Geography

geographicalgeographicgeographergeographicallygeographersgeographical coveragegeographical regiongeographiesGeogeographic space
Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets.wikipedia
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Human geography

human geographeranthropogeographyhuman
Geography is often defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography.
Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities,

Physical geography

physiographicphysiographyphysiographically
Geography is often defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography.
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major fields of geography.

Area studies

regional studiesarea studystudying
The four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the Earth sciences.
Area studies (also regional studies) are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions.

Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes of Cyrenea seminal experimentEratosthenes of Alexandria
Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC).
His work is comparible to what is now known as the study of geography, and introduced some of the terminology still used today.

Spatial analysis

spatial statisticsspatial autocorrelationgeospatial analysis
The four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the Earth sciences.
Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.

Earth science

Earth Sciencesgeosciencesgeoscience
The four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the Earth sciences.
Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves.

Natural environment

environmentenvironmentalpaleoenvironment
Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, processes, and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment.
There are four major disciplines in earth sciences, namely geography, geology, geophysics and geodesy.

Pedosphere

soilsoil system
It aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, pedosphere, and global flora and fauna patterns (biosphere).
As part of the larger global system, any particular environment in which soil forms is influenced solely by its geographic position on the globe as climatic, geologic, biologic and anthropogenic changes occur with changes in longitude and latitude.

Integrated geography

Environmental geographyenvironmental geographerenvironment
The difference between these approaches led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans.
Environmental geography (also referred to as environmental geography, Integrated geography or human–environment geography) is the branch of geography that describes and explains the spatial aspects of interactions between human individuals or societies and their natural environment, these interactions being called coupled human–environment system.

Quantitative revolution

quantitative geographyquantitative1950s crisis in geography
Geomatics emerged from the quantitative revolution in geography in the mid-1950s.
In the history of geography, the quantitative revolution was one of the four major turning-points of modern geography – the other three being environmental determinism, regional geography and critical geography).

Geomatics

Geomatics EngineeringGeomaticspatial science
Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography.
Geomatics includes the tools and techniques used in land surveying, remote sensing, cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), global-navigation satellite systems (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Compass), photogrammetry, geophysics, geography, and related forms of earth mapping.

Landscape ecology

landscapelandscape ecologistpatch
The German term Landschaftsökologie–thus landscape ecology–was coined by German geographer Carl Troll in 1939.

Built environment

environmentbuiltenvironments
The former largely focuses on the built environment and how humans create, view, manage, and influence space.
The field is generally not regarded as a traditional profession or academic discipline in its own right, instead drawing upon areas such as economics, law, public policy, public health, management, geography, design, engineering, technology, and environmental sustainability.

Environmental resource management

environmental managementenvironmental resources managementenvironmental
Examples of areas of research in environmental geography include: emergency management, environmental management, sustainability, and political ecology.
Environmental resource management covers many areas in science, including geography, biology, social sciences, political sciences, public policy, ecology, physics, chemistry, sociology, psychology, and physiology.

Behavioral geography

Behavioral
It incorporates ideas from environmental science, ecology, sociology, geography, biology, theology, philosophy, psychology, politics, economics, and other disciplines, to bring together the social, cultural and environmental dimensions of life.

Geosophy

Geosophy is a concept introduced to geography by J.K. Wright in 1947.

Regionalisation

regionalizationland classificationregion
Attention is paid also to regionalization, which covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions.

Latitude

latitudesSouthlatitudinal
Anaximander is credited with the invention of the gnomon, the simple, yet efficient Greek instrument that allowed the early measurement of latitude.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

Geostatistics

geostatisticalEuropean Forum for GeoStatisticsgeostatistician
Geostatistics deal with quantitative data analysis, specifically the application of statistical methodology to the exploration of geographic phenomena.
Developed originally to predict probability distributions of ore grades for mining operations, it is currently applied in diverse disciplines including petroleum geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, geochemistry, geometallurgy, geography, forestry, environmental control, landscape ecology, soil science, and agriculture (esp.

Anaximander

Anaximander of MiletusAnaximandrosἈναξίμανδρος
The ideas of Anaximander (c.
He created a map of the world that contributed greatly to the advancement of geography.

Feminist geography

feministfeminist geographerfeminist geographers
Rather than a specific sub-discipline of geography, feminist geography is often considered part of a broader, postmodern, critical theory approach, that draws upon the theories of Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, and Judith Butler, and many post-colonial theorists.

World map

map of the worldworld atlasmaps of Earth
The oldest known world maps date back to ancient Babylon from the 9th century BC.
Physical maps show geographic features such as mountains, soil type or land use.

Space

spatialphysical spacereal space
Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, processes, and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment.
Geography is the branch of science concerned with identifying and describing places on Earth, utilizing spatial awareness to try to understand why things exist in specific locations.

Earth

Earth's surfaceterrestrialworld
Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC).
Cartography, the study and practice of map-making, and geography, the study of the lands, features, inhabitants and phenomena on Earth, have historically been the disciplines devoted to depicting Earth.

History of cartography

Golden Age of Dutch cartographyGolden Age of Netherlandish cartographycartography
The Greeks, who were the first to explore geography as both art and science, achieved this through Cartography, Philosophy, and Literature, or through Mathematics.
He was likely also the first person to use the word "geography".