The Georgian kings, queens consort and the Catholicos-Patriarch depicted on a Byzantine-influenced fresco wearing Byzantine dress at the Gelati Monastery, UNESCO's World Heritage Site landmark.
Georgian peasant in Mestia, c. 1888
"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map
Armour of King Alexander III of Imereti with golden plates.
The Bagrati Cathedral, The Cathedral of the Dormition, built during the reign of King Bagrat III, one of Georgia's most significant medieval religious buildings returned to its original state in 2012.
Patera depicting Marcus Aurelius uncovered in central Georgia, 2nd century AD
Georgians having a feast at Supra and Tamada making a toast. Painting by Niko Pirosmani.
Northwestern Georgia is home to the medieval defensive Svan towers of Ushguli
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Queen Tamar, the first woman to rule medieval Georgia in her own right.
King Vakhtang VI, a Georgian monarch caught between rival regional powers
The reign of George XII was marked by instability.
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of Georgia who was exiled to France after the Soviet takeover
The Bolshevik Red Army in Tbilisi on 25 February 1921. Saint David's church on the Holy Mountain is visible in the distance.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
The Rose Revolution, 2003
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice holding a joint press conference with Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili during the Russo-Georgian war
Salome Zourabichvili, the first woman elected as president of Georgia
Presidential residence at the Orbeliani Palace in Tbilisi
Pro-NATO poster in Tbilisi
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
Georgian built Didgori-2 during the military parade in 2011
A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor operated by the Georgian Patrol Police.
Map of Georgia highlighting the disputed territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region (South Ossetia), both of which are outside the control of the central government of Georgia
Köppen climate classification map of Georgia
Mount Kazbek in eastern Georgia
Svaneti region of Georgia
View of the cave city of Vardzia and the valley of the Kura River below
Georgia's diverse climate creates varied landscapes, like these flat marshlands in the country's west
Southwest Georgia has a subtropical climate, with frequent rain and thick green vegetation
Georgian Shepherd Dog
GDP per capita development since 1973
A proportional representation of Georgia's exports in 2019
One of several plants operated by HeidelbergCement in Georgia
Wine-making is a traditional component of the Georgian economy.
The most visited ski resort of Georgia, Gudauri
The Georgian Railways represent a vital artery linking the Black Sea and Caspian Sea – the shortest route between Europe and Central Asia.
Port of Batumi
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region
Tbilisi State University, Corpus I
Illuminated manuscript from medieval Georgia, showing a scene from nativity
Old Tbilisi – Architecture in Georgia is in many ways a fusion of European and Asian.
Rather than serving food in courses, traditional supras often present all that a host has to offer
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.
Dinamo Tbilisi, winner of 1981 European Cup Winners' Cup on stamp of Georgia, 2002
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.

The Georgians, or Kartvelians (ქართველები, ), are a nation and indigenous Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia and the South Caucasus.

- Georgians

In the early 4th century, ethnic Georgians officially adopted Christianity, which contributed to the spiritual and political unification of the early Georgian states.

- Georgia (country)

19 related topics


Mount Elbrus


Mount Elbrus
Mount Bazardüzü
Mount Shahdagh
Contemporary political map of the Caucasus
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region in 2014
Petroglyphs in Gobustan, Azerbaijan, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, dating back to 10,000 BC
Kingdom of Georgia at the peak of its might, early 13th century.
Circassian strike on a Russian military fort in the Caucasus, 1840
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
View of the Caucasus Mountains in Dagestan, Russia
Rosa Khutor alpine ski resort near Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi, Russia, the site of the 2014 Winter Olympics venue
Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Armenia, original building completed in 303 AD, a religious centre of Armenia. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Georgia, original building completed in the 4th century. It was a religious centre of monarchical Georgia. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Northwest Caucasus caftan, 8-10th century, from the region of Alania.
Svaneti defensive tower houses
Palace of the Shirvanshahs, 13-th-15th centuries
Imamzadeh of Ganja, 7th-9th centuries
Celebration of Ashura, (Persian:Shakhsey-Vakhsey),19th century
Shamakhi, 19th century

The Caucasus, or Caucasia , is a region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea; mainly comprising Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia.

The Adyge/Circassian Nart Nasran, the Georgian Amirani, the Chechen Pkharmat, and the Abkhazian Abrskil, are examples of such Prometheus-like figures.

Kingdom of Iberia

Colchis and Iberia
Map of Iberia and Colchis by Christoph Cellarius printed in Leipzig in 1706
Iberia during the Roman Empire.

In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία Iberia; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.

Iberia, centered on present-day Eastern Georgia, was bordered by Colchis in the west, Caucasian Albania in the east and Armenia in the south.


Logo of the Cabinet of Ministers.
Government building in Batumi.
Black Sea coast near the resort of Kvariati.
Batumi in the 1900s.

