Geographical indication

Australian Geographical IndicationGeographical IndicationsAppellation of Origingeographic indicationGI tagGIGeographical Indication (GI)appellations of originappellationprotected geographic designation
A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g. a town, region, or country).wikipedia
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Appellation d'origine contrôlée

appellationAOCAppellation d’Origine Contrôlée
Appellation of origin is a subtype of geographical indication where quality, method and reputation of a product strictly originate from the delineated area defined under its intellectual property right registration. One of the first GI systems is the one used in France from the early part of the twentieth century known as appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC).
The appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC; ; "protected designation of origin") is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut national des appellations d'origine, now called Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité (INAO).

Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union

Protected Designation of OriginProtected Geographical IndicationPDO
Under European Union Law, the protected designation of origin framework which came into effect in 1992 regulates the following systems of geographical indications: Protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI) and Traditional Specialities Guaranteed (TSG).
Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI), and traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG), promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs.

Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration

Lisbon AgreementLisbon Agreement on the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their Registration
See also the Paris Convention, the Madrid Agreement, the [[Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration|Lisbon Agreement]], the [[Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration#2015 Act|Geneva Act]].
In May 2015, the Geneva Act to the Agreement was adopted, formally extending protection to Geographical Indication and changing the name: Geneva Act of the Lisbon Agreement on Appellations of Origin and Geographical Indications.

TRIPS Agreement

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property RightsTRIPSTrade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
Geographical Indications protection is granted through the TRIPS Agreement. The WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights ("TRIPS") defines "geographical indications" as indications that identify a good as "originating in the territory of a Member, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographic origin."
Specifically, TRIPS requires WTO members to provide copyright rights, covering authors and other copyright holders, as well as holders of related rights, namely performers, sound recording producers and broadcasting organisations; geographical indications; industrial designs; integrated circuit layout-designs; patents; new plant varieties; trademarks; trade names and undisclosed or confidential information.

Certification mark

Conformance marklabelquality mark
In other words, it is similar to the protection afforded to trade marks as it can be registered through collective trade marks and also through certification marks, i.e., in the United States of America.

Roquefort

Roquefort cheeseRoquefort, FranceRoquefort, Lot-et-Garonne
Thus, anyone with sheep of the right breeds can make Roquefort cheese, if they are located in the part of France where that cheese is made, but nobody outside that part of France can make a blue sheep's milk cheese and call it Roquefort, even if they make it in such a way as to completely duplicate the process described in the definition of Roquefort.
Though similar cheeses are produced elsewhere, EU law dictates that only those cheeses aged in the natural Combalou caves of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon may bear the name Roquefort, as it is a recognised geographical indication, or has a protected designation of origin.

Generic trademark

genericized trademarkgenericizedgeneric
Since 2003, the European Union has actively sought to restrict the use of geographical indications by third parties outside the EU by enforcing laws regarding "protected designation of origin".

Intellectual property

intellectual property rightsIPintellectual property law
By contrast, in the United States, the naming is generally considered to be a matter of intellectual property.
Intellectual property rights include patents, copyright, industrial design rights, trademarks, plant variety rights, trade dress, geographical indications, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.

Trade name

doing business asd/b/aDBA
Governments have been protecting trade names and trademarks used in relation to food products identified with a particular region since at least the end of the nineteenth century, using laws against false trade descriptions or passing off, which generally protect against suggestions that a product has a certain origin, quality or association when it does not.

Law

legallawslegal theory
Governments have been protecting trade names and trademarks used in relation to food products identified with a particular region since at least the end of the nineteenth century, using laws against false trade descriptions or passing off, which generally protect against suggestions that a product has a certain origin, quality or association when it does not.

Passing off

pass offpass themselves offpassed off
Governments have been protecting trade names and trademarks used in relation to food products identified with a particular region since at least the end of the nineteenth century, using laws against false trade descriptions or passing off, which generally protect against suggestions that a product has a certain origin, quality or association when it does not.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
One of the first GI systems is the one used in France from the early part of the twentieth century known as appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC).

Gruyère cheese

GruyèregruyereGruyere cheese
Examples of products that have such 'appellations of origin' include Gruyère cheese (from Switzerland) and many French wines.

List of Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée wines

300 French winesFrench winesList of ''Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée'' wines
Examples of products that have such 'appellations of origin' include Gruyère cheese (from Switzerland) and many French wines.

Terroir

terroirsplantation areasterrior
Geographical indications have long been associated with the concept of terroir and with Europe as an entity, where there is a tradition of associating certain food products with particular regions.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
Geographical indications have long been associated with the concept of terroir and with Europe as an entity, where there is a tradition of associating certain food products with particular regions.

European Union law

EU lawEuropean lawlaw of the European Union
Under European Union Law, the protected designation of origin framework which came into effect in 1992 regulates the following systems of geographical indications: Protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI) and Traditional Specialities Guaranteed (TSG).

Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property

Paris ConventionpriorityConvention
See also the Paris Convention, the Madrid Agreement, the [[Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration|Lisbon Agreement]], the [[Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration#2015 Act|Geneva Act]].

Madrid system

Madrid ProtocolMadrid AgreementMadrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks
See also the Paris Convention, the Madrid Agreement, the [[Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration|Lisbon Agreement]], the [[Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration#2015 Act|Geneva Act]].

Circular economy

closed loopcircularcircular economies
The application of circular economy will ensure socio-economic returns in the long-run to avoid growth at an environmental cost.

Shiraz

Shiraz, IranShiraziShíráz
This is especially true of food and beverage names which frequently use geographical terms, but it may also be true of other products such as carpets (e.g. 'Shiraz'), handicrafts, flowers and perfumes.

International trade

foreign tradeglobal tradetrade
International trade made it important to try to harmonize the different approaches and standards that governments used to register GIs.

World Trade Organization

WTOWTrOWorld Trade Organisation
The WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights ("TRIPS") defines "geographical indications" as indications that identify a good as "originating in the territory of a Member, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographic origin."