Genome

genomesgenetic materialgenomicgenome sequencegenomic sequencegenetic datagenetic make-upgenetic makeupgenome sequencesgenome sequencing
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.wikipedia
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RNA virus

RNA virusesRNARNA genome
It consists of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses). The genomes of RNA viruses can be either single-stranded or double-stranded RNA, and may contain one or more separate RNA molecules.
An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.

Genomics

genomicgenome biologygenomic analysis
The study of the genome is called genomics.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of biology focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.

Chromosome

chromosomeschromosomalChromosomal number
The Oxford Dictionary suggests the name is a blend of the words gene and chromosome.
A chromosome is a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
The Oxford Dictionary suggests the name is a blend of the words gene and chromosome. The genome includes both the genes (the coding regions) and the noncoding DNA, as well as mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA.
Some viruses store their genome in RNA instead of DNA and some gene products are functional non-coding RNAs.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
It consists of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses).
Many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome.

Omics

-omicsomic-ome
However, see omics for a more thorough discussion.
The related suffix -ome is used to address the objects of study of such fields, such as the genome, proteome or metabolome respectively.

Genetics

geneticgeneticistgenetically
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
In 1928, Frederick Griffith discovered the phenomenon of transformation (see Griffith's experiment): dead bacteria could transfer genetic material to "transform" other still-living bacteria.

Phi X 174

ΦX174bacteriophage φX174Phage Φ-X174
The next year, Fred Sanger completed the first DNA-genome sequence: Phage Φ-X174, of 5386 base pairs.
The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus that infects Escherichia coli, and the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced.

Haemophilus influenzae

H. influenzaeHaemophilus influenzae type BHemophilus influenzae
The first complete genome sequences among all three domains of life were released within a short period during the mid-1990s: The first bacterial genome to be sequenced was that of Haemophilus influenzae, completed by a team at The Institute for Genomic Research in 1995.
This species was the first free-living organism to have its entire genome sequenced.

Arabidopsis thaliana

ArabidopsisA. thalianaThale cress
Among the thousands of completed genome sequencing projects include those for rice, a mouse, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the puffer fish, and the bacteria E. coli.
thaliana'' has a relatively small genome of approximately 135 megabase pairs (Mbp).

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
It consists of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses).
The first of these recognised was 5-methylcytosine, which was found in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1925.

Botany

botanistbotanicalplant biology
The term genome was created in 1920 by Hans Winkler, professor of botany at the University of Hamburg, Germany.
With the rise of the related molecular-scale biological approaches of molecular biology, genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, the relationship between the plant genome and most aspects of the biochemistry, physiology, morphology and behaviour of plants can be subjected to detailed experimental analysis.

Human genome

genomehuman DNAhuman geneticist
A major step toward that goal was the completion in 2007 of the full genome of James D. Watson, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. The Human Genome Project was organized to map and to sequence the human genome.
Human genomes include both protein-coding DNA genes and noncoding DNA.

Hans Winkler

Hans Karl Albert Winkler
The term genome was created in 1920 by Hans Winkler, professor of botany at the University of Hamburg, Germany.
He is remembered for coining the term 'genome' in 1920, by making a portmanteau of the words gene and chromosome.

Gene mapping

mappingphysical mapgenome map
The Human Genome Project was organized to map and to sequence the human genome.
The essence of all genome mapping is to place a collection of molecular markers onto their respective positions on the genome.

Reference genome

reference assemblyGenome referenceHuman reference genome
Reference genome sequences and maps continue to be updated, removing errors and clarifying regions of high allelic complexity.
A reference genome (also known as a reference assembly) is a digital nucleic acid sequence database, assembled by scientists as a representative example of a species' set of genes.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Viral genomes can be composed of either RNA or DNA.
While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, or virions, consisting of: (i) the genetic material, long molecules of DNA or RNA that encode the structure of the proteins by which the virus acts; (ii) a protein coat, the capsid, which surrounds and protects the genetic material; and in some cases (iii) an outside envelope of lipids.

Molecular biology

molecular biologistmolecularmolecular microbiology
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
The plasmid may be integrated into the genome, resulting in a stable transfection, or may remain independent of the genome, called transient transfection.

Double-stranded RNA viruses

double-stranded RNA virusdouble-stranded RNAdsRNA
The genomes of RNA viruses can be either single-stranded or double-stranded RNA, and may contain one or more separate RNA molecules.
Double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses are a diverse group of viruses that vary widely in host range (animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria), genome segment number (one to twelve) and virion organization (T-number, capsid layers or turrets).

Human Genome Project

human genomeELSIsequencing of the human genome
The Human Genome Project was organized to map and to sequence the human genome.
Ongoing sequencing led to the announcement of the essentially complete genome on April 14, 2003, two years earlier than planned.

DNA transposon

DNA (Class II) transposon
DNA transposons encode a transposase enzyme between inverted terminal repeats.
DNA transposons are DNA sequences, sometimes referred to "jumping genes," that can move and integrate to different locations within the genome.

Non-coding DNA

junk DNAnoncoding DNAnon-coding
The genome includes both the genes (the coding regions) and the noncoding DNA, as well as mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA.
Though the fruitfulness of the term "junk DNA" has been questioned on the grounds that it provokes a strong a priori assumption of total non-functionality and though some have recommended using more neutral terminology such as "non-coding DNA" instead; "junk DNA" remains a label for the portions of a genome sequence for which no discernible function has been identified and that through comparative genomics analysis appear under no functional constraint suggesting that the sequence itself has provided no adaptive advantage.

Bacterial genome

bacterial genomesBacterial genome sizebacterial genomic
The genome size is positively correlated with the morphological complexity among prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes; however, after mollusks and all the other higher eukaryotes above, this correlation is no longer effective.
Bacterial genomes are generally smaller and less variant in size among species when compared with genomes of eukaryotes.

Genome size

genome reductionreducedgenome degradation
Genome size is the total number of DNA base pairs in one copy of a haploid genome.
Genome size is the total amount of DNA contained within one copy of a single complete genome.

Retrotransposon

retrotransposonsSINEretroelements
Retrotransposons can be transcribed into RNA, which are then duplicated at another site into the genome.
Retrotransposons (also called Class I transposable elements or transposons via RNA intermediates) are genetic elements that can amplify themselves in a genome and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms.