A report on Georgia (country)

"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map
Patera depicting Marcus Aurelius uncovered in central Georgia, 2nd century AD
Northwestern Georgia is home to the medieval defensive Svan towers of Ushguli
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Queen Tamar, the first woman to rule medieval Georgia in her own right.
King Vakhtang VI, a Georgian monarch caught between rival regional powers
The reign of George XII was marked by instability.
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of Georgia who was exiled to France after the Soviet takeover
The Bolshevik Red Army in Tbilisi on 25 February 1921. Saint David's church on the Holy Mountain is visible in the distance.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
The Rose Revolution, 2003
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice holding a joint press conference with Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili during the Russo-Georgian war
Salome Zourabichvili, the first woman elected as president of Georgia
Presidential residence at the Orbeliani Palace in Tbilisi
Pro-NATO poster in Tbilisi
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
Georgian built Didgori-2 during the military parade in 2011
A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor operated by the Georgian Patrol Police.
Map of Georgia highlighting the disputed territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region (South Ossetia), both of which are outside the control of the central government of Georgia
Köppen climate classification map of Georgia
Mount Kazbek in eastern Georgia
Svaneti region of Georgia
View of the cave city of Vardzia and the valley of the Kura River below
Georgia's diverse climate creates varied landscapes, like these flat marshlands in the country's west
Southwest Georgia has a subtropical climate, with frequent rain and thick green vegetation
Georgian Shepherd Dog
GDP per capita development since 1973
A proportional representation of Georgia's exports in 2019
One of several plants operated by HeidelbergCement in Georgia
Wine-making is a traditional component of the Georgian economy.
The most visited ski resort of Georgia, Gudauri
The Georgian Railways represent a vital artery linking the Black Sea and Caspian Sea – the shortest route between Europe and Central Asia.
Port of Batumi
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region
Tbilisi State University, Corpus I
Illuminated manuscript from medieval Georgia, showing a scene from nativity
Old Tbilisi – Architecture in Georgia is in many ways a fusion of European and Asian.
Rather than serving food in courses, traditional supras often present all that a host has to offer
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.
Dinamo Tbilisi, winner of 1981 European Cup Winners' Cup on stamp of Georgia, 2002
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.

Country located in the Caucasus, at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, identifying itself as European.

- Georgia (country)

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Iran

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Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