Adjara (აჭარა Ach’ara ) or Achara, officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა.Ач'арис автономиури республика,Аджа́рская Автоно́мная Респу́блика) is a political-administrative region of Georgia.

Adjara is home to the Adjarians, a regional subgroup of Georgians.

Coat of arms of the Orthodox Church of Georgia

Georgian Orthodox Church

Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.

Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.

Coat of arms of the Orthodox Church of Georgia
Saint Nino of Cappadocia, baptizer of the Georgians.
Jvari Monastery, near Mtskheta, one of Georgia's oldest surviving monasteries (6th century)
A page from a rare 12th century Gelati Gospel depicting the Nativity
The Khakhuli triptych
Patriarch Anton II of Georgia was downgraded to the status of an archbishop by the Russian Imperial authorities.
Eparchies of the Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church as of 2010
The Holy Trinity Church (Tsminda Sameba) of Gergeti, in the mountains of Khevi

It is Georgia's dominant religious institution, and a majority of Georgian people are members.

Colchis and its eastern neighbor Iberia.


Colchis and its eastern neighbor Iberia.
Map of Colchis and Iberia by Christoph Cellarius printed in Leipzig in 1706
Jason and the Argonauts arriving at Colchis. The Argonautica tells the myth of their voyage to retrieve the Golden Fleece. This painting is located in the Palace of Versailles.
Second century BC Greek bronze torso from Colchis, Georgian National Museum
Colchian pendants, riders and horses on wheeled platforms, Georgian National Museum

In Greco-Roman geography, Colchis was an exonym for the Georgian polity of Egrisi (ეგრისი) located on the coast of the Black Sea, centered in present-day western Georgia.

Colchis is generally believed to have been populated by early Kartvelian-speaking tribes ancestral to the contemporary western Georgians, namely Svans and Zans.


Anchiskhati Basilica is the oldest surviving church in Tbilisi
Detail from the Nautical chart by Angelino Dulcert, depicting Georgian Black Sea coast and Tiflis, 1339
Tbilisi according to French traveler Jean Chardin, 1671
A 1717 illustration of Teflis by Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
The coat of arms of Tiflis under Russian rule
Tiflis by Mikhail Lermontov, 1837
The Red Army entered Tbilisi on 25 February 1921
City Council building overlooking Freedom Square
A police station on Agmashenebeli Avenue
Tbilisi, especially Old Town, has a complex terrain, with hills and cliffs
The National Botanical Garden of Georgia in Tbilisi is concealed from view as it resides among the hills of the Sololaki Range
Tbilisi Sea is the largest body of water in Tbilisi.
Preparations for the 2015 UEFA Super Cup at the Dinamo Arena in Tbilisi
Rustaveli Theatre seen on the Rustaveli Avenue
Open-air cafés in Old Tbilisi
Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre
Tbilisi Art Gallery
High-rise residential and office buildings in Vake.
Tbilisi International Airport
Public School Number 1 of Tbilisi, also known as the First Classical Gymnasium
Tbilisi State University, Building I
Remnants of city walls, recently found in central Tbilisi
Tbilisi Platz in Saarbrücken, Germany.
"Dry Bridge", constructed by Italian architect Antonio Scudieri
View on Golovin Avenue as seen from the site of present-day Freedom Square
Building of the Tbilisi City Hall
Grand Hotel "Kavkaz" in central Tbilisi, c 1900
Building of the Art Museum of Georgia, built at the end of the 1830s, photo ca. 1900
Tatar bazaar and with the Metekhi Orthodox church seen on the cliff
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, demolished by the Soviets to make way for the present Parliament building

Tbilisi (თბილისი ), in some languages still known by its pre-1936 name Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.

Around 89% of the population consists of ethnic Georgians, with significant populations of other ethnic groups such as Armenians, Russians, and Azerbaijanis.


Kartli (Cardueli) in the 18th century. Detail from a map of Jean Clouet, 1767.

Kartli (ქართლი ) is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari (Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated.

Known to the Classical authors as Iberia, Kartli played a crucial role in the ethnic and political consolidation of the Georgians in the Middle Ages.


Guria in Georgia
Relief map of Guria
Subdivision of Guria
Flag of the Principality of Guria
Historical Guria in modern international borders of Georgia
A Gurian man.

Guria (გურია) is a region (mkhare) in Georgia, in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea.

98% of the population is ethnic Georgian (mostly native Gurians), 1% is ethnic Armenian and the remaining 1% is composed of Ossetians and Russians and the majority of the population is Orthodox Christians (86%), followed by Islam.

Icon of Saint Nino at Svetitskhoveli Cathedral

Saint Nino

Icon of Saint Nino at Svetitskhoveli Cathedral
Saint Nino with her scroll and grapevine cross
A mosaic in Samtavro Monastery, Mtskheta

Saint Nino (წმინდა ნინო; Սուրբ Նունե; Αγία Νίνα; sometimes St. Nune or St. Ninny) Equal to the Apostles and the Enlightener of Georgia (c.

