A report on Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

The birthplace of Hegel in Stuttgart, which now houses the Hegel Museum
"Hegel and Napoleon in Jena" (illustration from Harper's Magazine, 1895), whose meeting became proverbial due to Hegel's notable use of Weltseele ("world-soul") in reference to Napoleon ("the world-soul on horseback", die Weltseele zu Pferde)
Hegel with his Berlin students Sketch by Franz Kugler
Hegel's tombstone in Berlin

German philosopher.

- Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

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Photograph of Marx taken by John Mayall in 1875

Karl Marx

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German philosopher, critic of political economy, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary.

German philosopher, critic of political economy, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary.

Photograph of Marx taken by John Mayall in 1875
Marx's birthplace, now Brückenstraße 10, in Trier. The family occupied two rooms on the ground floor and three on the first floor. Purchased by the Social Democratic Party of Germany in 1928, it now houses a museum devoted to him.
Jenny von Westphalen in the 1830s
Friedrich Engels, whom Marx met in 1844; the two became lifelong friends and collaborators.
The first edition of The Manifesto of the Communist Party, published in German in 1848
Marx with his daughters and Engels
Marx and Engels in the printing house of the Neue Rheinische Zeitung. E. Capiro, 1895.
The first volume of Das Kapital
Marx photographed by John Mayall, 1875
Marx in 1882
Jenny Carolina and Jenny Laura Marx (1869): all the Marx daughters were named Jenny in honour of their mother, Jenny von Westphalen.
Tomb of Karl Marx, East Highgate Cemetery, London
A monument dedicated to Marx and Engels in Shanghai, China
Outside a factory in Oldham. Marx believed that industrial workers (the proletariat) would rise up around the world.
Karl Marx Monument in Chemnitz (known as Karl-Marx-Stadt from 1953 to 1990)
CPI(M) mural in Kerala, India
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels monument in Marx-Engels Forum, Berlin-Mitte, Germany
Karl Marx statue in Trier, Germany
Map of countries that declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist–Leninist or Maoist definition between 1979 and 1983, which marked the greatest territorial extent of socialist states

Marx became interested in the recently deceased German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, whose ideas were then widely debated among European philosophical circles.

Schelling by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1835

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

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German philosopher.

German philosopher.

Schelling by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1835
A February 1848 daguerreotype of Schelling
Slavoj Zizek is one example of contemporary philosophers influenced by Schelling's philosophy.

Standard histories of philosophy make him the midpoint in the development of German idealism, situating him between Johann Gottlieb Fichte, his mentor in his early years, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, his one-time university roommate, early friend, and later rival.

The School of Athens (1509–1511) by Raphael, depicting famous classical Greek philosophers in an idealized setting inspired by ancient Greek architecture.

Philosophy

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Systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, knowledge, values, mind, and language.

Systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, knowledge, values, mind, and language.

The School of Athens (1509–1511) by Raphael, depicting famous classical Greek philosophers in an idealized setting inspired by ancient Greek architecture.
The Vinegar Tasters (Japan, Edo period, 1802-1816) by Kanō Isen'in, depicting the three main philosophical figures in East Asian thought: Buddha, Confucius and Laozi.
Statue of Aristotle (384–322 BCE), a major figure of ancient Greek philosophy, in Aristotle's Park, Stagira.
A painting of the influential modern philosopher Immanuel Kant (in the blue coat) with his friends. Other figures include Christian Jakob Kraus, Johann Georg Hamann, Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel and Karl Gottfried Hagen.
A page of The Maxims of Ptahhotep, traditionally attributed to the Vizier Ptahhotep (c. 2375–2350 BCE).
An Iranian portrait of Avicenna on a Silver Vase. He was one of the most influential philosophers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Adi Shankara is one of the most frequently studied Hindu philosophers.
The parable of the blind men and the elephant illustrates the important Jain doctrine of anēkāntavāda.
Statue of the Neo-Confucian scholar Zhu Xi at the White Deer Grotto Academy in Lushan Mountain.
Kitaro Nishida, considered the founder of the Kyoto School of philosophical thought, c. 1943.
Painting of Zera Yacob from Claude Sumner's Classical Ethiopian Philosophy.
A Tlamatini (Aztec philosopher) observing the stars, from the Codex Mendoza.
Depiction of Pachacuti worshipping Inti (god Sun) at Coricancha, in the 17th century second chronicles of Martín de Murúa. Pachacuti was a major Incan ruler, author and poet.
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) was an English writer and philosopher.
The Beijing imperial college was an intellectual center for Confucian ethics and classics during the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties.
Dignaga founded a school of Buddhist epistemology and logic.
The beginning of Aristotle's Metaphysics in an incunabulum decorated with hand-painted miniatures.
Thomas Hobbes, best known for his Leviathan, which expounded an influential formulation of social contract theory.
Martin Luther King Jr.

