Geodesic dome

The Montreal Biosphère, formerly the American Pavilion of Expo 67, by R. Buckminster Fuller, on Île Sainte-Hélène, Montreal, Quebec
Spaceship Earth at Epcot
The Climatron greenhouse at Missouri Botanical Gardens, built in 1960 and designed by Thomas C. Howard of Synergetics, Inc., inspired the domes in the science fiction movie Silent Running.
Science World in Vancouver, built for Expo 86, and inspired by Buckminster Fuller's Geodesic dome
RISE, public art designed by Wolfgang Buttress located in Belfast consists of two spheres which also utilise Buckminster Fuller's Geodesic dome
Long Island Green Dome
Buckminster Fuller's own home, undergoing restoration after deterioration

Hemispherical thin-shell structure based on a geodesic polyhedron.

- Geodesic dome

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Buckminster Fuller

American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, inventor, philosopher, critic of work, and futurist.

Fuller in 1972
Fuller c. 1910
A 1933 Dymaxion prototype.
The Montreal Biosphère by Buckminster Fuller, 1967.
Fuller's home in Carbondale.
Gravestone (see Trim tab).
A geodesic sphere
The Dymaxion car, c.1933, artist Diego Rivera shown entering the car, carrying coat.
A Dymaxion house at The Henry Ford.
Buckminsterfullerene is a type of fullerene with the formula C60. The names are homages to Buckminster Fuller, whose geodesic domes they resemble.
A Dymaxion house at The Henry Ford.

Fuller developed numerous inventions, mainly architectural designs, and popularized the widely known geodesic dome; carbon molecules known as fullerenes were later named by scientists for their structural and mathematical resemblance to geodesic spheres.

Thin-shell structure

Thin-shell structures (also called plate and shell structures) are lightweight constructions using shell elements.

Shell structure of the TWA Flight Center Building by Eero Saarinen, John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York
The Forest Opera, an open-air amphitheatre in Sopot, Poland, with a membrane roof.
Great Court, with a lattice thin-shell roof by Buro Happold with Norman Foster, British Museum, London

Lattice shell structures, also called gridshell structures, often in the form of a geodesic dome or a hyperboloid structure


Theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, Florida.

The park's Spaceship Earth and entry plaza.
The park's Spaceship Earth and entry plaza.
The entrance plaza to Epcot in 2000.
Epcot during the annual Flower and Garden Festival
The Walt Disney World Monorail System passes through World Celebration.
Glass pyramids of Imagination! Pavilion with the jumping fountains in the foreground
The conservatory-inspired architecture of The Land Pavilion
Curvatures and planetary figures of Mission: Space Pavilion
Wonders of Xandar Pavilion
The Seas Pavilion

The park is represented by Spaceship Earth, a geodesic sphere.

Geodesic polyhedron

Convex polyhedron made from triangles.

A skeletal polyhedron (specifically, a rhombicuboctahedron) drawn by Leonardo da Vinci to illustrate a book by Luca Pacioli

The most well-known may be the geodesic domes designed by Buckminster Fuller, which geodesic polyhedra are named after.

Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station

United States scientific research station at the South Pole of the Earth.

Geographic South Pole
The communication office at the South Pole
The main entrance to the former geodesic dome ramped down from the surface level. The base of the dome was originally at the surface level of the ice cap, but the base had been slowly buried by snow and ice.
An aerial view of the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station taken in about 1983. The central dome is shown along with the arches, with various storage buildings, and other auxiliary buildings such as garages and hangars.
The dome in January 2009, as seen from the new elevated station.
Ceremonial South Pole (the dome in the background was dismantled in 2009–2010).
January 2010: The last section of the old dome, before it was removed the next day.
An aerial view of the Amundsen–Scott Station in January 2005. The older domed station is visible on the right-hand side of this photo.
The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station during the 2007–2008 summer season.
A photo of the station at night. The new station can be seen in the far left, the electric power plant is in the center, and the old vehicle mechanic's garage in the lower right. The green light in the sky is part of the aurora australis.

The station was moved in 1975 to the newly constructed Buckminster Fuller geodesic dome 50 m wide by 16 m high, with 14 x steel archways.

Henry J. Kaiser

American industrialist who became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding.

Historical marker outside Kaiser's childhood home
Kaiser was born in this house near Canajoharie, New York.
Kaiser-built Liberty ships being outfitted, 1942
Kaiser's name in script on the front of a 1951 Henry J automobile
A 1951 Henry J automobile
The Kaiser Center in downtown Oakland served as the headquarters of Kaiser Industries. Up to that time, it was Oakland's tallest building, as well as "the largest office tower west of Chicago".

Kaiser constructed one of the first commercially practical geodesic domes in the United States at this resort and used it as a theater.

Expo 67

Commonly known, was a general exhibition, Category One World's Fair held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from April 27 to October 29, 1967.

Official Expo 67 Logo
Expo 67 passport
The Expo 67 site on Notre Dame Island with the Canada, Quebec and Ontario pavilions in view
Habitat 67, a housing complex built for Expo 67
The Supremes (L to R: Florence Ballard, Mary Wilson, and Diana Ross) performing "The Happening", broadcast live from Expo 67 on The Ed Sullivan Show on Sunday, May 7, 1967
Site map of Expo 67, highlighting 20 of the 90 pavilions
Most visited: USSR Pavilion; the Expo 67 Soviet pavilion was disassembled after the fair closed, and moved to Moscow to become the Moscow Pavilion at the All-Russia Exhibition Centre.
2nd most visited: Canada Pavilion, shown with Ontario and Western Provinces pavilions
3rd most visited: USA Pavilion (with minirail)
Place des Nations as it appeared in 2006
The former Expo 67 American Pavilion became the Montreal Biosphère, an environmental museum on Saint Helen's Island.
In 1992, the Pavilion de la France was refurbished and is now the home of the Montreal Casino

Expo 67 featured 90 pavilions representing Man and His World themes, nations, corporations, and industries including the U.S. pavilion, a geodesic dome designed by Buckminster Fuller.


Shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope.

A modern two-person, lightweight hiking dome tent; it is tied to rocks as there is nowhere to drive stakes on this rock shelf
Roman Army leather tents, depicted on Trajan's Column.
A Berber tent near Zagora, Morocco
U.S. Army tent with constructed wooden entrance, air conditioner, and sandbags for protection. Victory Base, Baghdad, Iraq (April 2004).
Insulated tent for heating personnel. Central military district. Siberia
A simple tented shelter
Detail of an early 18th-century tent in the District Museum in Tarnów in Poland, richly decorated in Muslim motifs and equipped with windows – an example of luxury tent-making for the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's magnateria.
A Sami family in front of goahti. Photo was taken around 1900 in northern Scandinavia.
A variety of dome tents. Small dome and tunnel tents are the most popular tents amongst travellers due to their light weight and quick/easy placement
Junjik Valley man and wall tent. Picture from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, July 1973
A wooden stake supporting a tent.
A Nez Perce tipi
A large family tent for car-camping, with a portable gazebo.
A small, two-person, backpacking tent
A gazebo provides a useful shelter
A dining fly
Typical lightweight and trekking tent designs: 1. geodesic tent, 2. dome tent, 3. tunnel tent, 4. ridge tent, 5. pyramid tent
Small rigid pole tent used as a garage.
Wild camping with a dome tent in Sierra Nevada National Park
Tunnel tent
Tent used by mountaineers in Nepal
Inflatable airbeam tunnel tent
A tent from Boulanger's painting C'est Un Emir.
U.S. Army pup tent in World War II
The Big Top of Billy Smart's Circus Cambridge 2004
WOMEX 15 tent - Budapest
Wedding tent in Armenia
A typical 20'x20' high peak frame tent.
Historical reenactment tents at Koprivnica Renaissance Festival, Croatia

Geodesic tents are essentially dome tents with two or more extra poles which criss-cross the normal two poles to help support the basic shape and minimise the amount of unsupported fabric. This makes them more suitable for use in snowy conditions and in strong winds. To help withstand strong winds they are rarely more than 120 or high.

Montreal Biosphere

Museum dedicated to the environment in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Biosphere at sunset

The museum's geodesic dome was designed by Buckminster Fuller.


Second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec.

Jacques Cartier at Hochelaga. Arriving in 1535, Cartier was the first European to visit the area.
French authorities surrender the city of Montreal to the British after the Articles of Capitulation was signed in 1760.
View of Lachine Canal in 1826, a year after it opened. It bypassed the rapids west of the city, linking Montreal with other continental markets.
Political protests from Tories led to the burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal in 1849.
An anti-conscription rally in Montreal, 1917. During both World Wars, the city saw protest against the implementation of conscription.
Lighting of the Olympic Torch inside Montreal's Olympic Stadium. The city hosted the 1976 Summer Olympics.
The island of Montreal at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa rivers.
Winters in Montreal bring cold, snowy, windy, and at times, icy weather.
Many colonial era buildings can be found in Old Montreal with several dating as far back as the late 17th century.
Habitat 67 is a model community and housing complex developed for Expo 67 World Fair.
Map of boroughs & neighbourhoods on the island of Montreal.
A view of Downtown Montreal from Mont Royal. Many neighbourhoods, including downtown, are located in the borough of Ville-Marie.
Place Jacques-Cartier is a major public square and attraction in Old Montreal.
View of Mont-Royal's eastern slope from the George-Étienne Cartier Monument. The park is one of Montreal's largest open space reserves.
The Port of Montreal is one of the largest inland ports in the world, handling over 26 million tonnes of cargo annually.
Tour de la Bourse has been home to the Montreal Exchange from 1965 to 2018, subsequently also including offices of various companies, entities and professional firms.
Montreal Fireworks Festival is the world's largest annual fireworks festival. The city hosts a number of festivals annually.
View of the Notre-Dame Basilica from Place d'Armes. The number of churches in Montreal led it to be called "the city of a hundred steeples".
Opened in 1996, the Bell Centre is a sports and entertainment complex, and also serves as the home arena for the Montreal Canadiens.
Montreal is the site of the Canadian Grand Prix, an annual Formula One auto race.
The Olympic Stadium was built for the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. It is used by MLS's CF Montréal for select games.
Completed in 1878, Montreal City Hall is the seat of local government.
Established in 1821, McGill University is the oldest operating university in Montreal.
Université de Montréal from the Montreal Metro station. The institution is the largest university in the city.
Montreal serves as a hub for Quebec's autoroute system of controlled-access highways.
A train departs from Acadie station. The Montreal Metro has 68 stations and four lines.
An Air Canada flight flies past the company's corporate headquarters, located at Montréal–Trudeau International Airport.
Central Station is a major inter-city and commuter rail hub for the city.

Though most pavilions were temporary structures, several have become landmarks, including Buckminster Fuller's geodesic dome U.S. Pavilion, now the Montreal Biosphere, and Moshe Safdie's striking Habitat 67 apartment complex.