Gentry

genteelgentlemanlanded gentrycountry squiregentilitygentlegentriesminor gentryancient familyelite
Gentry (from Old French genterie, from gentil, "high-born, noble") are "well-born, genteel and well-bred people" of high social class, especially in the past.wikipedia
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Landed gentry

landownergentrylanded
In the United Kingdom, the term gentry refers to the landed gentry, the majority of the land-owning social class who were typically armigerous (having a coat of arms), but did not have titles of nobility.
The term gentry, some of whom were landed, included four separate groups in England:

Peter Coss

P.R. Coss
The historical term gentry by itself, so Peter Coss argues, is a construct that historians have applied loosely to rather different societies.
Peter R. Coss is a British historian, specialising in the history of the English medieval gentry.

Nobility

noblemannoblenobles
The gentility is primarily formed on the bases of the medieval societies' two higher estates of the realm, nobility and clergy, both exempted from taxation.
During the early Renaissance, duelling established the status of a respectable gentleman, and was an accepted manner of resolving disputes.

Szlachta

szlachcicnoblePolish nobility
Some upper classes were almost entirely untitled, for example, the Szlachta of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
This mistaken practice began due to the inferior economic status of many szlachta members compared to that of the nobility in other European countries (see also Estates of the Realm regarding wealth and nobility).

Hidalgo (nobility)

hidalgohidalgoshidalguia
In Spanish nobility and former Portuguese nobility, see hidalgos and infanzones.
In time, the term included the lower-ranking gentry, the untitled, lower stratum of the nobility who were exempted from taxation.

Manorialism

manormanorsmanorial
Gentry, in its widest connotation, refers to people of good social position connected to landed estates (see manorialism), upper levels of the clergy, and "gentle" families of long descent who never obtained the official right to bear a coat of arms.

Patrician (post-Roman Europe)

patricianpatricianspatriciate
The adjective patrician ("of or like a person of high social rank") describes the governing elites in a medieval metropolis, such as those of the free cities of Italy (Venice and Genoa), and the free imperial cities of Germany and Switzerland, and the Hanseatic League, which were different from the gentry.

Peerage of England

peerEnglish peerEngland
Linguistically, the word gentry arose to identify the social stratum created by the very small number, by the standards of Continental Europe, of the Peerage of England, and of the parts of Britain, where nobility and titles are inherited by a single person, rather than the family, as usual in Europe.

Swedish name

Surnames in Swedennames to be given to Swedish childrenSwedish family name
Surnames in Sweden can be traced to the 15th century, when they were first used by the Gentry (Frälse), i.e., priests and nobles.
At about the same time, people of the Scandinavian middle classes, particularly artisans and town dwellers, adopted family names in imitation of the gentry.

Tenant farmer

tenant farmerstenant farmingtenant
The estates were often (but not always) made up of tenanted farms, in which case the gentleman could live entirely off rent income.
Historically, rural society utilised a three tier structure of landowners (nobility, gentry, yeomanry), tenant farmers, and farmworkers.

English Civil War

Civil WarCivil WarsEnglish Revolution
Many of the original English colonists considered members of the First Families of Virginia migrated to the Colony of Virginia during the English Civil War and English Interregnum period (1642–60).
By the 17th century, Parliament's tax-raising powers had come to be derived from the fact that the gentry was the only stratum of society with the ability and authority to collect and remit the most meaningful forms of taxation then available at the local level.

Old money

wealthy and affluent American familieswealthiest and most affluent American familiesfamily money
To a degree, gentleman signified a man with an income derived from landed property, a legacy or some other source and was thus independently wealthy and did not need to work.
Old money (French: vieux riche) is "the inherited wealth of established upper-class families (i.e. gentry, patriciate)" or "a person, family, or lineage possessing inherited wealth".

Imperial, royal and noble ranks

ranknoble titlehigh nobility
In the United Kingdom, the term gentry refers to the landed gentry, the majority of the land-owning social class who were typically armigerous (having a coat of arms), but did not have titles of nobility.

Gentlewoman

gentlewomengentlegentle-woman
The closely related English word "gentry" derives from the Old French genterise, gentelise, with much of the meaning of the French noblesse and the German Adel, but without the strict technical requirements of those traditions, such as quarters of nobility.

Esquire

Esq.EsqArmiger
Esquire (abbreviated Esq.) is a term derived from the French "écuyer" (which also gave equerry) the lowest designation for a nobleman, referring only to males, and used to denote a high but indeterminate social status.
Although esquire is the English translation of the French écuyer, the latter indicated legal membership in the nobilities of ancien régime France and contemporaneous Belgium, whereas an esquire belongs to the British gentry rather than to its nobility, albeit that "gentry" in England means untitled nobility.

Western Ukrainian clergy

clerical familypriestspriestly families
The Western Ukrainian Clergy of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church were a hereditary tight-knit social caste that dominated western Ukrainian society from the late eighteenth until the mid-20th centuries, following the reforms instituted by Joseph II, Emperor of Austria.

Estate (land)

estateestatescountry estate
The landed gentry is a traditional British social class consisting of gentlemen in the original sense; that is, those who owned land in the form of country estates to such an extent that they were not required to actively work, except in an administrative capacity on their own lands.

Forms of address in the United Kingdom

courtesy titleaddressedform of address
Both Captain Mark Phillips and Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence, the respective first and second husbands of HRH Princess Anne, lacked any rank of peerage at the time of their marriage to Princess Anne.

Yeoman

yeomenyeoman farmeryeoman farmers
By contrast, in contemporary feudal continental Europe, the divide between commoners and gentry was far wider: though a middle class existed, it was less esteemed than the yeoman of England of that time.

Lord of the manor

lords of the manorlordlordship of the manor
The foundational charter created an aristocracy of lords of the manor for Maryland.

Landed property

landed estatelanded proprietorlanded
Gentry, in its widest connotation, refers to people of good social position connected to landed estates (see manorialism), upper levels of the clergy, and "gentle" families of long descent who never obtained the official right to bear a coat of arms. To a degree, gentleman signified a man with an income derived from landed property, a legacy or some other source and was thus independently wealthy and did not need to work.

Aristocracy

aristocraticaristocrataristocrats