Georg Simmel

SimmelGeorge SimmelGeorg Simmel’sSimmel, Georg
Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 26 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.wikipedia
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Social network

networknetworkingnetworks
With his work on the metropolis, Simmel was a precursor of urban sociology, symbolic interactionism and social network analysis.
Georg Simmel authored early structural theories in sociology emphasizing the dynamics of triads and "web of group affiliations".

Urban sociology

urban sociologisturbanurban sociologists
With his work on the metropolis, Simmel was a precursor of urban sociology, symbolic interactionism and social network analysis.
The philosophical foundations of modern urban sociology originate from the work of sociologists such as Karl Marx, Ferdinand Tönnies, Émile Durkheim, Max Weber and Georg Simmel who studied and theorized the economic, social and cultural processes of urbanization and its effects on social alienation, class formation, and the production or destruction of collective and individual identities.

Frankfurt School

cultural Marxismcritical theoryThe Frankfurt School
Both Simmel and Weber's nonpositivist theory would inform the eclectic critical theory of the Frankfurt School.
The School’s sociologic works derived from syntheses of the thematically pertinent works of Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and Karl Marx, of Sigmund Freud and Max Weber, and of Georg Simmel and Georg Lukács.

Max Weber

WeberWeberianWeber, Max
An acquaintance of Max Weber, Simmel wrote on the topic of personal character in a manner reminiscent of the sociological 'ideal type'. In 1909 Simmel, together with Ferdinand Tönnies and Max Weber, and others, was a co-founder of the German Society for Sociology, serving as a member of its first executive body.
Weber's opinions regarding the methodology of the social sciences show parallels with the work of contemporary neo-Kantian philosopher and pioneering sociologist Georg Simmel.

The Philosophy of Money

Simmel's most famous works today are The Problems of the Philosophy of History (1892), The Philosophy of Money (1900), The Metropolis and Mental Life (1903), Soziologie (1908, inc. The Stranger, The Social Boundary, The Sociology of the Senses, The Sociology of Space, and On The Spatial Projections of Social Forms), and Fundamental Questions of Sociology (1917).
The Philosophy of Money (1900) is a book on economic sociology by the German sociologist and social philosopher, Georg Simmel.

Philosopher

philosopherssagephilosophical
Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 26 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.
Important German philosophers and social thinkers included Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Marx, Max Weber, Georg Simmel, and Martin Heidegger.

Antipositivism

antipositivistinterpretivismanti-positivist
Simmel was one of the first generation of German sociologists: his neo-Kantian approach laid the foundations for sociological antipositivism, asking 'What is society?' in a direct allusion to Kant's question 'What is nature?', presenting pioneering analyses of social individuality and fragmentation.
Both Weber and Georg Simmel pioneered the verstehen (or 'interpretative') approach toward social science; a systematic process in which an outside observer attempts to relate to a particular cultural group, or indigenous people, on their own terms and from their own point of view.

Social science

social sciencessocial scientistsocial
In this sense he was a forerunner to structuralist styles of reasoning in the social sciences.
Around the start of the 20th century, the first wave of German sociologists, including Max Weber and Georg Simmel, developed sociological antipositivism.

The Metropolis and Mental Life

Simmel's most famous works today are The Problems of the Philosophy of History (1892), The Philosophy of Money (1900), The Metropolis and Mental Life (1903), Soziologie (1908, inc. The Stranger, The Social Boundary, The Sociology of the Senses, The Sociology of Space, and On The Spatial Projections of Social Forms), and Fundamental Questions of Sociology (1917).
The Metropolis and Mental Life (German: Die Großstädte und das Geistesleben) is a 1903 book by the German sociologist, Georg Simmel.

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 26 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.
Herbert Spencer, William Graham Sumner, Lester F. Ward, W.E.B. Du Bois, Vilfredo Pareto, Alexis de Tocqueville, Werner Sombart, Thorstein Veblen, Ferdinand Tönnies, Georg Simmel, Jane Addams and Karl Mannheim are often included on academic curricula as founding theorists.

