A report on Genocide

Aftermath of the 1941 Odessa massacre, in which Jewish deportees were killed outside Brizula (now Podilsk) during the Holocaust
Human skulls at the Nyamata Genocide Memorial in Rwanda
Members of the Sonderkommando burn corpses of Jews in pits at Auschwitz II-Birkenau, an extermination camp.
Armenian genocide victims
Nuon Chea, the Khmer Rouge's chief ideologist, before the Cambodian Genocide Tribunal on 5 December 2011
The Nazi leaders at the Palace of Justice, Nuremberg
The cemetery at the Srebrenica-Potočari Memorial and Cemetery to Genocide Victims
Victims of the 1994 Rwandan genocide
Rooms of the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum contain thousands of photos taken by the Khmer Rouge of their victims.
Skulls in the Choeung Ek
A mother with her sick baby at Abu Shouk IDP camp in North Darfur
Naked Soviet POWs held by the Nazis in Mauthausen concentration camp. Political scientist Adam Jones wrote: "[T]he murder of at least 3.3 million Soviet POWs is one of the least-known of modern genocides; there is still no full-length book on the subject in English."

Intentional destruction of a people—usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group—in whole or in part.

- Genocide
Aftermath of the 1941 Odessa massacre, in which Jewish deportees were killed outside Brizula (now Podilsk) during the Holocaust

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The Armenian genocide (pictured) was the first event officially condemned as a "crime against humanity".

Crimes against humanity

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Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are purposefully committed by a state, or on behalf of a state, as part of a widespread or systematic policy, typically directed against civilians, in times of war or peace.

Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are purposefully committed by a state, or on behalf of a state, as part of a widespread or systematic policy, typically directed against civilians, in times of war or peace.

The Armenian genocide (pictured) was the first event officially condemned as a "crime against humanity".
Leopold II, King of the Belgians and de facto owner of the Congo Free State, whose agents were accused of crimes against humanity
Nuremberg Trials. The defendants are in the dock. The main target of the prosecution was Hermann Göring (at the left edge on the first row of benches), considered to be the most important surviving official in the Third Reich after Hitler's death.
The defendants at the Tokyo International Tribunal. General Hideki Tojo was one of the main defendants, and is in the centre of the middle row.
Headquarters of the ICC in The Hague
Argentines commemorate victims of military junta, 24 March 2019

War crimes, murder, massacres, dehumanization, genocide, ethnic cleansing, deportations, unethical human experimentation, extrajudicial punishments including summary executions, use of weapons of mass destruction, state terrorism or state sponsoring of terrorism, death squads, kidnappings and forced disappearances, use of child soldiers, unjust imprisonment, enslavement, torture, rape, political repression, racial discrimination, religious persecution and other human rights abuses may reach the threshold of crimes against humanity if they are part of a widespread or systematic practice.

Participation in the Genocide Convention
Signed and ratified
Acceded or succeeded
Only signed

Genocide Convention

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Participation in the Genocide Convention
Signed and ratified
Acceded or succeeded
Only signed

The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG), or the Genocide Convention, is an international treaty that criminalizes genocide and obligates state parties to pursue the enforcement of its prohibition.

Nazi Germany

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The German state between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party controlled the country, transforming it into a dictatorship.

The German state between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party controlled the country, transforming it into a dictatorship.

