A report on Georgia (country)

"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map
Patera depicting Marcus Aurelius uncovered in central Georgia, 2nd century AD
Northwestern Georgia is home to the medieval defensive Svan towers of Ushguli
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Queen Tamar, the first woman to rule medieval Georgia in her own right.
King Vakhtang VI, a Georgian monarch caught between rival regional powers
The reign of George XII was marked by instability.
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of Georgia who was exiled to France after the Soviet takeover
The Bolshevik Red Army in Tbilisi on 25 February 1921. Saint David's church on the Holy Mountain is visible in the distance.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
The Rose Revolution, 2003
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice holding a joint press conference with Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili during the Russo-Georgian war
Salome Zourabichvili, the first woman elected as president of Georgia
Presidential residence at the Orbeliani Palace in Tbilisi
Pro-NATO poster in Tbilisi
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
Georgian built Didgori-2 during the military parade in 2011
A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor operated by the Georgian Patrol Police.
Map of Georgia highlighting the disputed territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region (South Ossetia), both of which are outside the control of the central government of Georgia
Köppen climate classification map of Georgia
Mount Kazbek in eastern Georgia
Svaneti region of Georgia
View of the cave city of Vardzia and the valley of the Kura River below
Georgia's diverse climate creates varied landscapes, like these flat marshlands in the country's west
Southwest Georgia has a subtropical climate, with frequent rain and thick green vegetation
Georgian Shepherd Dog
GDP per capita development since 1973
A proportional representation of Georgia's exports in 2019
One of several plants operated by HeidelbergCement in Georgia
Wine-making is a traditional component of the Georgian economy.
The most visited ski resort of Georgia, Gudauri
The Georgian Railways represent a vital artery linking the Black Sea and Caspian Sea – the shortest route between Europe and Central Asia.
Port of Batumi
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region
Tbilisi State University, Corpus I
Illuminated manuscript from medieval Georgia, showing a scene from nativity
Old Tbilisi – Architecture in Georgia is in many ways a fusion of European and Asian.
Rather than serving food in courses, traditional supras often present all that a host has to offer
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.
Dinamo Tbilisi, winner of 1981 European Cup Winners' Cup on stamp of Georgia, 2002
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.

Country located in the Caucasus, at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, identifying itself as European.

- Georgia (country)

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Landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.

Landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.

Historical Armenia, 150 BC
Armenian soldier of the Achaemenid army, circa 470 BC. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The pagan Garni Temple, probably built in the first century, is the only "Greco-Roman colonnaded building" in the post-Soviet states
The Etchmiadzin Cathedral, Armenia's Mother Church traditionally dated 303 AD, is considered the oldest cathedral in the world.
The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, 1198–1375.
In 1501–02, most of the Eastern Armenian territories including Yerevan were conquered by the emerging Safavid dynasty of Iran led by Shah Ismail I.
Capture of Erivan fortress by Russian troops in 1827 during the Russo-Persian War (1826–28) by Franz Roubaud.
Armenian genocide victims in 1915
The Government house of the First Republic of Armenia (1918–1920).
Advance of the 11th Red Army into the city of Yerevan.
The coat of arms of Soviet Armenia depicting Mount Ararat in the centre.
Armenians gather at Theater Square in central Yerevan to claim unification of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast with the Armenian SSR.
Armenian soldiers in 2008, during the ongoing and unresolved Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
21 September 2011 parade in Yerevan, marking the 20th anniversary of Armenia's re-independence.
Armenia's mountainous and volcanic topography.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Armenia.
Carbon dioxide emissions in metric tons per capita in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Germany, Italy, USA in 2000–2012. World Bank data.
The National Assembly in Yerevan
U.S. Secretary Mike Pompeo with Armenian President Armen Sarkissian
Russian President Vladimir Putin shakes hands with Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan.
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev at Armenian Genocide memorial in Yerevan.
Armenian Air Force Su-25s during a military parade.
In April 2018, a quasi-authoritarian regime collapsed as a result of a nationwide protest movement in Armenia
Geghard monastery, Kotayk Province
A proportional representation of Armenia exports, 2019
Yerevan is the economic and cultural centre of Armenia.
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD)to GDP ratio for the Black Sea countries, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 12.3
GERD in the Black Sea region by sector of performance, 2005 and 2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 12.5
Yerevan State University building
Population pyramid 2016
The Armenian population around the world
'''Historical and modern distribution of Armenians.
'''Settlement area of Armenians in early 20th century:
Armenian-language writing.
Portal to the Holy City at Echmiazin, the seat of the Catholicos
The 7th-century Khor Virap monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat, the peak on which Noah's Ark is said to have landed during the biblical flood.
Traditional Armenian dance
The Vazgen Sargsyan Republican Stadium in Yerevan
The Armenia national football team in Dublin, Ireland
Chess Grandmaster Levon Aronian is a former FIDE No. 2 rated player and the fourth highest rated player in history.
Ancient Armenian Khachkars (cross-stones)
Queen Zabel's Return to the Palace, Vardges Sureniants (1909)
Armenian cuisine
Armenian wine

It is a part of the Caucasus region; and is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the Lachin corridor (under a Russian peacekeeping force ) and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.


