Genocide

genocidalexterminationgenocidesexterminatewipe outexterminatedcrime of genocideAutogenocideeradicategenocidal policies
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.wikipedia
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The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi Holocaust
The term has been coined and applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the Indonesian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and after 1980 the Bosnian genocide, the Anfal genocide, the Darfur genocide, the Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide.
The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the World War II genocide of the European Jews.

Genocides in history

genocidegenocidesGenocide in history
The term has been coined and applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the Indonesian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and after 1980 the Bosnian genocide, the Anfal genocide, the Darfur genocide, the Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide. Others are listed in Genocides in history and List of genocides by death toll.
Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious or national group.

Genocide of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia

World War II persecution of Serbspersecution of Serbsgenocide
The term has been coined and applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the Indonesian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and after 1980 the Bosnian genocide, the Anfal genocide, the Darfur genocide, the Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide.
Hundreds of thousands of ethnic Serbs were subjected to the genocidal policies of the Ustashe regime in the Independent State of Croatia between 1941 and 1945, during the Second World War, including extermination, expulsion and forced religious conversion.

Race (human categorization)

raceracialraces
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Racism has led to many instances of tragedy, including slavery and genocide.

Holodomor

Ukrainian faminefaminefamine in Ukraine
The term has been coined and applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the Indonesian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and after 1980 the Bosnian genocide, the Anfal genocide, the Darfur genocide, the Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide.
Since 2006, the Holodomor has been recognized by Ukraine and 15 other countries as a genocide of the Ukrainian people carried out by the Soviet government.

List of genocides by death toll

bloodiest genocides in historymassacred
Others are listed in Genocides in history and List of genocides by death toll.
This list of genocides by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by genocide.

Rwandan genocide

genocideRwanda genocideRwanda
The term has been coined and applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the Indonesian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and after 1980 the Bosnian genocide, the Anfal genocide, the Darfur genocide, the Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide. In practice, this could include deaths from the deliberate infection of Tutsi women with HIV/AIDS through rape in the Rwandan Genocide or from the abuse and denial of food inflicted by ISIL on Yazidi sex slaves by ISIL's use of sexual slavery.
The genocide was organised by members of the core Hutu political elite, many of whom occupied positions at top levels of the national government.

Guatemalan genocide

genocide626 massacres against the Maya populationa policy
The term has been coined and applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the Indonesian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and after 1980 the Bosnian genocide, the Anfal genocide, the Darfur genocide, the Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide.
Former military dictator General Efrain Ríos Montt (1982–1983) was indicted for his role in the most intense stage of the genocide.

1971 Bangladesh genocide

1971 Bangladesh atrocitiesgenocideBangladesh genocide
The term has been coined and applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the Indonesian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and after 1980 the Bosnian genocide, the Anfal genocide, the Darfur genocide, the Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide.
There is an academic consensus that the events which took place during the Bangladesh Liberation War constituted a genocide, and warrant judicial accountability.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
The book describes the implementation of Nazi policies in occupied Europe, and cites earlier mass killings. After the Holocaust, which had been perpetrated by Nazi Germany and its allies prior to and during World War II, Lemkin successfully campaigned for the universal acceptance of international laws defining and forbidding genocides.
It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Bosnian genocide

genocideBosniagenocide against Bosnian Muslims
The term has been coined and applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the Indonesian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and after 1980 the Bosnian genocide, the Anfal genocide, the Darfur genocide, the Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide.
The ethnic cleansing campaign included extermination, unlawful confinement, mass rape, sexual assault, torture, plunder and destruction of private and public property, and inhumane treatment of civilians; the targeting of political leaders, intellectuals, and professionals; the unlawful deportation and transfer of civilians; the unlawful shelling of civilians; the unlawful appropriation and plunder of real and personal property; the destruction of homes and businesses; and the destruction of places of worship.

Anfal genocide

Al-Anfal CampaignAnfal campaignAnfal
The term has been coined and applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the Indonesian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and after 1980 the Bosnian genocide, the Anfal genocide, the Darfur genocide, the Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide.
The Anfal genocide was a genocide that killed between 50,000 and 182,000 Kurds as well as a couple of thousand Assyrians.

Armenian Genocide

ArmeniangenocideArmenians
The term has been coined and applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the Indonesian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and after 1980 the Bosnian genocide, the Anfal genocide, the Darfur genocide, the Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide. A near-uniform pattern has emerged throughout history in which men and adolescent boys are singled out for murder in the early stages, such as in the genocide of the Yazidis by Daesh, the Ottoman Turks’ attack on the Armenians, and the Burmese security forces’ attacks on the Rohingya.
Raphael Lemkin was moved specifically by the annihilation of the Armenians to define systematic and premeditated exterminations within legal parameters and to coin the word genocide in 1943.