327) and Nino continued her missionary activities among Georgians until her death.

Russian Empire

Empire that extended across Eurasia from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War.

Empire that extended across Eurasia from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War.

A painting depicting the Battle of Narva (1700) in the Great Northern War
Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia as the Russian Empire in 1721 and became its first emperor. He instituted sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power. (Painting made after 1717.)
Empress Catherine the Great, who reigned from 1762 to 1796, continued the empire's expansion and modernization. Considering herself an enlightened absolutist, she played a key role in the Russian Enlightenment. (Painted in the 1780s.)
Catherine II Sestroretsk Rouble (1771) is made of solid copper measuring 77 mm (diameter), 26 mm (thickness), and weighs 1.022 kg.
An 1843 painting imagining Russian general Pyotr Bagration, giving orders during the Battle of Borodino (1812) while wounded
The Imperial Standard of the Tsar between from 1858 to 1917. Previous variations of the black eagle on gold background were used as far back as Peter the Great's time.
Franz Roubaud's 1893 painting of the Erivan Fortress siege in 1827 by the Russian forces under leadership of Ivan Paskevich during the Russo-Persian War (1826–28)
The eleven-month siege of a Russian naval base at Sevastopol during the Crimean War
Russian troops taking Samarkand (8 June 1868)
Russian troops entering Khiva in 1873
Capturing of the Ottoman Turkish redoubt during the Siege of Plevna (1877)
Russian troops fighting against Ottoman troops at the Battle of Shipka Pass (1877)
A scene from the First Russian Revolution, by Ilya Repin
Russian soldiers in combat against Japanese at Mukden (inside China), during the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)
Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow in 1917
Map of the Russian Empire in 1912
Ethnic map of European Russia before World War I
Map of governorates of the western Russian Empire in 1910
Map showing subdivisions of the Russian Empire in 1914
1814 artwork depicting the Russian warship Neva and the Russian settlement of St. Paul's Harbor (present-day Kodiak town), Kodiak Island
Nicholas II was the last Emperor of Russia, reigning from 1894 to 1917.
This painting from circa 1847 depicts the building on Palace Square opposite the Winter Palace, which was the headquarters of the Army General Staff. Today, it houses the headquarters of the Western Military District/Joint Strategic Command West.
The Catherine Palace, located at Tsarskoe Selo, was the summer residence of the imperial family. It is named after Empress Catherine I, who reigned from 1725 to 1727. (Watercolor painting from the 19th century.)
The Senate and Synod headquarters – today the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on Senate Square in Saint Petersburg
Residence of the Governor of Moscow (1778–82) as seen in 2015
The Moscow City Duma circa 1900 (colorized photograph)
100 ruble banknote (1910)
Russian and US equities, 1865 to 1917
Watercolor-tinted lithgraph, from the 1840s, depicting the arrival of the first Tsarskoye Selo Railway train at Tsarskoye Selo from St. Petersburg on 30 October 1837.
The Kazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg was constructed between 1801 and 1811, and prior to the construction of Saint Isaac's Cathedral was the main Orthodox Church in Imperial Russia.
Map of subdivisions of the Russian Empire by largest ethnolinguistic group (1897)
Contemporary painting of the procession of Emperor Alexander II into Dormition Cathedral in Moscow during his coronation in 1856
This 1892 painting imagines a scene of Russian troops forming a bridge with their bodies, moving equipment to prepare for invading Persian forces during the Russo-Persian War (1804–13), which occurred contemporaneously with the French invasion of Russia.
1892 painting depicting Imperial Russian Navy Brig "Mercury" Attacked by Two Turkish Ships in a scene from the Russo-Turkish War (1828–29), by Ivan Aivazovsky
1856 painting imagining the announcement of the coronation of Alexander II that year.
The 1916 painting Maslenitsa by Boris Kustodiev, depicting a Russian city in winter
Young Russian peasant women in front of a traditional wooden house (c. 1909 to 1915), photograph taken by Prokudin-Gorskii
Peasants in Russia (photograph taken by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky in 1909)

To replace Muslim refugees who had fled across the new frontier into Ottoman territory, the Russian authorities settled large numbers of Christians from ethnically diverse communities in Kars Oblast, particularly Georgians, Caucasus Greeks, and Armenians, each of whom hoped to achieve protection and advance their own regional ambitions.

In addition to almost the entire territory of modern Russia, prior to 1917 the Russian Empire included most of Dnieper Ukraine, Belarus, Bessarabia, the Grand Duchy of Finland, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the Central Asian states of Russian Turkestan, most of the Baltic governorates, a significant part of Poland, and the former Ottoman provinces of Ardahan, Artvin, Iğdır, Kars, and the northeastern part of Erzurum Provinces.