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Transcontinental country located at the boundary of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

Transcontinental country located at the boundary of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

Petroglyphs in Gobustan National Park dating back to the 10th millennium BC indicating a thriving culture.
Territories of the khanates (and sultanates) in the 18th–19th century
The siege of Ganja Fortress in 1804 during the Russo-Persian War of 1804–1813
Map presented by the delegation of Azerbaijan in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference
Soviet Army paratroopers during the Black January tragedy in 1990
Military situation in the Nagorno-Karabakh region prior to the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Azerbaijan.
Caucasus Mountains in northern Azerbaijan
Mount Bazarduzu, the highest peak of Azerbaijan, as seen from Mount Shahdagh
The landscape of Khinalug valley
Murovdag is the highest mountain range in the Lesser Caucasus.
The Karabakh horse is the national animal of Azerbaijan.
Government building in Baku
The son of former President Heydar Aliyev, Ilham Aliyev, succeeded his father and has remained in power since 2003.
President İlham Aliyev with President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, 31 October 2017
Ilham Aliyev with Russian president Vladimir Putin at the Caspian Sea Summit in Aktau, Kazakhstan, August 2018
Azerbaijani Navy fleet during the 2011 military parade in Baku
Contingent from the Azerbaijani military during the Moscow Victory Day Parade, 9 May 2015
Azerbaijan is divided into 14 economic regions.
Change in per capita GDP of Azerbaijan since 1973. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
A proportional representation of Azerbaijan exports, 2019
A pumping unit for the mechanical extraction of oil on the outskirts of Baku
The South Caucasus Pipeline is bringing natural gas through Turkey to Europe
Shahdag Mountain Resort is the country's largest winter resort.
Shamakhi Astrophysical Observatory
Population pyramid
The Bibi-Heybat Mosque in Baku. The mosque is built over the tomb of a descendant of Muhammad.
Classroom in Dunya School
Uzeyir Hajibeyov merged traditional Azerbaijani music with Western styles in the early 20th century.
Alim Qasimov performs mugham at Eurovision Song Contest 2012. The Azerbaijani Mugham was inscribed in 2008 as a UNESCO Masterpiece of Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Painting of Khurshidbanu Natavan, one of the most distinguished Azerbaijani poets. She was also the daughter of the last ruler of the Karabakh Khanate.
Traditional Azerbaijani clothing and musical instruments
Handwork coppery in Lahij
Dolma, a traditional Azerbaijani meal
Momine Khatun Mausoleum in Nakhchivan built in the 12th century
A miniature painting of a battle scene on the walls of the Palace of Shaki Khans, 18th century, city of Shaki
Scene from the Azerbaijani film In the Kingdom of Oil and Millions, 1916
Rashadat Akhundov, the co-founder of Nida Civic Movement, was sentenced to 8 years of imprisonment on 6 May 2014.
Baku National Stadium was used for the first European Games in June 2015.
Usta Gambar Karabakhi – Tree of Life
Mirza Gadim Iravani – Portrait of sitting woman
Bahruz Kangarli – Landscape with mountains
Azim Azimzade – Ruins of Reichstag

It is a part of the South Caucasus region, and is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia (Republic of Dagestan) to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia and Turkey to the west, and Iran to the south.


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Anchiskhati Basilica is the oldest surviving church in Tbilisi
Detail from the Nautical chart by Angelino Dulcert, depicting Georgian Black Sea coast and Tiflis, 1339
Tbilisi according to French traveler Jean Chardin, 1671
A 1717 illustration of Teflis by Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
The coat of arms of Tiflis under Russian rule
Tiflis by Mikhail Lermontov, 1837
The Red Army entered Tbilisi on 25 February 1921
City Council building overlooking Freedom Square
A police station on Agmashenebeli Avenue
Tbilisi, especially Old Town, has a complex terrain, with hills and cliffs
The National Botanical Garden of Georgia in Tbilisi is concealed from view as it resides among the hills of the Sololaki Range
Tbilisi Sea is the largest body of water in Tbilisi.
Preparations for the 2015 UEFA Super Cup at the Dinamo Arena in Tbilisi
Rustaveli Theatre seen on the Rustaveli Avenue
Open-air cafés in Old Tbilisi
Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre
Tbilisi Art Gallery
High-rise residential and office buildings in Vake.
Tbilisi International Airport
Public School Number 1 of Tbilisi, also known as the First Classical Gymnasium
Tbilisi State University, Building I
Remnants of city walls, recently found in central Tbilisi
Tbilisi Platz in Saarbrücken, Germany.
"Dry Bridge", constructed by Italian architect Antonio Scudieri
View on Golovin Avenue as seen from the site of present-day Freedom Square
Building of the Tbilisi City Hall
Grand Hotel "Kavkaz" in central Tbilisi, c 1900
Building of the Art Museum of Georgia, built at the end of the 1830s, photo ca. 1900
Tatar bazaar and with the Metekhi Orthodox church seen on the cliff
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, demolished by the Soviets to make way for the present Parliament building
Sameba cathedral and the president’s palace, Tbilisi, Georgia
Freedom square (Tavisupleba) with St. George column at night, Tbilisi, September 2018
Freedom square in central Tbilisi with statue of St. George fighting the dragon