Crimes against humanity

crime against humanityatrocitieshumanity
Before 1944, various terms, including "massacre," "extermination," and "crimes against humanity" were used to describe the intentional systematic killings.
War crimes, murder, massacres, dehumanization, genocide, ethnic cleansing, deportations, unethical human experimentation, extrajudicial punishments including summary executions, use of weapons of mass destruction, state terrorism or state sponsoring of terrorism, death squads, kidnappings and forced disappearances, use of child soldiers, unjust imprisonment, enslavement, torture, rape, political repression, racial discrimination, religious persecution and other human rights abuses may reach the threshold of crimes against humanity if they are part of a widespread or systematic practice.

Hybrid word

hybridhybrid termhybrid phrase
The hybrid word "genocide" is a combination of the Greek word γένος ("race, people") and the Latin suffix -caedo ("act of killing").

International Criminal Court

ICCICCtAssembly of States Parties
It contains an internationally recognized definition of genocide which has been incorporated into the national criminal legislation of many countries, and was also adopted by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which established the International Criminal Court (ICC).
The ICC has jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes of aggression.

Nuremberg trials

NurembergInternational Military TribunalNuremberg Trial
The word genocide was used in indictments at the Nuremberg trials, held from 1945, but solely as a descriptive term, not yet as a formal legal term.
the Nuremberg indictments also mention genocide (count three, war crimes: "the extermination of racial and national groups, against the civilian populations of certain occupied territories in order to destroy particular races and classes of people and national, racial, or religious groups, particularly Jews, Poles, and Gypsies and others.")

Mass killings under communist regimes

Communist mass killingsGenocide of Baltic peoplemass executions
The USSR argued that the Convention's definition should follow the etymology of the term, and may have feared greater international scrutiny of its own mass killings.
Terms used to define these killings include "mass killing", "democide", "politicide", "classicide" and a broad definition of "genocide".

Albigensian Crusade

crusadeCathar Crusadecrusade against the Albigensians
He referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history".
The Albigensian Crusade is considered by many historians to be an act of genocide against the Cathars.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
After the Holocaust, which had been perpetrated by Nazi Germany and its allies prior to and during World War II, Lemkin successfully campaigned for the universal acceptance of international laws defining and forbidding genocides.
This genocide is known as the Holocaust.

Rohingya genocide

genocidepersecution of Rohingya Muslims2017 Rohingya persecution in Myanmar
The term has been coined and applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the Indonesian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and after 1980 the Bosnian genocide, the Anfal genocide, the Darfur genocide, the Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide. A near-uniform pattern has emerged throughout history in which men and adolescent boys are singled out for murder in the early stages, such as in the genocide of the Yazidis by Daesh, the Ottoman Turks’ attack on the Armenians, and the Burmese security forces’ attacks on the Rohingya.
The 2017 persecution against the Rohingya Muslims and non-Muslims has also been termed as ethnic cleansing and genocide by various UN agencies, ICC officials, human rights groups, and governments.

William Schabas

Schabas, William A.WilliamWilliam A. Schabas
However leading genocide scholar William Schabas states: "Rigorous examination of the travaux fails to confirm a popular impression in the literature that the opposition to inclusion of political genocide was some Soviet machination. The Soviet views were also shared by a number of other States for whom it is difficult to establish any geographic or social common denominator: Lebanon, Sweden, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, the Philippines, the Dominican Republic, Iran, Egypt, Belgium, and Uruguay. The exclusion of political groups was in fact originally promoted by a non-governmental organization, the World Jewish Congress, and it corresponded to Raphael Lemkin's vision of the nature of the crime of genocide."
He is professor of international law at Middlesex University in the United Kingdom, professor of international human law and human rights at Leiden University in the Netherlands, and an internationally respected expert on human rights law, genocide and the death penalty.

Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL

Yazidi genocideYazidisgenocide of Yazidis
A near-uniform pattern has emerged throughout history in which men and adolescent boys are singled out for murder in the early stages, such as in the genocide of the Yazidis by Daesh, the Ottoman Turks’ attack on the Armenians, and the Burmese security forces’ attacks on the Rohingya. In practice, this could include deaths from the deliberate infection of Tutsi women with HIV/AIDS through rape in the Rwandan Genocide or from the abuse and denial of food inflicted by ISIL on Yazidi sex slaves by ISIL's use of sexual slavery.
The genocide led to the expulsion, flight and effective exile of the Yazidis from their ancestral lands in Northern Iraq whose women and girls were forced into sexual slavery by the Islamic State and whose men were killed by the thousands.

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

Rome StatuteArticle 98Statute of the International Criminal Court
It contains an internationally recognized definition of genocide which has been incorporated into the national criminal legislation of many countries, and was also adopted by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which established the International Criminal Court (ICC).
The Rome Statute established four core international crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

ISISISILIslamic State
In practice, this could include deaths from the deliberate infection of Tutsi women with HIV/AIDS through rape in the Rwandan Genocide or from the abuse and denial of food inflicted by ISIL on Yazidi sex slaves by ISIL's use of sexual slavery.
The United Nations holds ISIL responsible for committing human rights abuses, genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.