Ferdinand Tönnies

TönniesFerdinand ToenniesF. Tönnies
In 1909 Simmel, together with Ferdinand Tönnies and Max Weber, and others, was a co-founder of the German Society for Sociology, serving as a member of its first executive body.
He co-founded the German Society for Sociology alongside Max Weber and Georg Simmel and many other founders.

German Sociological Association

German Society for SociologyDeutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie
In 1909 Simmel, together with Ferdinand Tönnies and Max Weber, and others, was a co-founder of the German Society for Sociology, serving as a member of its first executive body.
It was founded January 3, 1909, at Berlin by its initiators Rudolf Goldscheid (1870–1931), Ferdinand Tönnies, Max Weber, Georg Simmel, et al. First president was Tönnies, forced out of office by the Nazis, 1933.

Symbolic interactionism

symbolic interactionistsymbolic interactioninteractionist
With his work on the metropolis, Simmel was a precursor of urban sociology, symbolic interactionism and social network analysis.

Gertrud Kantorowicz

Simmel also had a secret affair with his assistant Gertrud Kantorowicz, who bore him a daughter in 1907, though this fact was hidden until after Simmel's death.
Kantorowicz also became a disciple and assistant to Georg Simmel, and his secret lover.

Friedrich Nietzsche

NietzscheNietzscheanFriedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
He also wrote extensively on the philosophy of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, as well on art, most notably his book Rembrandt: An Essay in the Philosophy of Art (1916).
Georg Simmel compares Nietzsche's importance to ethics to that of Copernicus for cosmology.

Triad (sociology)

triadRelational-triadic matrixTriad relationships
A dyad is a two-person group; a triad is a three-person group.
The study of triads and dyads was pioneered by German sociologist Georg Simmel at the end of the nineteenth century.

Humboldt University of Berlin

University of BerlinBerlinHumboldt University
Beginning in 1876, Simmel studied philosophy and history at the Humboldt University of Berlin.

Sociological aspects of secrecy

privileged informationsecrecySecrecy (sociology)
In larger groups secrets are needed as a result of their heterogeneity.
The sociological aspects of secrecy were first studied by Georg Simmel in the early-1900s.

Donald N. Levine

Donald Levine
Within sociology, he is perhaps best known for his work in sociological theory and his translations and interpretations of Georg Simmel's classical texts into English, which led to a resurgence of interest in Simmel's work in the discipline.

The Stranger (sociology)

outsidersThe StrangerThe Stranger" (sociology)
In "The Stranger", Simmel discusses how if a person is too close to the actor they are not considered a stranger, but if they are too far they would no longer be a part of a group.
The Stranger is an essay in sociology by Georg Simmel, originally written as an excursus to a chapter dealing with sociology of space, in his book Soziologie.

Karl Mannheim

Ideology and UtopiaKároly (Karl) MannheimMannheimian
Among his valued interlocutors were György Lukács, Oszkár Jászi, Georg Simmel, Martin Heidegger, Edmund Husserl, Karl Marx, Alfred and Max Weber, Max Scheler, and Wilhelm Dilthey.

Emil Cioran

CioranE. M. CioranE.M. Cioran
While at the University, he was influenced by Georg Simmel, Ludwig Klages and Martin Heidegger, but also by the Russian philosopher Lev Shestov, whose contribution to Cioran’s central system of thought was the belief that life is arbitrary.

György Lukács

Georg LukácsLukácsGeorge Lukacs
Lukács spent much time in Germany, and studied at the University of Berlin from 1906 to 1907, during which time he made the acquaintance of the philosopher Georg Simmel.

Max Scheler

Scheler
He also studied philosophy and sociology under Wilhelm Dilthey, Carl Stumpf and Georg Simmel at the University of Berlin.

Lewis A. Coser

Lewis CoserCoser, Lewis A.Coser
Coser argued – with Georg Simmel – that conflict might serve to solidify a loosely structured group.