Tbilisi (თბილისი ), in some languages still known by its pre-1936 name Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.

Mount Elbrus


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Mount Elbrus
Mount Bazardüzü
Mount Shahdagh
Contemporary political map of the Caucasus
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region in 2014
Petroglyphs in Gobustan, Azerbaijan, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, dating back to 10,000 BC
Kingdom of Georgia at the peak of its might, early 13th century.
Circassian strike on a Russian military fort in the Caucasus, 1840
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
View of the Caucasus Mountains in Dagestan, Russia
Rosa Khutor alpine ski resort near Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi, Russia, the site of the 2014 Winter Olympics venue
Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Armenia, original building completed in 303 AD, a religious centre of Armenia. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Georgia, original building completed in the 4th century. It was a religious centre of monarchical Georgia. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Northwest Caucasus caftan, 8-10th century, from the region of Alania.
Svaneti defensive tower houses
Palace of the Shirvanshahs, 13-th-15th centuries
Imamzadeh of Ganja, 7th-9th centuries
Celebration of Ashura, (Persian:Shakhsey-Vakhsey),19th century
Shamakhi, 19th century

The Caucasus, or Caucasia , is a region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea; mainly comprising Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia.

Location of Georgia (including Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and Russian North Caucasus

Russo-Georgian War

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Location of Georgia (including Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and Russian North Caucasus
Fragment of the 1856 map by J. H. Colton, showing the territory of modern South Ossetia within Georgia and Imeria. Modern North Ossetia corresponds to "Ossia" (Ossetia) in the North Caucasus. Ossetia became part of the Mountain ASSR in 1921 and was renamed into North Ossetia only in 1924.
Creation of the South Ossetian AO in the place of Georgian regions in 1922.
U.S. President George W. Bush and Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili in Tbilisi, May 2005
Russian President Vladimir Putin at the 2008 Bucharest Summit
Situation in Georgia before the war
Russian BMP-2 from the 58th Army in South Ossetia
Destroyed Georgian tank in Tskhinvali
Nearly-intact Russian missile booster in a Gori house
Destroyed apartment houses after air raid of Russian army at Gori, picture taken 10 September 2008.
An air raid of the Russian army in August 2008 destroyed this house in Gori
"The Price of Independence", artwork on a residential building damaged by Russian strikes during the war in downtown Gori
Russian guided-missile ship 12341 Mirazh (Mirage) in Sevastopol
Joint press conference by Russian president Dmitry Medvedev and French President Nicolas Sarkozy after negotiations on the plan
Georgian police (left) and Russian soldiers evacuating destroyed Russian tank (right) after war of August 2008 (north of Gori, 10 October 2008).
Russian forces stayed in South Ossetia after the conflict, including at the Java base (pictured)
Sergey Bagapsh (left), Dmitry Medvedev (middle) and Eduard Kokoity (right) shortly after the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
BTC pipeline (green) and planned Nabucco gas pipeline (tangerine)
South Ossetian refugees in a camp in Alagir, North Ossetia
A burning house in the Georgian village of Kekhvi, on the road from Tskhinvali to Java.
After the Russian-Georgian war of August 2008, the construction of houses for refugees started very soon (near Gori, 10 October 2008)
Tserovani, one of the villages built by the Georgian government for IDPs from the conflict zone
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili at a Tbilisi press conference, August 2008
Georgian Coast Guard patrol boat P-24 Sokhumi passes the USS McFaul (DDG-74) on its arrival at the port of Batumi
Buk-M1 air defence system
Georgian DANA howitzer
Russian Tu-22M3
Woman crying for help during the bombing of Gori

The 2008 Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, on one side, and Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, on the other.