Germany's territorial control at its greatest extent during World War II (late 1942):
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Adolf Hitler became Germany's head of state, with the title of Führer und Reichskanzler, in 1934.
Germany's territorial control at its greatest extent during World War II (late 1942):
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While the traditional German states were not formally abolished (excluding Lübeck in 1937), their constitutional rights and sovereignty were eroded and ultimately ended. Prussia was already under federal administration when Hitler came to power, providing a model for the process.
Joseph Goebbels, Reich Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda
A Nazi propaganda poster proclaiming that Danzig is German
German soldiers march near the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, 14 June 1940
Death and destruction during the Battle of Stalingrad, October 1942
German refugees in Bedburg, near Kleve, 19 February 1945
Map of the Greater German Reich with administrative divisions set by the Nazi Party, 1944
Public execution of 54 Poles in Rożki, Masovian Voivodeship (near Radom), German-occupied Poland, 1942
Heinrich Himmler, Hitler and Viktor Lutze perform the Nazi salute at the Nuremberg Rally, September 1934
Hitler, Göring, Goebbels and Rudolf Hess during a military parade in 1933
Chart showing the pseudo-scientific racial divisions used in the racial policies of Nazi Germany
A meeting of the four jurists who imposed Nazi ideology on the legal system of Germany (left to right: Roland Freisler, Franz Schlegelberger, Otto Georg Thierack, and Curt Rothenberger)
A column of tanks and other armoured vehicles of the Panzerwaffe near Stalingrad, 1942
IG Farben synthetic oil plant under construction at Buna Werke (1941). This plant was part of the complex at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Autobahn, late 1930s
(from left) Hitler; Robert Ley, head of the German Labour Front; Ferdinand Porsche, armaments manufacturer; and Hermann Göring, head of the Four Year Plan (1942)
Woman with Ostarbeiter badge at the IG Farben plant in Auschwitz
German loot stored at Schlosskirche Ellingen, Bavaria (April 1945)
Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses, April 1933. The posters say "Germans! Defend yourselves! Don't buy from Jews!"
Poster from the Nazi Party's Office of Racial Policy: "60 000 RM is what this person with hereditary illness costs the community in his lifetime. Fellow citizen, that is your money too."
A wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in the Buchenwald concentration camp liberated by the U.S. Army, 1945
Soviet prisoners of war in Mauthausen
The Nazi salute in school (1934): children were indoctrinated at an early age.
Young women of the Bund Deutscher Mädel (League of German Girls) practising gymnastics in 1941
Statues representing the ideal body were erected in the streets of Berlin for the 1936 Summer Olympics.
Prisoner barracks at Dachau Concentration Camp, where the Nazis established a dedicated clergy barracks for clerical opponents of the regime in 1940
General Erich Hoepner at the Volksgerichtshof in 1944
A Nazi book burning on 10 May 1933 in Berlin, as books by Jewish and leftist authors are burned
Plans for Berlin called for the Volkshalle (People's Hall) and a triumphal arch to be built at either end of a wide boulevard.
Leni Riefenstahl (behind cameraman) at the 1936 Summer Olympics
Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials

Genocide, mass murder, and large-scale forced labour became hallmarks of the regime.

International Criminal Court

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Intergovernmental organization and international tribunal seated in The Hague, Netherlands.

Intergovernmental organization and international tribunal seated in The Hague, Netherlands.

The premises of the International Criminal Court in The Hague, Netherlands. The ICC moved into this building in December 2015.
Song Sang-hyun was President of the Court from 2009 to 2015.
ICC prosecutors Fatou Bensouda and Luis Moreno Ocampo, with Estonia's Minister of Foreign Affairs, Urmas Paet, in 2012
The former (provisional) headquarters of the ICC in The Hague, in use until December 2015
The ICC issued an arrest warrant for Omar al-Bashir of Sudan over alleged war crimes in Darfur.
The UN Security Council referred the situation in Darfur to the ICC in 2005.

It is the first and only permanent international court with jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and the crime of aggression.

From the Auschwitz Album: Hungarian Jews arriving at Auschwitz II in German-occupied Poland, May 1944. Most were "selected" to go to the gas chambers. Camp prisoners are visible in their striped uniforms.

