Geocentric orbit

GeocentricEarth orbitEarth-orbitorbitorbitalaltitudeorbital altitudeEarth's orbitorbitsEarth orbits
A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.wikipedia
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Space debris

orbital debrisspace junkdebris
In 1997 NASA estimated there were approximately 2,465 artificial satellite payloads orbiting the Earth and 6,216 pieces of space debris as tracked by the Goddard Space Flight Center.
Below 2000 km Earth-altitude, pieces of debris are denser than meteoroids; most are dust from solid rocket motors, surface erosion debris like paint flakes, and frozen coolant from RORSAT (nuclear-powered satellites).

Low Earth orbit

Low EarthLEOlow-Earth orbit
For a low Earth orbit, this velocity is about 7800 m/s; by contrast, the fastest manned airplane speed ever achieved (excluding speeds achieved by deorbiting spacecraft) was 2200 m/s in 1967 by the North American X-15.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an Earth-centered orbit with an altitude of or less (approximately one-third of the radius of Earth), or with at least 11.25 periods per day (an orbital period of 128 minutes or less) and an eccentricity less than 0.25.

Satellite

satellitesartificial satelliteartificial satellites
A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.
The first satellite, Sputnik 1, was put into orbit around Earth and was therefore in geocentric orbit.

Orbit

orbitsorbital motionplanetary motion
A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.

Highly elliptical orbit

Highly EllipticalHEOhighly elliptical Earth orbit
A special case of high Earth orbit is the highly elliptical orbit, where altitude at perigee is less than 2,000 km.
A highly elliptical orbit (HEO) is an elliptic orbit with high eccentricity, usually referring to one around Earth.

Supersynchronous orbit

supersynchronousGeosynchronous-belt graveyard orbitSuper
:::Supersynchronous orbit - A disposal / storage orbit above GSO/GEO.
One particular supersynchronous orbital regime of significant economic value to Earth commerce is a band of near-circular Geocentric orbits beyond the Geosynchronous belt—with perigee altitude above 36100 km, approximately 300 km above synchronous altitude

List of orbits

Orbital mechanics

astrodynamicsastrodynamicistorbital dynamics
For example, simple atmospheric drag is another complicating factor for objects in low Earth orbit.

Heliocentric orbit

Heliocentrictrans-Mars injectionsolar orbit
A spacecraft launched from Earth with this velocity would travel some distance away from it, but follow it around the Sun in the same heliocentric orbit.

Earth's orbit

Earth

Earth's surfaceterrestrialworld
A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.

Moon

lunarthe MoonLuna
A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.

Goddard Space Flight Center

GSFCNASA Goddard Space Flight CenterNASA Goddard
In 1997 NASA estimated there were approximately 2,465 artificial satellite payloads orbiting the Earth and 6,216 pieces of space debris as tracked by the Goddard Space Flight Center.

Atmospheric entry

atmospheric reentryreentryre-entry
Over 16,291 previously launched objects have decayed into the Earth's atmosphere.

Atmosphere

atmosphericatmospheresplanetary atmospheres
Over 16,291 previously launched objects have decayed into the Earth's atmosphere.

Centripetal force

centripetalbanked turncentrifugal
A spacecraft enters orbit when its centripetal acceleration due to gravity is less than or equal to the centrifugal acceleration due to the horizontal component of its velocity.

Acceleration

decelerationacceleratem/s 2
A spacecraft enters orbit when its centripetal acceleration due to gravity is less than or equal to the centrifugal acceleration due to the horizontal component of its velocity.

Gravity

gravitationgravitationalgravitational force
A spacecraft enters orbit when its centripetal acceleration due to gravity is less than or equal to the centrifugal acceleration due to the horizontal component of its velocity.

Centrifugal force

centrifugalcentrifugal accelerationcentrifugal effect
A spacecraft enters orbit when its centripetal acceleration due to gravity is less than or equal to the centrifugal acceleration due to the horizontal component of its velocity.

North American X-15

X-15North American X-15A-2X-15 rocket plane
For a low Earth orbit, this velocity is about 7800 m/s; by contrast, the fastest manned airplane speed ever achieved (excluding speeds achieved by deorbiting spacecraft) was 2200 m/s in 1967 by the North American X-15.

Joule

JkJMJ
The energy required to reach Earth orbital velocity at an altitude of 600 km is about 36 MJ/kg, which is six times the energy needed merely to climb to the corresponding altitude.

Escape velocity

escapeEarth's escape velocityescape velocities
The escape velocity required to pull free of Earth's gravitational field altogether and move into interplanetary space is about 11200 m/s.

Altitude

high altitudealtitudeshigh-altitude
;Altitude: as used here, the height of an object above the average surface of the Earth's oceans.

Analemma

earliest and latest sunrise and sunsetanalemaAnalemma calendar
;Analemma: a term in astronomy used to describe the plot of the positions of the Sun on the celestial sphere throughout one year.

Astronomy

astronomicalastronomerastronomers
;Analemma: a term in astronomy used to describe the plot of the positions of the Sun on the celestial sphere throughout one year.