Genius

high intelligencegenius-level intellectgeniusesingeniousmastermindmisunderstood geniusSmartbrightestbrilliantGenii
A genius is a person who displays exceptional intellectual ability, creative productivity, universality in genres or originality, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of new advances in a domain of knowledge.wikipedia
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Creativity

creativecreative processcreative thinking
There is no scientifically precise definition of genius, and the question of whether the notion itself has any real meaning has long been a subject of debate, although psychologists are converging on a definition that emphasizes creativity and eminent achievement.
In the writing of Thomas Hobbes, imagination became a key element of human cognition; William Duff was one of the first to identify imagination as a quality of genius, typifying the separation being made between talent (productive, but breaking no new ground) and genius.

Francis Galton

Sir Francis GaltonGaltonGalton, Francis
The assessment of intelligence was initiated by Francis Galton (1822–1911) and James McKeen Cattell.
His book Hereditary Genius (1869) was the first social scientific attempt to study genius and greatness.

Historiometry

historiometricstatistical analysis
This work is considered the first example of historiometry, an analytical study of historical human progress.
Historiometry is the historical study of human progress or individual personal characteristics, using statistics to analyze references to geniuses, their statements, behavior and discoveries in relatively neutral texts.

Cesare Lombroso

LombrosoLombroso, CLombroso’s theory
Usually, genius is associated with talent, but many authors (for example Cesare Lombroso) systematically distinguish these terms.
Lombroso published The Man of Genius in 1889, a book which argued that artistic genius was a form of hereditary insanity.

Genius (mythology)

geniusgeniiGenius of Liberty
In ancient Rome, the genius (plural in Latin genii) was the guiding spirit or tutelary deity of a person, family (gens), or place (genius loci).
If the genius of the imperator, or commander of all troops, was to be propitiated, so was that of all the units under his command.

Polymath

Renaissance manpolyhistorRenaissance woman
Despite the presence of scholars in many subjects throughout history, many geniuses have shown high achievements in only a single kind of activity.
Genius

Romanticism

RomanticRomantic movementromanticist
Kant's discussion of the characteristics of genius is largely contained within the Critique of Judgment and was well received by the Romantics of the early 19th century.
The concept of the genius, or artist who was able to produce his own original work through this process of creation from nothingness, is key to Romanticism, and to be derivative was the worst sin.

Arthur Schopenhauer's aesthetics

Schopenhauerian aestheticsaesthetic theoriesaesthetics
In Schopenhauer's aesthetics, this predominance of the intellect over the will allows the genius to create artistic or academic works that are objects of pure, disinterested contemplation, the chief criterion of the aesthetic experience for Schopenhauer.
The personality of the artist was also supposed to be less subject to Will than most: such a person was a Schopenhauerian genius, a person whose exceptional predominance of intellect over Will made them relatively aloof from earthly cares and concerns.

Critique of Judgment

aestheticsCritique of the Faculty of JudgmentCritique of the Power of Judgment
Kant's discussion of the characteristics of genius is largely contained within the Critique of Judgment and was well received by the Romantics of the early 19th century.
In this section of the critique Kant also establishes a faculty of mind that is in many ways the inverse of judgment — the faculty of genius.

The World as Will and Representation

Die Welt als Wille und VorstellungWill and RepresentationThe World as Will and Idea
As he says in Volume 2 of The World as Will and Representation:
Like many other aesthetic theories, Schopenhauer's centers on the concept of genius.

Intellectual giftedness

giftedgifted childrenintellectually gifted
Intellectual giftedness
Psychologist and cognitive scientist Steven Pinker theorized that, rather than viewing Einstein's (and other famously gifted late-talking individuals) adult accomplishments as existing distinct from, or in spite of, his early language deficits, and rather than viewing Einstein's lingual delay itself as a "disorder", it may be that Einstein's genius and his delay in speaking were developmentally intrinsic to one another.

Originality

originaloriginal workoriginals
A genius is a person who displays exceptional intellectual ability, creative productivity, universality in genres or originality, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of new advances in a domain of knowledge.

Aptitude

talentabilitytalents
Usually, genius is associated with talent, but many authors (for example Cesare Lombroso) systematically distinguish these terms.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
In ancient Rome, the genius (plural in Latin genii) was the guiding spirit or tutelary deity of a person, family (gens), or place (genius loci).

Tutelary deity

tutelary deitiespatron deitytutelary
In ancient Rome, the genius (plural in Latin genii) was the guiding spirit or tutelary deity of a person, family (gens), or place (genius loci).

Person

peoplepersonsindividual
In ancient Rome, the genius (plural in Latin genii) was the guiding spirit or tutelary deity of a person, family (gens), or place (genius loci).

Gens

gentesgentilicfamily
In ancient Rome, the genius (plural in Latin genii) was the guiding spirit or tutelary deity of a person, family (gens), or place (genius loci).

Genius loci

genii locigenii locorumguardian spirit
In ancient Rome, the genius (plural in Latin genii) was the guiding spirit or tutelary deity of a person, family (gens), or place (genius loci).

Latin conjugation

Latin verbLatinconjugation
The noun is related to the Latin verb genui, genitus, "to bring into being, create, produce", as well as to the Greek (ιδιοφυΐα < αρχαία ελληνική ~ idiophiia < ancient Greek) word for birth.

Augustus

OctavianAugustanCaesar Augustus
Because the achievements of exceptional individuals seemed to indicate the presence of a particularly powerful genius, by the time of Augustus, the word began to acquire its secondary meaning of "inspiration, talent".

Encyclopédie

Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiersEncyclopédistesDiderot's Encyclopedia
Beginning to blend the concepts of the divine and the talented, the Encyclopédie article on genius (génie) describes such a person as "he whose soul is more expansive and struck by the feelings of all others; interested by all that is in nature never to receive an idea unless it evokes a feeling; everything excites him and on which nothing is lost."

James McKeen Cattell

CattellCattell, J. McK.J. McKeen Cattell
The assessment of intelligence was initiated by Francis Galton (1822–1911) and James McKeen Cattell.

Intelligence

intelligenthuman intelligenceintellect
They had advocated the analysis of reaction time and sensory acuity as measures of "neurophysiological efficiency" and the analysis of sensory acuity as a measure of intelligence.

Psychometrics

psychometricpsychometricianpsychometric testing
Galton is regarded as the founder of psychometry.