George Graham (clockmaker)

George GrahamGraham
George Graham (7 July 1673 – 20 November 1751) was an English clockmaker, inventor, and geophysicist, and a Fellow of the Royal Society.wikipedia
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Thomas Tompion

Tompion
A Friend (Quaker) like his mentor Thomas Tompion, Graham left Cumberland in 1688 for London to work with Tompion. However it was actually invented around 1675 by astronomer Richard Towneley, and first used by Graham's mentor Thomas Tompion in a clock built for Sir Jonas Moore, and in the two precision regulators he made for the new Greenwich Observatory in 1676, mentioned in correspondence between Astronomer Royal John Flamsteed and Towneley
A plaque commemorates the house he shared on Fleet Street with his equally famous pupil and successor George Graham.

Pendulum clock

regulator clockClock pendulumregulator
Graham is credited with inventing several design improvements to the pendulum clock, inventing the mercury pendulum and also the orrery.
The deadbeat escapement invented in 1675 by Richard Towneley and popularized by George Graham around 1715 in his precision "regulator" clocks gradually replaced the anchor escapement and is now used in most modern pendulum clocks.

Orrery

orreriesorrary(sic)orrerie
Graham is credited with inventing several design improvements to the pendulum clock, inventing the mercury pendulum and also the orrery.
Clock makers George Graham and Thomas Tompion built the first modern orrery around 1704 in England.

Pendulum

pendulumssimple pendulumpendula
Graham is credited with inventing several design improvements to the pendulum clock, inventing the mercury pendulum and also the orrery.
The first device to compensate for this error was the mercury pendulum, invented by George Graham in 1721.

Mural instrument

mural quadrantmuralmural quadrants
Graham made for Edmond Halley the great mural quadrant at Greenwich Observatory, and also the fine transit instrument and the zenith sector used by James Bradley in his discoveries.
Edmond Halley, due to the lack of an assistant and only one vertical wire in his transit, confined himself to the use of a mural quadrant built by George Graham after its erection in 1725 at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich.

Thomas Mudge (horologist)

Thomas MudgeMudgeThomas
Between 1730 and 1738, Graham had as an apprentice Thomas Mudge, who went on to be an eminent watchmaker in his own right, and invented the lever escapement, an important development for pocket watches.
Thomas attended the same school and, when 14 or 15, was sent to London to be apprenticed to George Graham, the eminent clock and watch maker who had trained under Thomas Tompion.

John Harrison

H-4H4H4 and H5
Graham was introduced to John Harrison on the latter's arrival in London, and became a longtime advisor and supporter of Harrison's work on a marine chronometer.
In his earlier work on sea clocks, Harrison was continually assisted, both financially and in many other ways, by George Graham, the watchmaker and instrument maker.

Anchor escapement

deadbeat escapementdeadbeatpocket watch
The deadbeat escapement is often erroneously credited to George Graham who introduced it around 1715 in his precision regulator clocks.
A variation without recoil called the deadbeat escapement was invented by Richard Towneley around 1675 and introduced by British clockmaker George Graham around 1715.

Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery

Charles BoyleThe Earl of OrreryHon. Charles Boyle
This was made in cabinet form, at the desire of Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery.
In 1713, under the patronage of Boyle, clockmaker George Graham created the first mechanical solar system model that could demonstrate proportional motion of the planets around the Sun.

Richard Towneley

grandfatherTowneley micrometer
However it was actually invented around 1675 by astronomer Richard Towneley, and first used by Graham's mentor Thomas Tompion in a clock built for Sir Jonas Moore, and in the two precision regulators he made for the new Greenwich Observatory in 1676, mentioned in correspondence between Astronomer Royal John Flamsteed and Towneley
The deadbeat escapement, widely introduced by clockmaker, George Graham, around 1715, was significantly more accurate than the anchor and in the 19th century became the standard escapement used in quality pendulum clocks.

Horology

horologisthorologicalhorologists
George Graham (7 July 1673 – 20 November 1751) was an English clockmaker, inventor, and geophysicist, and a Fellow of the Royal Society.

Geophysics

geophysicistgeophysicalgeophysicists
George Graham (7 July 1673 – 20 November 1751) was an English clockmaker, inventor, and geophysicist, and a Fellow of the Royal Society.

Royal Society

FRSFellow of the Royal SocietyRoyal Society of London
George Graham (7 July 1673 – 20 November 1751) was an English clockmaker, inventor, and geophysicist, and a Fellow of the Royal Society.

Quakers

QuakerSociety of FriendsFriends
A Friend (Quaker) like his mentor Thomas Tompion, Graham left Cumberland in 1688 for London to work with Tompion.

Lever escapement

escapement wheellever watchSilicon escapement wheel
Between 1730 and 1738, Graham had as an apprentice Thomas Mudge, who went on to be an eminent watchmaker in his own right, and invented the lever escapement, an important development for pocket watches.

Edmond Halley

HalleyEdmund HalleyE. Halley
Graham made for Edmond Halley the great mural quadrant at Greenwich Observatory, and also the fine transit instrument and the zenith sector used by James Bradley in his discoveries.

Royal Observatory, Greenwich

Royal ObservatoryGreenwichGreenwich Observatory
Graham made for Edmond Halley the great mural quadrant at Greenwich Observatory, and also the fine transit instrument and the zenith sector used by James Bradley in his discoveries. However it was actually invented around 1675 by astronomer Richard Towneley, and first used by Graham's mentor Thomas Tompion in a clock built for Sir Jonas Moore, and in the two precision regulators he made for the new Greenwich Observatory in 1676, mentioned in correspondence between Astronomer Royal John Flamsteed and Towneley

Transit instrument

transit telescopetransitmeridian circle
Graham made for Edmond Halley the great mural quadrant at Greenwich Observatory, and also the fine transit instrument and the zenith sector used by James Bradley in his discoveries.

Zenith telescope

zenith sectorphotographic zenith tube
Graham made for Edmond Halley the great mural quadrant at Greenwich Observatory, and also the fine transit instrument and the zenith sector used by James Bradley in his discoveries.

James Bradley

BradleyBradley, James
Graham made for Edmond Halley the great mural quadrant at Greenwich Observatory, and also the fine transit instrument and the zenith sector used by James Bradley in his discoveries.

Board of Longitude

Commissioner for the discovery of longitudeCommissioners for the discovery of longitude at seaCommissioners of Longitude
Graham later presented Harrison to the Board of Longitude, speaking on his behalf and securing additional funding from the Board.

Jonas Moore

Jonas Moore IMoore, Jonas
However it was actually invented around 1675 by astronomer Richard Towneley, and first used by Graham's mentor Thomas Tompion in a clock built for Sir Jonas Moore, and in the two precision regulators he made for the new Greenwich Observatory in 1676, mentioned in correspondence between Astronomer Royal John Flamsteed and Towneley

John Flamsteed

FlamsteedFlamsteed, JohnSir John Flamsteed
However it was actually invented around 1675 by astronomer Richard Towneley, and first used by Graham's mentor Thomas Tompion in a clock built for Sir Jonas Moore, and in the two precision regulators he made for the new Greenwich Observatory in 1676, mentioned in correspondence between Astronomer Royal John Flamsteed and Towneley

Bury St Edmunds

BuryBury St. EdmundsSt Edmundsbury
1745 Moyse's Hall Museum Bury St Edmunds UK