Geophysics

geophysicistgeophysicalgeophysicistsGeophysical servicesgeophysical surveyGeophysical EngineeringGeophysicallyApplied GeophysicsearthEarth physics
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.wikipedia
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Geodynamics

geodynamicgeodynamicalgeodynamicist
The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape; its gravitational and magnetic fields; its internal structure and composition; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation.
Geodynamics is a subfield of geophysics dealing with dynamics of the Earth.

Figure of the Earth

curvature of the Earthshape of the Earthnature of the curvature of the earth
The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape; its gravitational and magnetic fields; its internal structure and composition; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation.
This topographic surface is generally the concern of topographers, hydrographers, and geophysicists.

Exploration geophysics

applied geophysicsgeophysicalgeophysical exploration
In Exploration Geophysics, Geophysical survey data are used to analyze potential petroleum reservoirs and mineral deposits, locate groundwater, find archaeological relics, determine the thickness of glaciers and soils, and assess sites for environmental remediation.
Exploration geophysics is an applied branch of geophysics, which uses physical methods, such as seismic, gravitational, magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic at the surface of the Earth to measure the physical properties of the subsurface, along with the anomalies in those properties.

Natural hazard

natural hazardsnaturalhazard
Geophysics is applied to societal needs, such as mineral resources, mitigation of natural hazards and environmental protection.
Natural hazard events can be classified into two broad categories: geophysical and biological.

Geophysical survey

geophysicalsurveygeophysical prospecting
In Exploration Geophysics, Geophysical survey data are used to analyze potential petroleum reservoirs and mineral deposits, locate groundwater, find archaeological relics, determine the thickness of glaciers and soils, and assess sites for environmental remediation.
Geophysical survey is the systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies.

Core–mantle boundary

core-mantle boundaryboundary between the core and mantleD
Heat is mostly carried to the surface by thermal convection, although there are two thermal boundary layers – the core-mantle boundary and the lithosphere – in which heat is transported by conduction.
The core–mantle boundary (CMB in the parlance of solid earth geophysicists) of the Earth lies between the planet's silicate mantle and its liquid iron-nickel outer core.

Geoid

geodetic sea levelvaries slightlygeoids
The geopotential surface called the geoid is one definition of the shape of the Earth.
Despite being an important concept for almost 200 years in the history of geodesy and geophysics, it has been defined to high precision only since advances in satellite geodesy in the late 20th century.

Natural science

natural sciencesnaturalnatural scientist
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.
Earth science (also known as geoscience), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth, including geology, geophysics, hydrology, meteorology, physical geography, oceanography, and soil science.

Earth science

geoscienceearth sciencesgeosciences
Geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary subject, and geophysicists contribute to every area of the Earth sciences.
Geophysics and geodesy investigate the shape of the Earth, its reaction to forces and its magnetic and gravity fields. Geophysicists explore the earth's core and mantle as well as the tectonic and seismic activity of the lithosphere. Geophysics is commonly used to supplement the work of geologists in developing a comprehensive understanding of crustal geology, particularly in mineral and petroleum exploration. Seismologists use geophysics to understand plate tectonic shifting, as well as predict seismic activity.

Seismic wave

seismic wavesseismic velocitybody waves
Seismic waves are vibrations that travel through the Earth's interior or along its surface.
Seismic waves are studied by geophysicists called seismologists.

Geopotential

geopotential numbergeopotential numbers
The geopotential surface called the geoid is one definition of the shape of the Earth.
For geophysical applications, gravity is distinguished from gravitation.

Electrical resistivity tomography

geophysicalelectric resistivityelectrical resistivity
Geophysicists can also provide the electric current themselves (see induced polarization and electrical resistivity tomography).
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) or electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical technique for imaging sub-surface structures from electrical resistivity measurements made at the surface, or by electrodes in one or more boreholes.

Magnetotellurics

magnetotelluricaudio-magnetotelluricelectromagnetic
Electromagnetic methods that are used for geophysical survey include transient electromagnetics, magnetotellurics, surface nuclear magnetic resonance and electromagnetic seabed logging.
Magnetotellurics (MT) is an electromagnetic geophysical method for inferring the earth's subsurface electrical conductivity from measurements of natural geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation at the Earth's surface.

Plate tectonics

tectonic platetectonic platesplate tectonic
The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape; its gravitational and magnetic fields; its internal structure and composition; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation.
The driving forces of plate motion continue to be active subjects of on-going research within geophysics and tectonophysics.

Magnetostratigraphy

magnetostratigraphicmagnetostratigraphicallymagnetic anomaly
Geologists observed geomagnetic reversal recorded in volcanic rocks, through magnetostratigraphy correlation (see natural remanent magnetization) and their signature can be seen as parallel linear magnetic anomaly stripes on the seafloor.
Magnetostratigraphy is a geophysical correlation technique used to date sedimentary and volcanic sequences.

Gravity anomaly

gravity anomaliesgravity techniquesgravitational anomalies
Measurements of gravitational acceleration and gravitational potential at the Earth's surface and above it can be used to look for mineral deposits (see gravity anomaly and gravimetry).
In geodesy and geophysics, the usual theoretical model is the gravity on the surface of a reference ellipsoid such as WGS84.

Paleomagnetism

paleomagneticpalaeomagneticpalaeomagnetism
In addition, the magnetization in rocks can be used to measure the motion of continents.
Geophysicists who specialize in paleomagnetism are called paleomagnetists.

Ionosphere

ionosphericionospheric physicsD layer
However, modern geophysics organizations use a broader definition that includes the water cycle including snow and ice; fluid dynamics of the oceans and the atmosphere; electricity and magnetism in the ionosphere and magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial relations; and analogous problems associated with the Moon and other planets.
Geophysics

Reflection seismology

seismic reflectionseismic explorationseismic
Reflections can provide information on near-surface structure.
Seismic interpretation is completed by both geologists and geophysicists, with most seismic interpreters having an understanding of both fields.

Hydrostatics

hydrostatic pressurehydrostaticfluid statics
This bulge is due to its rotation and is nearly consistent with an Earth in hydrostatic equilibrium.
It is also relevant to geophysics and astrophysics (for example, in understanding plate tectonics and the anomalies of the Earth's gravitational field), to meteorology, to medicine (in the context of blood pressure), and many other fields.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
To provide a clearer idea of what constitutes geophysics, this section describes phenomena that are studied in physics and how they relate to the Earth and its surroundings.
Geophysics

Mantle plume

plumemantle plumesplumes
Some heat is carried up from the bottom of the mantle by mantle plumes.
Some common and basic lines of evidence cited in support of the theory are linear volcanic chains, noble gases, geophysical anomalies, and geochemistry.

American Geophysical Union

AGUFAGUAmerican Geophysical Union Fellow
While geodesy and geophysics are separate fields, the two are so closely connected that many scientific organizations such as the American Geophysical Union, the Canadian Geophysical Union and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics encompass both.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.

Earth's magnetic field

geomagneticgeomagnetismgeomagnetic field
The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape; its gravitational and magnetic fields; its internal structure and composition; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation.
Commercially, geophysical prospecting companies also use magnetic detectors to identify naturally occurring anomalies from ore bodies, such as the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly.

Transient electromagnetics

transient/time-domain electromagneticstime domain electromagneticstransient electromagnetic
Electromagnetic methods that are used for geophysical survey include transient electromagnetics, magnetotellurics, surface nuclear magnetic resonance and electromagnetic seabed logging.
Geophysics