The Holocaust

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From the Auschwitz Album: Hungarian Jews arriving at Auschwitz II in German-occupied Poland, May 1944. Most were "selected" to go to the gas chambers. Camp prisoners are visible in their striped uniforms.
German-occupied Europe, 1942
The 23 defendants during the Doctors' trial, Nuremberg, 9 December 1946 – 20 August 1947
Antisemitic Christian Social Party placard from the 1920 Austrian legislative election: "Vote Social Christian. German Christians Save Austria!"
Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses: SA troopers urge a boycott outside Israel's Department Store, Berlin, 1 April 1933. All signs read: "Germans! Defend yourselves! Don't buy from Jews!"
The poster (c. 1937) reads: "60,000 RM is what this person with hereditary illness costs the community in his lifetime. Fellow citizen, that is your money too. Read Neues Volk, the monthly magazine of the Office of Racial Policy of the Nazi Party."
Czechoslovakian Jews at Croydon airport, England, 31 March 1939, before deportation
March or April 1938: Jews are forced to scrub the pavement in Vienna, Austria.
Potsdamer Straße 26, Berlin, the day after Kristallnacht, November 1938
Jewish women were stripped, beaten and raped in Lwów, occupied eastern Poland (later Lviv, Ukraine), during the Lviv pogroms, July 1941.
Jews arrive with their belongings at the Auschwitz II extermination camp, summer 1944, thinking they were being resettled.
Jewish women wearing yellow badges in occupied Paris, June 1942
Greek Jews from Saloniki are forced to exercise or dance, July 1942.
SS-Gruppenführer Otto Ohlendorf, commander of Einsatzgruppe D, pleads not guilty during the Einsatzgruppen trial, Nuremberg, 15 September 1947. He was executed in 1951.
Ivanhorod Einsatzgruppen photograph: Einsatzgruppe shooting a woman and child, near Ivangorod, Ukraine, 1942
The "stairs of death" at the Weiner Graben quarry, Mauthausen concentration camp, Austria, 1942
Bodies being pulled out of a train carrying Romanian Jews from the Iași pogrom, July 1941
11 December 1941: Adolf Hitler speaking at the Kroll Opera House to Reichstag members about war in the Pacific.
Am Großen Wannsee 56–58, Berlin
Captain Witold Pilecki
Jews from Carpathian Ruthenia on the selection ramp at Auschwitz II, c. May 1944. Women and children are lined up on one side, men on the other, waiting for the SS to determine who was fit for work. About 20 percent at Auschwitz were selected for work and the rest gassed.
A mass grave at Bergen-Belsen after the camp's liberation, April 1945
Heinrich Himmler inspects a POW camp in Russia, c. 1941.
Romani people being deported from Asperg, Germany, 22 May 1940
Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials, 1945–1946
Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin, 2016
Stolpersteine, Berlin-Mitte, 2011

The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide of European Jews during World War II.

Raphael Lemkin

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2008 plaque commemorating Lemkin's prewar residence, 6 Kredytowa Street, Warsaw, Poland
Dedication by Lemkin in "Axis Rule in Occupied Europe" to Max Huber, President of the International Committee of the Red Cross

Raphael Lemkin (Rafał Lemkin; 24 June 1900 – 28 August 1959) was a Polish lawyer who is best known for coining the term "genocide" and initiating the Genocide Convention, an interest spurred on after learning about the Armenian genocide and finding out that no international laws existed to prosecute the Ottoman leaders who had perpetrated these crimes.

A U.S. soldier observing victims of the Malmedy massacre (17 December 1944), where 84 U.S. prisoners of war were murdered by the Waffen-SS in Belgium

War crime

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A U.S. soldier observing victims of the Malmedy massacre (17 December 1944), where 84 U.S. prisoners of war were murdered by the Waffen-SS in Belgium
A ditch full of the bodies of Chinese civilians killed by Japanese soldiers in Suzhou, China, 1938
HRW wrote that the Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen that began on March 26, 2015, involved airstrikes in apparent violation of the laws of war.
Bodies of some of the hundreds of Vietnamese villagers who were killed by U.S. soldiers during the My Lai Massacre
Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, wanted by the ICC for war crimes and crimes against humanity
2013 Shahbag protests demanding the death penalty for the war criminals of the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War
A picture taken by the Polish Underground of Nazi Secret Police rounding up Polish intelligentsia at Palmiry near Warsaw in 1940 for mass execution (AB-Aktion)
Mass grave of USSR POWs, killed by Germans. Some 3.3 million Soviet POWs died in Nazi custody.

A war crime is a violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility for actions by combatants in action, such as intentionally killing civilians or intentionally killing prisoners of war, torture, taking hostages, unnecessarily destroying civilian property, deception by perfidy, wartime sexual violence, pillaging, and for any individual that is part of the command structure who orders any attempt to committing mass killings including genocide or ethnic cleansing, the granting of no quarter despite surrender, the conscription of children in the military and flouting the legal distinctions of proportionality and military necessity.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930

