Georgia (country)

GeorgiaGeorgianRepublic of GeorgiaGeorgiansSakartveloGeorgian RepublicGE GeorgiaSouthern GeorgiaGEO
Georgia, known until 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.wikipedia
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Caucasus

CaucasianCaucasiathe Caucasus
Georgia, known until 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia.

Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan.
Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south.

Azerbaijan

Republic of AzerbaijanAzerbaijan RepublicAZE
Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan.
It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan.
From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea.

Armenia

ArmenianRepublic of ArmeniaARM
Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan.
on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.

Tbilisi

TiflisTbilisi, GeorgiaTbilissi
The capital and largest city is Tbilisi.
Tbilisi, in some countries also still known by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.

List of cities and towns in Georgia (country)

cityList of cities in Georgiacities
The capital and largest city is Tbilisi.
The following list of Georgian cities is divided into three lists for Georgia itself, and the disputed territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

Georgian Orthodox Church

Georgian OrthodoxGeorgianEastern Orthodox Church
The Georgian Orthodox Church had enormous importance for the spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states.
It is Georgia's dominant religious institution, and a majority of Georgian people are members.

Georgia within the Russian Empire

GeorgiaRussian ruleRussian annexation of Georgia
In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810.
The country of Georgia became part of the Russian Empire in the 19th century.

List of historical states of Georgia

Georgian kingdomsGeorgian statesseveral states
The Georgian Orthodox Church had enormous importance for the spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states.
This is an incomplete list of states that have existed on the present-day territory of Georgia since ancient times.

Democratic Republic of Georgia

GeorgiaGeorgian Democratic RepublicGeorgian
During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia briefly became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and then emerged as an independent republic before the Russian army invasion in 1921, which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets.
The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა ) existed from May 1918 to February 1921 and was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia.

Treaty of Georgievsk

an allianceprotectiontreaty
In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810.
The Treaty of Georgievsk (Георгиевский трактат, Georgievskiy traktat; გეორგიევსკის ტრაქტატი, georgievskis trakt'at'i) was a bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti on July 24, 1783.

Kingdom of Georgia

GeorgiaGeorgianGeorgian Kingdom
The Georgian Orthodox Church had enormous importance for the spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states. The unified Kingdom of Georgia reached its Golden Age during the reign of King David the Builder and Queen Tamar the Great in the 12th and early 13th centuries. The native name is Sakartvelo (საქართველო; "land of Kartvelians"), derived from the core central Georgian region of Kartli, recorded from the 9th century, and in extended usage referring to the entire medieval Kingdom of Georgia by the 13th century.
It was the principal historical precursor of present-day Georgia.

Abkhazia

Republic of AbkhaziaAutonomous Republic of AbkhaziaAbkhaz
For most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and economic crisis.
Abkhazia is a de facto sovereign state that is internationally recognized as an autonomous republic of Georgia.

Joseph Stalin

StalinJosef StalinJosif Stalin
After Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, a native Georgian, died in 1953, a wave of protest spread against Nikita Khrushchev and his de-Stalinization reforms, leading to the death of nearly one hundred students in 1956.
Born to a poor family in Gori in the Russian Empire (now Georgia), Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party as a youth.

South Ossetia

Republic of South OssetiaSouth OssetianOssetians
For most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and economic crisis.
South Ossetia (, less commonly ), officially the Republic of South Ossetia – the State of Alania, or the Tskhinvali Region, is a de facto sovereign state and disputed territory in the South Caucasus, in the northern part of the internationally recognised Georgian territory.

Georgian Civil War

civil warcivil unrestcivil strife
For most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and economic crisis.
The Georgian Civil War was a civil war in Georgia consisting of inter-ethnic and intranational conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1988–1992) and Abkhazia (1992–1993), as well as the violent military coup d'état of December 22, 1991 – December 31, 1993, against the first democratically elected President of Georgia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia and his subsequent uprising in an attempt to regain power (1993).

Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic

Transcaucasian FederationTranscaucasian Federative RepublicTranscaucasia
During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia briefly became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and then emerged as an independent republic before the Russian army invasion in 1921, which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets.
The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR; Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика ; Zakavkazskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika (ZKDFR); 22 April – 28 May 1918), also known as the Transcaucasian Federation, was a short-lived South Caucasian state extending across what are now the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, plus parts of Eastern Turkey as well as Russian border areas.

Kingdom of Iberia (antiquity)

IberiaKingdom of IberiaIberian
During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis and Iberia.
Iberia, centered on present-day Eastern Georgia, was bordered by Colchis in the west, Caucasian Albania in the east and Armenia in the south.

Rose Revolution

GeorgiaRose2003 Georgian demonstrations
Following the bloodless Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia strongly pursued a pro-Western foreign policy; aimed at NATO and European integration, it introduced a series of democratic and economic reforms.
The Revolution of Roses, often translated into English as the Rose Revolution (ვარდების რევოლუცია vardebis revolutsia), was a pro-Western peaceful change of power in Georgia in November 2003.

Red Army invasion of Georgia

Soviet invasion of GeorgiaSoviet takeover of Georgiainvaded
During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia briefly became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and then emerged as an independent republic before the Russian army invasion in 1921, which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets.
The conflict was a result of expansionist policy by the Russians, who aimed to control as much as possible of the lands which had been part of the former Russian Empire until the turbulent events of the First World War, as well as the revolutionary efforts of mostly Russian-based Georgian Bolsheviks, who did not have sufficient support in their native country to seize power without external intervention.

Georgian Golden Age

Golden AgeGeorgian Renaissanceits Golden Age
The unified Kingdom of Georgia reached its Golden Age during the reign of King David the Builder and Queen Tamar the Great in the 12th and early 13th centuries.
As a result of these processes, by the 15th century Georgia fractured and turned into an isolated enclave, largely cutoff from Christian Europe and surrounded by hostile Turco-Iranic neighbors.

GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development

GUAMOrganization for Democracy and Economic DevelopmentOrganization for Democracy and Economic Development (GUAM)
The country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development.
The GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova.

Kartli

K'art'liKartaliaKingdom of Kartli
The native name is Sakartvelo (საქართველო; "land of Kartvelians"), derived from the core central Georgian region of Kartli, recorded from the 9th century, and in extended usage referring to the entire medieval Kingdom of Georgia by the 13th century.
Kartli is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari (Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated.

Alexander Mikaberidze

Mikaberidze, Alexander
As Prof. Alexander Mikaberidze adds, these century-old explanations for the word Georgia/Georgians are rejected by the scholarly community, who point to the Persian word gurğ/gurğān ("wolf" ) as the root of the word.
Alexander Mikaberidze (ალექსანდრე მიქაბერიძე; born 27 January 1978) is a Georgian lawyer, author and historian who specializes in Napoleonic studies, Russian history and Georgian history.