George I of Great Britain

George IKing George IKing GeorgeGeorge LouisGeorg Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Elector of the Holy Roman EmpireKing George I of Great BritainGeorge I of Great Britain, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Elector of the Holy Roman EmpireGeorge Louis, Elector of HanoverGeorgeGeorge I Louis
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death in 1727.wikipedia
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House of Hanover

HanoverianHanoverHanoverians
At the age of 54, after the death of his second cousin Anne, Queen of Great Britain, George ascended the British throne as the first monarch of the House of Hanover.
George I became the first Hanoverian monarch of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714.

Anne, Queen of Great Britain

Queen AnneAnnePrincess Anne
At the age of 54, after the death of his second cousin Anne, Queen of Great Britain, George ascended the British throne as the first monarch of the House of Hanover.
Under the Act of Settlement 1701, which excluded all Catholics, she was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover.

Act of Settlement 1701

Act of SettlementHanoverian succession1701 Act of Settlement
Although over 50 Roman Catholics were closer to Anne by primogeniture, the Act of Settlement 1701 prohibited Catholics from inheriting the British throne; George was Anne's closest living Protestant relative. Eventually, in 1707, both Parliaments agreed on an Act of Union, which united England and Scotland into a single political entity, the Kingdom of Great Britain, and established the rules of succession as laid down by the Act of Settlement 1701.
On Queen Anne's death, Sophia's son duly became King George I and started the Hanoverian dynasty in Britain.

Jacobite line of succession to the English and Scottish thrones in 1714

Roman Catholics were closerStuart
Although over 50 Roman Catholics were closer to Anne by primogeniture, the Act of Settlement 1701 prohibited Catholics from inheriting the British throne; George was Anne's closest living Protestant relative.
The succession thus fell to George Ludwig, Elector of Hanover, the eldest son of Electress Sophia (who had died a few months before), to the British throne.

Hanover

HannoverHanover, GermanyHannover, Germany
George was born in Hanover and inherited the titles and lands of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg from his father and uncles. George was born on 28 May 1660 in the city of Hanover in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire.
The first of these was George I Louis, who acceded to the British throne in 1714.

Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg

HanoverHanoverianElectorate of Hanover
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death in 1727.
In 1705 Elector George I Louis inherited the Principality of Lüneburg with the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg upon the death of his uncle Duke George William of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

Sophia Dorothea of Celle

Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-CelleSophie DorotheaDuchess Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Celle
George's surviving uncle, George William of Celle, had married his mistress in order to legitimise his only daughter, Sophia Dorothea, but looked unlikely to have any further children.
Sophia Dorothea of Celle (15 September 1666 – 13 November 1726) was the repudiated wife of future King George I of Great Britain, and mother of George II.

Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia

Elizabeth StuartPrincess ElizabethElizabeth
Sophia was the granddaughter of King James I of England through her mother, Elizabeth of Bohemia.
With the demise of the last Stuart monarch in 1714, Elizabeth's grandson succeeded to the British throne as George I of Great Britain, initiating the Hanover line of succession.

Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg

BrunswickBrunswick-LüneburgDuke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
George was born on 28 May 1660 in the city of Hanover in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire.
After the death of Duke George William of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1705, King George I inherited the state of Lüneburg with his wife, the Duke's daughter, Sophie Dorothea, later known as the "Princess of Ahlden".

Jacobitism

JacobiteJacobitesJacobite cause
In reaction, Jacobites attempted to depose George and replace him with Anne's Catholic half-brother, James Francis Edward Stuart, but their attempts failed.
Sophia died two months before Anne in August 1714; her son became George I and the pro-Hanoverian Whigs controlled government for the next 30 years.

George II of Great Britain

George IIKing George IIPrince of Wales
In 1683, George and his brother, Frederick Augustus, served in the Great Turkish War at the Battle of Vienna, and Sophia Dorothea bore George a son, George Augustus.
After the deaths of Sophia and Anne, Queen of Great Britain, in 1714, his father George I, Elector of Hanover, inherited the British throne.

Robert Walpole

Sir Robert WalpoleWalpoleMr. Walpool
Towards the end of his reign, actual political power was held by Robert Walpole, now recognised as Britain's first de facto prime minister.
Under the Act of Settlement 1701, which excluded Roman Catholics from the line of succession, Anne was succeeded by her second cousin, the Elector of Hanover, George I.

