Geographic information system

GISgeographic information systemsgeographical information systemgeographical information systemsGeographic Information Systems (GIS)Geographic Information System (GIS)geographic informationGIS datageographical informationgeospatial data
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.wikipedia
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Roger Tomlinson

The first known use of the term "geographic information system" was by Roger Tomlinson in the year 1968 in his paper "A Geographic Information System for Regional Planning". Developed by Dr. Roger Tomlinson, it was called the Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) and was used to store, analyze, and manipulate data collected for the Canada Land Inventory – an effort to determine the land capability for rural Canada by mapping information about soils, agriculture, recreation, wildlife, waterfowl, forestry and land use at a scale of 1:50,000.
Roger F. Tomlinson, (17 November 1933 – 7 February 2014) was an English geographer and the primary originator of modern computerised geographic information systems (GIS), and has been acknowledged as the "father of GIS."

Cartography

cartographercartographicmapping
While the basic elements of topography and theme existed previously in cartography, the John Snow map was unique, using cartographic methods not only to depict but also to analyze clusters of geographically dependent phenomena.
Modern cartography constitutes many theoretical and practical foundations of geographic information systems.

Geographic information science

Geographic Information Science (GIScience)GISciencegeographic information
GIS (more commonly GIScience) sometimes refers to geographic information science (GIScience), the science underlying geographic concepts, applications, and systems.
It can be contrasted with geographic information systems (GIS), which are software tools.

Canada Geographic Information System

Canadian Geographic Information System
Developed by Dr. Roger Tomlinson, it was called the Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) and was used to store, analyze, and manipulate data collected for the Canada Land Inventory – an effort to determine the land capability for rural Canada by mapping information about soils, agriculture, recreation, wildlife, waterfowl, forestry and land use at a scale of 1:50,000.
The Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) was an early geographic information system (GIS) developed for the Government of Canada beginning in the early 1960s.

GRASS GIS

GRASSr.sun
By the late 1970s two public domain GIS systems (MOSS and GRASS GIS) were in development, and by the early 1980s, M&S Computing (later Intergraph) along with Bentley Systems Incorporated for the CAD platform, Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), CARIS (Computer Aided Resource Information System), MapInfo Corporation and ERDAS (Earth Resource Data Analysis System) emerged as commercial vendors of GIS software, successfully incorporating many of the CGIS features, combining the first generation approach to separation of spatial and attribute information with a second generation approach to organizing attribute data into database structures.
Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (commonly termed GRASS GIS) is a geographic information system (GIS) software suite used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing, producing graphics and maps, spatial and temporal modeling, and visualizing.

Map Overlay and Statistical System

MOSS
By the late 1970s two public domain GIS systems (MOSS and GRASS GIS) were in development, and by the early 1980s, M&S Computing (later Intergraph) along with Bentley Systems Incorporated for the CAD platform, Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), CARIS (Computer Aided Resource Information System), MapInfo Corporation and ERDAS (Earth Resource Data Analysis System) emerged as commercial vendors of GIS software, successfully incorporating many of the CGIS features, combining the first generation approach to separation of spatial and attribute information with a second generation approach to organizing attribute data into database structures.
The Map Overlay and Statistical System (MOSS), is a GIS software technology.

Esri

ESRI ArcGIS Server 10ESRI’s
By the late 1970s two public domain GIS systems (MOSS and GRASS GIS) were in development, and by the early 1980s, M&S Computing (later Intergraph) along with Bentley Systems Incorporated for the CAD platform, Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), CARIS (Computer Aided Resource Information System), MapInfo Corporation and ERDAS (Earth Resource Data Analysis System) emerged as commercial vendors of GIS software, successfully incorporating many of the CGIS features, combining the first generation approach to separation of spatial and attribute information with a second generation approach to organizing attribute data into database structures.
Esri (, a.k.a. Environmental Systems Research Institute) is an international supplier of geographic information system (GIS) software, web GIS and geodatabase management applications.

List of geographic information systems software

GIS softwarefree, open-source GIS packagestypes of GIS software
More recently, a growing number of free, open-source GIS packages run on a range of operating systems and can be customized to perform specific tasks.
GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data.

List of GIS data sources

geospatial data
Increasingly geospatial data and mapping applications are being made available via the World Wide Web (see ).
This is a list of GIS data sources (including some geoportals) that provide information sets that can be used in geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial databases for purposes of geospatial analysis and cartographic mapping.

Web mapping

online mapmappingmapping service
Increasingly geospatial data and mapping applications are being made available via the World Wide Web (see ).
Web mapping is the process of using the maps delivered by geographic information systems (GIS) in World Wide Web.

Canada Land Inventory

Developed by Dr. Roger Tomlinson, it was called the Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) and was used to store, analyze, and manipulate data collected for the Canada Land Inventory – an effort to determine the land capability for rural Canada by mapping information about soils, agriculture, recreation, wildlife, waterfowl, forestry and land use at a scale of 1:50,000.
Land capability for agriculture, forestry, land-use, recreation, wildlife (ungulates and waterfowl) were mapped The large amount of data generated by the CLI saw the early adoption of the world's first geographic information system (GIS), called the Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS).

