of Red Cross nurses during the First World War, 1915.
Red Cross message from Łódź, Poland, 1940.
Marcel Junod, delegate of the ICRC, visiting POWs in Nazi Germany.
(Benoit Junod, Switzerland)
The Red Cross during liberation of Eindhoven in 1944.
A sick Polish survivor in the Hannover-Ahlem concentration camp receives medicine from a German Red Cross worker, April 1945
The ICRC Headquarters in Geneva.
Marguerite Frick-Cramer, the first ever female member of the ICRC
The Nobel Peace Prize ceremony in 1963 when the prize was jointly awarded to the ICRC and the Federation. From left to right: King Olav of Norway, ICRC President Leopold Boissier, League Chairman John MacAulay.
Guillaume Dufour,
Gustave Moynier,
Gustave Ador,
Max Huber,
Carl Burckhardt,
Alexandre Hay,
Cornelio Sommaruga,
Jakob Kellenberger,
Peter Maurer,

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC; Comité international de la Croix-Rouge) is a humanitarian organization based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.

Hautecombe Abbey, where many of the dukes are buried.

House of Savoy

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Royal dynasty that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region.

Royal dynasty that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region.

Hautecombe Abbey, where many of the dukes are buried.
A map of Italy in 1494.
A map of Italy in 1796.
A map of Italy in 1843.
A map of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

They once had claims on the modern canton of Vaud, where they occupied the Château of Chillon in Switzerland, but their access to it was cut by Geneva during the Protestant Reformation, after which it was conquered by Bern.

Portrait of General Dufour by his daughter, Anne Octavie L'Hardy Dufour (1818-1891), after 1840

Guillaume Henri Dufour

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Swiss military officer, structural engineer and topographer.

Swiss military officer, structural engineer and topographer.

Portrait of General Dufour by his daughter, Anne Octavie L'Hardy Dufour (1818-1891), after 1840
Daguerreotype of general G.H. Dufour, 1847
Saint Antoine Bridge as pictured by Drewry, 1832
Equestrian statue (1884) by Alfred Lanz, at Place Neuve, Geneva
20 francs note (1956)

Dufour was born on 15 September 1787 in Konstanz, where his parents from Geneva were living in exile for their involvement in the Revolution of 1782.