19th-century philosophy (sometimes called late modern philosophy) was influenced by the wider 18th-century movement termed "the Enlightenment", and includes figures such as Hegel, a key figure in German idealism; Kierkegaard, who developed the foundations for existentialism; Thomas Carlyle, representative of the great man theory; Nietzsche, a famed anti-Christian; John Stuart Mill, who promoted utilitarianism; Karl Marx, who developed the foundations for communism; and the American William James.

Portrait by Johann Gottlieb Becker, 1768

Immanuel Kant

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German philosopher and one of the central Enlightenment thinkers.

German philosopher and one of the central Enlightenment thinkers.

Portrait by Johann Gottlieb Becker, 1768
Kant's house in Königsberg
Portrait of philosopher David Hume
Engraving of Immanuel Kant
Kant with friends, including Christian Jakob Kraus, Johann Georg Hamann, Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel and Karl Gottfried Hagen
Kant's tomb in Kaliningrad, Russia
Immanuel Kant by Carle Vernet (1758–1836)
Kant statue in the School of Philosophy and Human Sciences (FAFICH) in the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Immanuel Kant
In his Metaphysics, Immanuel Kant introduced the categorical imperative: "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law."
5 DM 1974 D silver coin commemorating the 250th birthday of Immanuel Kant in Königsberg
Statue of Immanuel Kant in Kaliningrad (Königsberg), Russia. Replica by of the original by Christian Daniel Rauch lost in 1945.
West German postage stamp, 1974, commemorating the 250th anniversary of Kant's birth

He influenced Reinhold, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel and Novalis during the 1780s and 1790s.

The Phenomenology of Spirit

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The Phenomenology of Spirit (Phänomenologie des Geistes) is the most widely-discussed philosophical work of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel; its German title can be translated as either The Phenomenology of Spirit or The Phenomenology of Mind.

Absolute idealism

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Absolute idealism is an ontologically monistic philosophy chiefly associated with G. W. F. Hegel and Friedrich Schelling, both of whom were German idealist philosophers in the 19th century.

Different approaches toward resolving the mind–body problem

Metaphysics

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Branch of philosophy that studies the fundamental nature of reality, the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity, and possibility.

Branch of philosophy that studies the fundamental nature of reality, the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity, and possibility.

Different approaches toward resolving the mind–body problem
The circled dot was used by the Pythagoreans and later Greeks to represent the first metaphysical being, the Monad or The Absolute.
The modern "yin and yang symbol" (taijitu)

Schopenhauer, Schelling, Fichte and Hegel all purveyed their own panoramic versions of German Idealism, Kant's own caution about metaphysical speculation, and refutation of idealism, having fallen by the wayside.

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

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German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.

German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.

Tombs of Johann Gottlieb Fichte and his wife Johanna Marie, Dorotheenstaedtischer Friedhof (cemetery), Berlin

Fichte was also the originator of thesis–antithesis–synthesis, an idea that is often erroneously attributed to Hegel.

Detail of Plato in The School of Athens, by Raphael

Idealism

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Indistinguishable and inseparable from human perception and understanding; that reality is a mental construct closely connected to ideas.

Indistinguishable and inseparable from human perception and understanding; that reality is a mental construct closely connected to ideas.

Detail of Plato in The School of Athens, by Raphael
The sage Yajnavalkya (possibly 8th century BCE) is one of the earliest exponents of idealism, and is a major figure in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
Statue of Vasubandhu (jp. Seshin), Kōfuku-ji, Nara, Japan.
The 20th-century British scientist Sir James Jeans wrote that "the Universe begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine"

Beginning with Kant, German idealists such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, and Arthur Schopenhauer dominated 19th-century philosophy.

The four principal German idealists: Immanuel Kant (upper left), Johann Gottlieb Fichte (upper right), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (lower left), Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (lower right)

German idealism

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Philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

The four principal German idealists: Immanuel Kant (upper left), Johann Gottlieb Fichte (upper right), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (lower left), Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (lower right)

The best-known thinkers in the movement, besides Kant, were Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Arthur Schopenhauer, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and the proponents of Jena Romanticism (Friedrich Hölderlin, Novalis, and Friedrich Schlegel).