Harvard Graduate School of Design

Graduate School of DesignHarvard University Graduate School of DesignHarvard GSD
In 1964 Howard T. Fisher formed the Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis at the Harvard Graduate School of Design (LCGSA 1965–1991), where a number of important theoretical concepts in spatial data handling were developed, and which by the 1970s had distributed seminal software code and systems, such as SYMAP, GRID, and ODYSSEY – that served as sources for subsequent commercial development—to universities, research centers and corporations worldwide.
The school's now defunct Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis (LCGSA) is widely recognized as the research/development environment from which the now-commercialized technology of geographic information systems (GIS) emerged in the late 1960s and 1970s.

Elevation

hightopographic elevationelevated
Locations or extents in the Earth space–time may be recorded as dates/times of occurrence, and x, y, and z coordinates representing, longitude, latitude, and elevation, respectively.
GIS or geographic information system is a computer system that allows for visualizing, manipulating, capturing, and storage of data with associated attributes.

Shapefile

SHPShape Filesshapefiles
For a list of popular GIS file formats, such as shapefiles, see.
It is developed and regulated by Esri as a (mostly) open specification for data interoperability among Esri and other GIS software products.

Surveying

surveyorsurveysurveyed
Survey data can be directly entered into a GIS from digital data collection systems on survey instruments using a technique called coordinate geometry (COGO).
They use equipment, such as total stations, robotic total stations, theodolites, GPS receivers, retroreflectors, 3D scanners, radios, handheld tablets, digital levels, subsurface locators, drones, GIS, and surveying software.

Orthophoto

orthorectifiedorthophotomaporthorectification
With the wide availability of ortho-rectified imagery (from satellites, aircraft, Helikites and UAVs), heads-up digitizing is becoming the main avenue through which geographic data is extracted.
Orthophotographs are commonly used in geographic information systems (GIS) as a "map accurate" background image.

Topography

topographicaltopographictopographer
While the basic elements of topography and theme existed previously in cartography, the John Snow map was unique, using cartographic methods not only to depict but also to analyze clusters of geographically dependent phenomena.
Even though remote sensing has greatly sped up the process of gathering information, and has allowed greater accuracy control over long distances, the direct survey still provides the basic control points and framework for all topographic work, whether manual or GIS-based.

Teledyne CARIS

CARIS
By the late 1970s two public domain GIS systems (MOSS and GRASS GIS) were in development, and by the early 1980s, M&S Computing (later Intergraph) along with Bentley Systems Incorporated for the CAD platform, Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), CARIS (Computer Aided Resource Information System), MapInfo Corporation and ERDAS (Earth Resource Data Analysis System) emerged as commercial vendors of GIS software, successfully incorporating many of the CGIS features, combining the first generation approach to separation of spatial and attribute information with a second generation approach to organizing attribute data into database structures.
Teledyne CARIS Inc. provides Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related software for terrestrial applications such as land management, municipal planning and geology, as well as marine and hydrographic applications.

GIS and hydrology

groundwater and surface water mapping
Other applications of hydrological modeling include groundwater and surface water mapping, as well as flood risk maps.
Geographic information systems (GISs) have become a useful and important tool in the field of hydrology to study and manage Earth's water resources.

Geometric networks

Geometric networks are linear networks of objects that can be used to represent interconnected features, and to perform special spatial analysis on them.
A geometric network is an object commonly used in geographic information systems to model a series of interconnected features.

Digitization

digitizeddigitizingdigitize
CGIS was an improvement over "computer mapping" applications as it provided capabilities for overlay, measurement, and digitizing/scanning.
Digitizing is central to making digital representations of geographical features, using raster or vector images, in a geographic information system, i.e., the creation of electronic maps, either from various geographical and satellite imaging (raster) or by digitizing traditional paper maps or graphs (vector).

Forestry

loggingforestertimber trade
Developed by Dr. Roger Tomlinson, it was called the Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) and was used to store, analyze, and manipulate data collected for the Canada Land Inventory – an effort to determine the land capability for rural Canada by mapping information about soils, agriculture, recreation, wildlife, waterfowl, forestry and land use at a scale of 1:50,000.
Professional foresters measure and model the growth of forests with tools like geographic information systems.

GIS in environmental contamination

environmental contamination research
One of the main uses of hydrological modeling is in environmental contamination research.
GIS in environmental contamination is the use of GIS software in mapping out the contaminants in soil and water using the spatial interpolation tools from GIS.

Satellite imagery

satellite imagessatellite imagesatellite imaging
In developing a digital topographic database for a GIS, topographical maps are the main source, and aerial photography and satellite imagery are extra sources for collecting data and identifying attributes which can be mapped in layers over a location facsimile of scale.
Satellite imagery can be combined with vector or raster data in a GIS provided that the imagery has been spatially rectified so that it will properly align with other data sets.

Dana Tomlin

Dana Tomlin probably coined the term "cartographic modeling" in his PhD dissertation (1983); he later used it in the title of his book, Geographic Information Systems and Cartographic Modeling (1990).
Tomlin's teaching and research focus on the development and application of geographic information systems (GIS).