Inscription of Ardeshir Babakan (r. 224–242) in Naqsh-e Rostam: "This is the figure of Mazdaworshiper, the lord Ardashir, Shahanshah of Iran..."
An Ashrafi Coin of Nader Shah (r. 1736–1747), reverse:"Coined on gold the word of kingdom in the world, Nader of Greater Iran and the world-conquerer king."
A cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, from the 8th millennium BC
A bas-relief at Persepolis, depicting the united Medes and Persians
Tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire, in Pasargadae
The Achaemenid Empire (550 BC–330 BC) around the time of Darius the Great and Xerxes I
The Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD) in 94 BC at its greatest extent, during the reign of Mithridates II
Tomb of Hafez, a medieval Persian poet whose works are regarded as a pinnacle in Persian literature and have left a considerable mark on later Western writers, most notably Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Henry David Thoreau, and Emerson
Venetian portrait, kept at the Uffizi, of Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid Empire
A portrait of AbbasI, the powerful, pragmatic Safavid ruler who reinforced Iran's military, political, and economic power
Statue of Nader Shah, the first Afsharid ruler of Iran, at his Tomb
A map showing the 19th-century northwestern borders of Iran, comprising modern-day eastern Georgia, Dagestan, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, before being ceded to the neighboring Russian Empire by the Russo-Iranian wars
The first national Iranian Parliament was established in 1906 during the Persian Constitutional Revolution
Reza Shah, the first Pahlavi king of Iran, in military uniform
The Allied "Big Three" at the 1943 Tehran Conference.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Imperial Family during the coronation ceremony of the Shah of Iran in 1967.
Ruhollah Khomeini's return to Iran on 1February 1979
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask on the front-line during the Iran–Iraq War
The Green Movement's Silent Demonstration during the 2009–10 Iranian election protests
The 2017–18 Iranian protests were initiated on 31 December 2017 and continued for months.
Mount Damavand, Iran's highest point, is located in Amol, Mazenderan.
Persian leopard, listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Iran's most populated cities (2010)
Iran's syncretic political system combines elements of an Islamic theocracy with vetted democracy.
Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping on 23 January 2016. Iran and China are strategic allies.
Ali Khamenei voting in the 2017 presidential election
Iranian former President Hassan Rouhani meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Iran and Russia are strategic allies.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly, also known as the Iranian Parliament
Protest against U.S. recognition of Jerusalem as capital of Israel. Tehran, 11 December 2017.
Sophisticated indigenous long range missile system Bavar-373 paraded in Tehran.
Iran's provinces by their contribution to national GDP (2014)
Historical GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Iran exports, 2019
More than a million tourists visit Kish Island each year.
Iran holds 10% of the world's proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas. It is OPEC's second largest exporter and the world's 7th largest oil producer.
Literacy rate of Iran's population plus 15, 1975–2015, according to UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Sharif University of Technology is one of Iran's most prestigious higher education institutions.
The production line for AryoSeven at the Iranian biopharmaceutical company of AryoGen
Simorgh launch, Iranian Space Agency
Iran's population growth (1880–2016)
Iran's provinces by population density (2013)
Iron Age gold cup from Marlik, kept at New York City's Metropolitan Museum of Art
Kamal-ol-Molk's Mirror Hall, often considered a starting point in Iranian modern art
Tomb of the 10th-century Persian poet Ferdowsi, author of Šāhnāme, the classical Persian composition of the Iranian national epics, in Tus
Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism, depicted on Raphael's The School of Athens
Karna, an ancient Iranian musical instrument from the 6th century BC, kept at the Persepolis Museum
The Roudaki Hall, constructed between 1957 and 1967 in Tehran
Reproduction of the 3rd-millennium BC goblet from southeastern Iran, possibly the world's oldest example of animation.
Abbas Kiarostami (1940–2016), an acclaimed Iranian film director
Behrouz Vossoughi, a well-known Iranian actor who has appeared in more than 90 films
Haft-Seen, a customary of Nowruz, the Iranian New Year
Chelow kabab (rice and kebab), one of Iran's national dishes
Skiers at the Dizin Ski Resort
The Azadi Stadium in Tehran is West Asia's largest football stadium.
Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping on 23 January 2016. Iran and China are strategic allies.
An Iranian tea tray served near Garden of Mausoleum of Omar Khayyam in Nishapur

At its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire included territories of modern-day Iran, Republic of Azerbaijan (Arran and Shirvan), Armenia, Georgia, Turkey (Anatolia), much of the Black Sea coastal regions, northeastern Greece and southern Bulgaria (Thrace), northern Greece and North Macedonia (Paeonia and Macedon), Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian territories, all significant population centers of ancient Egypt as far west as Libya, Kuwait, northern Saudi Arabia, parts of the United Arab Emirates and Oman, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and much of Central Asia, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen.

Democratic Republic of Georgia

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Democratic Republic of Georgia with territorial claims and disputed areas
Nikolay Chkheidze, president of the Georgian Provisional Assembly, later the Constituent Assembly
Democratic Republic of Georgia with territorial claims and disputed areas
National Council meeting, May 26, 1918
British troops marching in Batumi, 1920
Noe Ramishvili became the chairman of the first government of the Republic. In 1930, he was assassinated by a Bolshevik spy in Paris.
The leaders of the Second International visiting Tbilisi, 1918
Fragments of the Constitution of Georgia adopted by the Constituent Assembly of Georgia on 21st February 1921
Noe Zhordania, the chairman of the second and the third government of the Republic
Map of the borders of the territory that was proposed by the Georgian delegation at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 for inclusion in the Democratic Republic of Georgia, as well as the territories that after 1921 were part of neighboring states.
Soldiers of the People's Guard of Georgia
A bilingual plaque which reads: "On May 26, 1918, in this hall the National Council of Georgia adopted the act of independence, thereby restoring the statehood of Georgia"

The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა sakartvelos demokratiuli respublika) was the first modern establishment of a republic of Georgia, which existed from May 1918 to February 1921.

Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

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The process of internal disintegration within the Soviet Union (USSR) which resulted in the end of the country's and its federal government's existence as a sovereign state, thereby resulting in its constituent republics gaining full sovereignty.

The process of internal disintegration within the Soviet Union (USSR) which resulted in the end of the country's and its federal government's existence as a sovereign state, thereby resulting in its constituent republics gaining full sovereignty.

Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987
The first exhibition on the crimes of Stalinism, called "Week of Conscience", was held in Moscow on November 19, 1988
Environmental concerns over the Metsamor nuclear power plant drove initial demonstrations in Yerevan.
Figure of Liberty on the Freedom Monument in Riga, focus of the 1986 Latvian demonstrations
Anti-Soviet rally in Vingis Park of about 250,000 people. Sąjūdis was a movement which led to the restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania.
Andrei Sakharov, formerly exiled to Gorky, was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies in March 1989.
The Eastern Bloc
Baltic Way 1989 demonstration in Šiauliai, Lithuania showing coffins decorated with national flags of the three Baltic republics placed symbolically beneath Soviet and Nazi flags
Photos of victims (mostly young women) of an April 1989 massacre in Tbilisi, Georgia
Meeting in Kurapaty, Belarus, 1989
Nursultan Nazarbayev became leader of the Kazakh SSR in 1989 and later led Kazakhstan to independence.
Lithuania's Vytautas Landsbergis
Estonia's Edgar Savisaar
Latvia's Ivars Godmanis
Azerbaijani stamp with photos of Black January
Viacheslav Chornovil, a prominent Ukrainian dissident and a lead figure of Rukh
Leonid Kravchuk became Ukraine's leader in 1990.
Saparmurat Niyazov, last head of the Turkmen SSR and first president of Turkmenistan
Following Georgia's declaration of independence in 1991, South Ossetia and Abkhazia declared their desire to leave Georgia and remain part of the Soviet Union/Russia.
Boris Yeltsin, Russia's first democratically elected president
Barricade erected in Riga to prevent the Soviet Army from reaching the Latvian Parliament, July 1991
Tanks in Red Square during the 1991 August coup attempt
Signing of the agreement to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States, 8 December
The state emblem of the Soviet Union and the СССР letters (top) in the façade of the Grand Kremlin Palace were replaced by five double-headed Russian eagles (bottom) after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the eagles having been removed by the Bolsheviks after the revolution.
The upper chamber of the Supreme Soviet in its ultimate session, voting the USSR out of existence, December 26
Russian GDP since the end of the Soviet Union (from 2014 are forecasts)
Russian male life expectancy, 1980–2007
Animated map showing independent states and territorial changes to the Soviet Union in chronological order
Pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk celebrate the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany, May 9, 2018
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War

Lithuania was the first republic to declare full independence restored from the Soviet Union by the Act of 11 March 1990 with its Baltic neighbours and the Southern Caucasus republic of Georgia joining it in a course of two months.

Kingdom of Georgia

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Medieval Eurasian monarchy that was founded in circa 1008 AD.

Medieval Eurasian monarchy that was founded in circa 1008 AD.

Kingdom of Georgia in ~1220, at the peak of its territorial expansion.
Map of the Caucasus region and surrounding areas at 1000 AD, before the death of David III.
Kingdom of Georgia in ~1220, at the peak of its territorial expansion.
Kingdom of Georgia in 1045 AD
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Expansion of Kingdom of Georgia under David IV's reign.
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Kingdom of Georgia under Queen Tamar's reign.
Queen Tamar and her father King George III (restored fresco from the Betania monastery)
Medieval Georgian monasteries in Balkans and Near East.
During Tamara's reign, the Kingdom patronized Georgian-built religious centers overseas, such as this Iviron Monastery
Eldiguzid campaign of Tamar of Georgia in 1208 and 1210–1211 years.
Mongol invasion of Georgia and battle of Khunan.
Map of Kingdom of Georgia during Mongol invasions, 1245 AD.
Western and Eastern Georgia around 1311 AD.
Kingdom of Georgia, 1380.
Map of Caucasus Region 1405.
Map of Caucasus Region 1460.
Map of Caucasus Region 1490.
Map of Georgia (Description of the Kingdom of Georgia) by Prince Vakhushti Bagrationi, 1740s.
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Archangel of Kintsvisi, complete with scarce natural ultramarine paint, evidenced the increasing resources of the realm
Golden Theotokos of Khobi Monastery, with some precious stones taken by the communists
Triptych of Khakhuli
Detail of the Khakhuli Triptych
Atskuri Triptych
Georgian tondo commemorating Roman martyr Mammes of Caesarea
David IV's processional cross
Crucifixion from Mestia
Fresco from Ubisi, Georgia
The Last Supper of Ubisi
Annunciation of Ubisi
Gelati Monastery
Walls of the Khobi Monastery showing strong Roman influence
Kvatakhevi monastery
Betania Monastery
Pitareti Monastery
Despite setbacks at the hands of Mongols, Georgia continued to produce cultural landmarks, such as these frescoes at Ubisi by Damiane - one of Georgia's distinctive medieval artists.
Golden cross of Queen Tamar, composed of rubies, emeralds, and large pearls
Gelati Theotokos. The use of costly mosaics in church decorations heralded Georgia's imperial ambitions.{{sfn|Eastmond|1998|p=61}}

It was the principal historical precursor of present-day Georgia.