Philip Christoph von Königsmarck

Count of KönigsmarckLieutenant KönigsmarckPhilip Christoph
The couple became estranged—George preferred the company of his mistress, Melusine von der Schulenburg, and Sophia Dorothea, meanwhile, had her own romance with the Swedish Count Philip Christoph von Königsmarck.
He was allegedly the lover of Sophia Dorothea, Princess of Celle, the wife of Duke George Louis of Brunswick and Lüneburg, the heir presumptive of the Principality of Calenberg, later to become Elector of Hanover (as George I Louis, 1708) and King of Great Britain (as George I, 1714).

George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

George WilliamDuke George WilliamDuke George William of Brunswick-Lüneburg
George's surviving uncle, George William of Celle, had married his mistress in order to legitimise his only daughter, Sophia Dorothea, but looked unlikely to have any further children.
George William was the father of Sophia Dorothea of Celle, wife of George I of Great Britain.

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Prime MinisterBritish Prime MinisterUK Prime Minister
Towards the end of his reign, actual political power was held by Robert Walpole, now recognised as Britain's first de facto prime minister.
Although George I (1714–1727) attended Cabinet meetings at first, after 1717 he withdrew because he did not speak fluent English and was bored with the discussions.

Celle

Celle, GermanyCity of CelleEicklingen
With the agreement of her father, George had Sophia Dorothea imprisoned in Ahlden House in her native Celle, where she stayed until she died more than thirty years later.
In August 1714, George Elector of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick–Lüneburg (King George I) ascended to the British throne.

Ahlden House

With the agreement of her father, George had Sophia Dorothea imprisoned in Ahlden House in her native Celle, where she stayed until she died more than thirty years later.
It is principally known as the place of imprisonment of Sophia Dorothea of Celle, otherwise Sophie Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg, wife of George I of Great Britain and the mother of George II of Great Britain.

James Francis Edward Stuart

James StuartOld PretenderJames III
In reaction, Jacobites attempted to depose George and replace him with Anne's Catholic half-brother, James Francis Edward Stuart, but their attempts failed.
As a result, in August 1714, James's second cousin, the Elector of Hanover, George Louis, a German-speaking Protestant who was the closest Protestant relative of the now deceased Queen Anne, became king of the recently created Kingdom of Great Britain as George I. James denounced the new King, noting "we have beheld a foreign family, aliens to our country, distant in blood, and strangers even to our language, ascend the throne."

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

LeibnizGottfried LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
His court in Hanover was graced by many cultural icons such as the mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz and the composers George Frideric Händel and Agostino Steffani.
In turn, they all approved of Leibniz more than did their spouses and the future king George I of Great Britain.

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

Duke of MarlboroughMarlboroughJohn Churchill
His tenure was not altogether successful, partly because he was deceived by his ally, the Duke of Marlborough, into a diversionary attack, and partly because Emperor Joseph I appropriated the funds necessary for George's campaign for his own use.
He returned to England and to influence under the House of Hanover with the accession of George I to the British throne in 1714.

Monarchy of the United Kingdom

MonarchBritish monarchQueen
At the age of 54, after the death of his second cousin Anne, Queen of Great Britain, George ascended the British throne as the first monarch of the House of Hanover.
In 1714, Queen Anne was succeeded by her second cousin, and Sophia's son, George I, Elector of Hanover, who consolidated his position by defeating Jacobite rebellions in 1715 and 1719.

Whigs (British political party)

WhigWhigsWhig Party
Whig politicians believed Parliament had the right to determine the succession, and bestow it on the nearest Protestant relative of the Queen, while many Tories were more inclined to believe in the hereditary right of the Catholic Stuarts, who were nearer relations.
The Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained totally dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories back in. The Whig Supremacy (1715–1760) was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715 by Tory rebels.

Kingdom of Great Britain

Great BritainBritishBritain
Eventually, in 1707, both Parliaments agreed on an Act of Union, which united England and Scotland into a single political entity, the Kingdom of Great Britain, and established the rules of succession as laid down by the Act of Settlement 1701.
| leader2 = George I

George Frideric Handel

HandelHändelHaendel
His court in Hanover was graced by many cultural icons such as the mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz and the composers George Frideric Händel and Agostino Steffani.
In 1710, Handel became Kapellmeister to German prince George, the Elector of Hanover, who in 1714 would become King George I of Great Britain and Ireland.

Coronation riots

Major riotsriotingcoronation of George I
His coronation was accompanied by rioting in over twenty towns in England.
The coronation riots of October 1714 were a series of riots in southern and western England in protest against the coronation of the first Hanoverian king of Britain, George I.