World War II

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Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930
Adolf Hitler at a German Nazi political rally in Nuremberg, August 1933
Benito Mussolini inspecting troops during the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935
The bombing of Guernica in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, sparked fears abroad in Europe that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties.
Japanese Imperial Army soldiers during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Red Army artillery unit during the Battle of Lake Khasan, 1938
Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured just before signing the Munich Agreement, 29 September 1938
German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (right) and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, after signing the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, 23 August 1939
Soldiers of the German Wehrmacht tearing down the border crossing into Poland, 1 September 1939
Soldiers of the Polish Army during the defence of Poland, September 1939
Finnish machine gun nest aimed at Soviet Red Army positions during the Winter War, February 1940
German advance into Belgium and Northern France, 10 May-4 June 1940, swept past the Maginot Line (shown in dark red)
London seen from St. Paul's Cathedral after the German Blitz, 29 December 1940
Soldiers of the British Commonwealth forces from the Australian Army's 9th Division during the Siege of Tobruk; North African Campaign, September 1941
German Panzer III of the Afrika Korps advancing across the North African desert, April-May 1941
European theatre of World War II animation map, 1939–1945 – Red: Western Allies and the Soviet Union after 1941; Green: Soviet Union before 1941; Blue: Axis powers
German soldiers during the invasion of the Soviet Union by the Axis powers, 1941
Soviet civilians leaving destroyed houses after a German bombardment during the Battle of Leningrad, 10 December 1942
Japanese soldiers entering Hong Kong, 8 December 1941
The USS Arizona (BB-39) was a total loss in the Japanese surprise air attack on the American Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Sunday 7 December 1941.
US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill seated at the Casablanca Conference, January 1943
Map of Japanese military advances through mid-1942
US Marines during the Guadalcanal Campaign, in the Pacific theatre, 1942
Red Army soldiers on the counterattack during the Battle of Stalingrad, February 1943
American 8th Air Force Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombing raid on the Focke-Wulf factory in Germany, 9 October 1943
U.S. Navy SBD-5 scout plane flying patrol over USS Washington (BB-56) and USS Lexington (CV-16) during the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, 1943
Red Army troops in a counter-offensive on German positions at the Battle of Kursk, July 1943
Ruins of the Benedictine monastery, during the Battle of Monte Cassino, Italian Campaign, May 1944
American troops approaching Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944
German SS soldiers from the Dirlewanger Brigade, tasked with suppressing the Warsaw Uprising against Nazi occupation, August 1944
General Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines during the Battle of Leyte, 20 October 1944
Yalta Conference held in February 1945, with Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 3 June 1945.
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki on 9 August 1945.
Ruins of Warsaw in 1945, after the deliberate destruction of the city by the occupying German forces
Defendants at the Nuremberg trials, where the Allied forces prosecuted prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany for crimes against humanity
Post-war border changes in Central Europe and creation of the Communist Eastern Bloc
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming the Israeli Declaration of Independence at the Independence Hall, 14 May 1948
World War II deaths
Bodies of Chinese civilians killed by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Nanking Massacre in December 1937
Schutzstaffel (SS) female camp guards removing prisoners' bodies from lorries and carrying them to a mass grave, inside the German Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, 1945
Prisoner identity photograph taken by the German SS of a Polish Catholic girl who died in Auschwitz. Approximately 230,000 children were held prisoner and used in forced labour and Nazi medical experiments.
Polish civilians wearing blindfolds photographed just before their execution by German soldiers in Palmiry forest, 1940
Soviet partisans hanged by the German army. The Russian Academy of Sciences reported in 1995 civilian victims in the Soviet Union at German hands totalled 13.7 million dead, twenty percent of the 68 million persons in the occupied Soviet Union.
B-29 Superfortress strategic bombers on the Boeing assembly line in Wichita, Kansas, 1944
A V-2 rocket launched from a fixed site in Peenemünde, 21 June 1943
Nuclear Gadget being raised to the top of the detonation "shot tower", at Alamogordo Bombing Range; Trinity nuclear test, New Mexico, July 1945

Tens of millions of people died due to genocides (including the Holocaust), starvation, massacres, and disease.

Audience makes a Nazi salute during Adolf Hitler's speech of 30 January 1939, in which he threatened "the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!"

Incitement to genocide

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Audience makes a Nazi salute during Adolf Hitler's speech of 30 January 1939, in which he threatened "the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!"
Jews killed during the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, described in the Stroop Report as "bandits destroyed in battle"
Wochenspruch der NSDAP, displayed 7–13 September 1941, quotes Hitler's prophecy speech on 30 January 1939: "If international finance Jewry inside and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, the result will be not the Bolshevization of the earth and thereby the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe."
Cemetery at the Srebrenica-Potočari Memorial Center
Human skulls at the Nyamata Genocide Memorial
Iranian men wear headbands which read "Death to Israel".
Streicher at the 1938 Nuremberg rally before the destruction of Hans-Sachs-Platz synagogue

Incitement to genocide is a crime under international law which prohibits inciting (encouraging) the commission of genocide.

Parties and signatories of the Statute

Rome Statute

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Treaty that established the International Criminal Court .

Treaty that established the International Criminal Court .

Parties and signatories of the Statute
Headquarters of the International Criminal Court in The Hague

The Rome Statute established four core international crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.