Geology

geologicalgeologistgeologicGeologicallygeologistsgeological sciencesgeological sciencegeological featuresgeological featurephysical geology
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē ("earth") and -λoγία, -logia, ("study of", "discourse") ) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.wikipedia
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Geology of Mars

geological processesgeologyMars
Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon.
It is analogous to the field of terrestrial geology.

Hydrology

hydrologicalhydrologisthydrologic
Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.
A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.

Geologist

geologistsgeoscientistexpert in geology
By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth.
Geologists usually study geology, although backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology, and other sciences are also useful.

Rock (geology)

rockstonerocks
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē ("earth") and -λoγία, -logia, ("study of", "discourse") ) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is an essential component of geology.

Earth science

geoscienceearth sciencesgeosciences
Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science. Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē ("earth") and -λoγία, -logia, ("study of", "discourse") ) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
The earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the earth's interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

Geophysical survey

geophysicalsurveygeophysical prospecting
Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, and numerical modelling.
Geophysical surveys have many applications in geology, archaeology, mineral and energy exploration, oceanography, and engineering.

Rock cycle

process
The rock cycle
The rock cycle is a basic concept in geology that describes the time-consuming transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous.

Petrology

petrologistpetrologicalpetrologic
Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, and numerical modelling.
Petrology (from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form.

Earth system science

Earth systemEarth system scientistEarth System Analysis/ Earth System Science
Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.
At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, sociology, and space science.

Fabric (geology)

fabricfabricscharacteristic fabric
It can then be turned into a metamorphic rock by heat and pressure that change its mineral content, resulting in a characteristic fabric.
In geology, a rock's fabric describes the spatial and geometric configuration of all the elements that make it up.

Crust (geology)

crustEarth's crustcrustal
In the 1960s, it was discovered that the Earth's lithosphere, which includes the crust and rigid uppermost portion of the upper mantle, is separated into tectonic plates that move across the plastically deforming, solid, upper mantle, which is called the asthenosphere.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

Environmental geology

environmental geoscienceenvironmentalEnvironmental geologists
In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, and providing insights into past climate change.
Each of these fields involves the study of the interaction of humans with the geologic environment, including the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and to some extent the atmosphere.

Bedrock

subsurfacebare stonebed rock
These materials are superficial deposits that lie above the bedrock.
In geology, bedrock is the lithified rock that lies under a loose softer material called regolith at the surface of the Earth or other terrestrial planets.

Quaternary geology

Quaternary geologistQuaternary geologistsQuaternary landforms
This study is often known as Quaternary geology, after the Quaternary period of geologic history.
Quaternary geology is the branch of geology that study developments from 2.6 million years ago onwards.

Drift (geology)

driftglacial driftdrift geology
Geologists also study unlithified materials (referred to as drift), which typically come from more recent deposits.
In geology, drift is the name for all material of glacial origin found anywhere on land or at sea, including sediment and large rocks (glacial erratic).

Mineralogy

mineralogistmineralogicalmineralogists
Advances in seismology, computer modeling, and mineralogy and crystallography at high temperatures and pressures give insights into the internal composition and structure of the Earth.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.

Continent

continentssubcontinentcontinental
Plate tectonics also has provided a mechanism for Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift, in which the continents move across the surface of the Earth over geologic time.
Geologically, the continents largely correspond to areas of continental crust that are found on the continental plates.

Geotechnical engineering

geotechnicalgeotechnical engineergeotechnical engineers
Geology is a major academic discipline, and it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering.
However, the field of geotechnical engineering is a specialty of engineering, where the field of engineering geology is a specialty of geology.

Seismology

seismicseismologistseismologists
Advances in seismology, computer modeling, and mineralogy and crystallography at high temperatures and pressures give insights into the internal composition and structure of the Earth.
A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology.

Snowball Earth

global glaciationSnowballearliest evidence of glaciation
c. 2.3 Ga: Oxygenated atmosphere, first snowball Earth
Proponents of the hypothesis argue that it best explains sedimentary deposits generally regarded as of glacial origin at tropical palaeolatitudes and other enigmatic features in the geological record.

Field research

fieldworkfield workfield studies
Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, and numerical modelling.
In geology fieldwork is considered an essential part of training and remains an important component of many research projects.

Formation and evolution of the Solar System

solar nebulaformation of the Solar Systemoutward
4.567 Ga (gigaannum: billion years ago): Solar system formation
Its subsequent development has interwoven a variety of scientific disciplines including astronomy, physics, geology, and planetary science.

Solid earth

terra firmasolid parts of the Earthsolid-Earth sciences
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē ("earth") and -λoγία, -logia, ("study of", "discourse") ) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Solid-earth science refers to the corresponding methods of study, a subset of Earth sciences, predominantly geophysics and geology, excluding aeronomy, atmospheric sciences, oceanography, hydrology, and ecology.

Sill (geology)

sillsillsigneous sill
Different types of intrusions include stocks, laccoliths, batholiths, sills and dikes.
In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock.

Dike (geology)

dikesdykesdike
Different types of intrusions include stocks, laccoliths, batholiths, sills and dikes.
A dike or dyke, in geological usage, is a sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body.