1994 map of Caucasus region prepared by the U.S. State Department

South Caucasus

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Geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains.

Geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains.

1994 map of Caucasus region prepared by the U.S. State Department
Possible definitions of the boundary between Europe and Asia on the territory of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
Contemporary political map of the Caucasus (including unrecognized states)
Administrative map of Caucasus in the USSR, 1957–1991.

The South Caucasus roughly corresponds to modern Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan, which are sometimes collectively known as the Caucasian States.

Kingdom of Iberia

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Exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.

Exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.

Colchis and Iberia
Map of Iberia and Colchis by Christoph Cellarius printed in Leipzig in 1706
Iberia during the Roman Empire.
Georgian states, Roman Empire and Parthia in the second half of the 1st c. and the 2nd c.

Iberia, centered on present-day Eastern Georgia, was bordered by Colchis in the west, Caucasian Albania in the east and Armenia in the south.

Colchis and its eastern neighbor Iberia.

Colchis

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Colchis and its eastern neighbor Iberia.
Map of Colchis and Iberia by Christoph Cellarius printed in Leipzig in 1706
Jason and the Argonauts arriving at Colchis. The Argonautica tells the myth of their voyage to retrieve the Golden Fleece. This painting is located in the Palace of Versailles.
Second century BC Greek bronze torso from Colchis, Georgian National Museum
Colchian pendants, riders and horses on wheeled platforms, Georgian National Museum

In Greco-Roman geography, Colchis was an exonym for the Georgian polity of Egrisi (ეგრისი) located on the coast of the Black Sea, centered in present-day western Georgia.

The Caspian Sea as taken by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite, June 2003

Caspian Sea

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World's largest inland body of water, often described as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

World's largest inland body of water, often described as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

The Caspian Sea as taken by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite, June 2003
Area around the Caspian Sea. Yellow area indicates the (approximate) drainage area.
Caspian Sea near Aktau, Mangystau Region, Kazakhstan
Iran's northern Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests are maintained by moisture captured from the Caspian Sea by the Alborz Mountain Range.
Most tadpole gobies (Benthophilus) are only found in the Caspian Sea basin.
Illustration of two Caspian tigers, extinct in the region since the 1970s.
A New and Accurate Map of the Caspian Sea by the Soskam Sabbus & Emanuel Bowen, 1747.
Caspian Sea (Bahr ul-Khazar). 10th century map by Ibn Hawqal
The 17th-century Cossack rebel and pirate Stenka Razin, on a raid in the Caspian (Vasily Surikov, 1906)
Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan is the largest city by the Caspian Sea.
Makhachkala, the capital of the Russian republic of Dagestan, is the third-largest city on the Caspian Sea.
Oil pipelines in the Caspian region. September 2002
Drilling platform "Iran Khazar" in use at a Dragon Oil production platform in the Cheleken field (Turkmenistan).
Caspian region oil and natural gas infrastructure. August 2013.
Southern Caspian Energy Prospects (portion of Iran). Country Profile 2004.
Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan

Georgia (its east part)

Safavid Iran

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One of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia, which was ruled from 1501 to 1736 by the Safavid dynasty.

One of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia, which was ruled from 1501 to 1736 by the Safavid dynasty.

The Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas the Great
Mannequin of a Safavid Qizilbash soldier, showing characteristic red cap (Sa'dabad Palace, Teheran)
The Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas the Great
Ismail declares himself "Shah" by entering Tabriz; his troops in front of Arg of Tabriz, painter Chingiz Mehbaliyev, in private collection.
Shah Ismail I
Shāh Ismāʻil's empire
Ismail's battle with Uzbek warlord Muhammad Shaybani Khan in 1510, on a folio from the Kebir Musaver Silsilname. After the battle Ismail purportedly gilded the skull of Shaybani Khan for use as a wine goblet.
Artwork of the Battle of Chaldiran.
Shah Tahmasp, fresco on the walls of the Chehel Sotoun Palace
Shah Suleiman I and his courtiers, Isfahan, 1670. Painter is Aliquli Jabbadar, and is kept at The St. Petersburg Institute of Oriental Studies in Russia, ever since it was acquired by Tsar Nicholas II. Note the two Georgian figures with their names at the top left.
Shah Tahmasp greets the exiled Humayun
"Jealousy among Rivals" attributed to Muhammadi. Miniature painting contained in a Persian volume entitled Busta by Sa'di in 1579, possibly under the patronage of Vizier Mirza Salman Jaberi. E.M. Soudavar Trust, Houston, Texas.
Shah ‘Abbās King of the Persians, copper engraving by Dominicus Custos, Atrium heroicum Caesarum (1600–1602)
Safavid Persia, 1598
Safavid Persia, 1610
Abbas I as shown on one of the paintings in the Chehel Sotoun pavilion.
The ambassador Husain Ali Beg led the first Persian embassy to Europe (1599–1602).
Fresco in the Doge's Palace, depicting Doge Marino Grimani receiving the Persian Ambassadors, 1599
Abbas I as a new Caesar being honoured by the Trumpets of Fame, together with the 1609–1615 Persian embassy, in [[:File:Allegorie de l Occasion Frans II Francken 1628.jpg|Allégorie de l'Occasion]], by Frans II Francken, 1628
Shah Abbas the II holding a banquet for foreign dignitaries. Detail from a ceiling fresco at the Chehel Sotoun Palace in Isfahan.
David II of Kakheti (Emamqoli Khan)
Map of the Safavid Empire, published 1736.
A map of Safavid Empire in 1720, showing different states of Persia
Part of the Safavid Persian Empire (on right), the Ottoman Empire, and West Asia in general, Emanuel Bowen, 1744–52
A persian miniature depicting a polo-match
Lady's clothing in the 1600s
Men's clothing in the 1600s
A brocade garment, Safavid era
Daud Khan Undiladze, military commander, ghilman and the governor of Ganja and Karabakh from 1625 to 1630.
Frontpage on Jean Chardin's book on his journeys to Persia, published in 1739.
View of Tbilisi by French traveler Jean Chardin, 1671.
The Karkan, a tool used for punishment of state criminals
A Safavid helmet
Persian Musketeer in time of Abbas I by Habib-Allah Mashadi after Falsafi (Berlin Museum of Islamic Art).
A 19th-century drawing of Isfahan
The Mothers Inn caravanserai in Isfahan, that was built during the reign of Shah Abbas II, was a luxury resort meant for the wealthiest merchants and selected guests of the shah. Today it is a luxury hotel and goes under the name of Hotel Abassi.
The Chehel Sotoun Palace in Isfahan was where the Shah would meet foreign dignitaries and embassies. It is famous for the frescoes that cover its walls.
The Silk Road
Reza Abbasi, Youth reading, 1625–26
Painting by the French architect, Pascal Coste, visiting Persia in 1841 (from Monuments modernes de la Perse). In the Safavid era the Persian architecture flourished again and saw many new monuments, such as the Masjid-e Shah, part of Naghsh-i Jahan Square which is the biggest historic plaza in the world.
Naqshe Jahan square in Isfahan is the epitome of 16th-century Iranian architecture.
The 16th-century Chehel Sotun pavilion in Qazvin, Iran. It is the last remains of the palace of the second Safavid king, Shah Tahmasp; it was heavily restored by the Qajars in the 19th century.
19th-century painting of the Chahar Bagh School in Isfahan, built during the time of Soltan Hossein to serve as a theological and clerical school
A Latin copy of The Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, USA.
Scene from Attar's The Conference of the Birds, by Habibulla Meshedi (1600).
Prince Muhammad-Beik of Georgia by Reza Abbasi (1620)
Safavid Star from ceiling of Shah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran.

The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736 and 1750 to 1773) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Republic of Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus including Russia, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Adjara

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Logo of the Cabinet of Ministers.
Government building in Batumi.
Black Sea coast near the resort of Kvariati.
Batumi in the 1900s.

Adjara (აჭარა Ach’ara ) or Achara, officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა Ach’aris Avt’onomiuri Resp’ublik’a ), is a political-administrative region of Georgia.