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The Kingdom of Abkhazia was united through dynastic succession with the newly formed Kingdom of Georgia in 1008 when Bagrat II of Abkhazia became Bagrat III of Georgia.
The borders of the Sukhumi District of the Kutaisi Governorate in 1899 when Abkhazia was part of the Russian Empire.
Abkhaz and Georgian generals in the Imperial Russian Army, 19th century
Map of the Soviet Caucasus (1957–91) showing the Abkhaz ASSR within the Georgian SSR.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
Exhibition at the 2005 commemoration of the ethnic cleansing in Abkhazia, held on its 12th anniversary in Tbilisi.
Abkhazians carrying the republic's flags in a parade.
Seaside in Pitsunda, Abkhazia in 2006
Map of Georgia highlighting Abkhazia (green) and South Ossetia (purple).
The Russian embassy in Sukhumi
Dmitry Medvedev (centre, with dark tie) visited the Russian military base in Gudauta in 2010
The leaders of Abkhazia, Russia and South Ossetia, shortly after the 2008 war. Left to right: South Ossetian President Eduard Kokoity; Russian President Dmitry Medvedev; Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov; Abkhazian President Sergei Bagapsh.
Border checkpoint on the Psou River
The breakaway republics of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno-Karabakh within the Caucasus region
Abkhazian President Alexander Ankvab with Transnistrian President Yevgeny Shevchuk in September 2013
"View of Mount Agepsta and Turyi gory (Tur Mountains) from the top of Kamennyi Stolb, Aibga Ridge.", 2014.
View from Pitsunda cape
Logo of the Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
1) Gagra
2) Gudauta
3) Sukhumi
4) Gulripshi
5) Ochamchira
6) Tkvarcheli
7) Gali
Beach in Gagra in May 2014
New Athos monastery in Abkhazia
Russian Drama Theatre. Sukhumi, Abkhazia.
Daur Akhvlediani Stadium, Gagra

Abkhazia ( or ), officially the Republic of Abkhazia, is a partially recognised state in the South Caucasus, recognised by most countries as part of Georgia, which views the region as an autonomous republic.


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Transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

Transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
Topographic map of Turkey
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.

It shares borders with the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east; Iraq to the southeast; Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest.

The Georgian kings, queens consort and the Catholicos-Patriarch depicted on a Byzantine-influenced fresco wearing Byzantine dress at the Gelati Monastery, UNESCO's World Heritage Site landmark.


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The Georgian kings, queens consort and the Catholicos-Patriarch depicted on a Byzantine-influenced fresco wearing Byzantine dress at the Gelati Monastery, UNESCO's World Heritage Site landmark.
Georgian peasant in Mestia, c. 1888
Armour of King Alexander III of Imereti with golden plates.
The Bagrati Cathedral, The Cathedral of the Dormition, built during the reign of King Bagrat III, one of Georgia's most significant medieval religious buildings returned to its original state in 2012.
Georgians having a feast at Supra and Tamada making a toast. Painting by Niko Pirosmani.

The Georgians, or Kartvelians (ქართველები, ), are a nation and indigenous Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia and the South Caucasus.

South Ossetia

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Landlocked and partially recognised state in the South Caucasus.

Landlocked and partially recognised state in the South Caucasus.

Fragment of 1856 map by J. H. Colton depicting Caucasus region. Modern South Ossetia is located below the green "Ossia", which approximately corresponds to modern North Ossetia
Historical Russian map of the Caucasus region at the beginning of the 19th century
Ossetian migration over time
Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921) in 1921
Creation of South Ossetian AO on historical Georgian regions in 1922
Map of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast in 1922
Map of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1957–1991
Georgian Civil War in October–December 1993
South Ossetia before the war
Tskhinvali in August 2008
Map of Georgia highlighting South Ossetia (purple) and Abkhazia (green)
Topographic map of South Ossetia (Polish transcription)
Russian Presidential Decree No. 1261 recognising South Ossetian independence.
Ethnic map of the Caucasus from 1995 Ossetians live in North and South Ossetia.
Palm Sunday procession in Tskhinvali
The Dzuarikau–Tskhinvali pipeline, delivering natural gas from Russia to South Ossetia, went online in 2009.

Although Georgia does not control South Ossetia, the Georgian government and the United Nations consider the territory part of Georgia, whose constitution designates the area as "the former autonomous district of South Ossetia", in reference to the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast disbanded in 1990.

Coat of arms of the Orthodox Church of Georgia

Georgian Orthodox Church

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Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.

Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.

Coat of arms of the Orthodox Church of Georgia
Saint Nino of Cappadocia, baptizer of the Georgians.
Jvari Monastery, near Mtskheta, one of Georgia's oldest surviving monasteries (6th century)
A page from a rare 12th century Gelati Gospel depicting the Nativity
The Khakhuli triptych
Patriarch Anton II of Georgia was downgraded to the status of an archbishop by the Russian Imperial authorities.
Eparchies of the Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church as of 2010
The Holy Trinity Church (Tsminda Sameba) of Gergeti, in the mountains of Khevi

It is Georgia's dominant religious institution, and a majority of Georgian people are members.