Georgia (country)

"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map
Patera depicting Marcus Aurelius uncovered in central Georgia, 2nd century AD
Northwestern Georgia is home to the medieval defensive Svan towers of Ushguli
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Queen Tamar, the first woman to rule medieval Georgia in her own right.
King Vakhtang VI, a Georgian monarch caught between rival regional powers
The reign of George XII was marked by instability.
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of Georgia who was exiled to France after the Soviet takeover
The Bolshevik Red Army in Tbilisi on 25 February 1921. Saint David's church on the Holy Mountain is visible in the distance.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
The Rose Revolution, 2003
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice holding a joint press conference with Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili during the Russo-Georgian war
Salome Zourabichvili, the first woman elected as president of Georgia
Presidential residence at the Orbeliani Palace in Tbilisi
Pro-NATO poster in Tbilisi
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
Georgian built Didgori-2 during the military parade in 2011
A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor operated by the Georgian Patrol Police.
Map of Georgia highlighting the disputed territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region (South Ossetia), both of which are outside the control of the central government of Georgia
Köppen climate classification map of Georgia
Mount Kazbek in eastern Georgia
Svaneti region of Georgia
View of the cave city of Vardzia and the valley of the Kura River below
Georgia's diverse climate creates varied landscapes, like these flat marshlands in the country's west
Southwest Georgia has a subtropical climate, with frequent rain and thick green vegetation
Georgian Shepherd Dog
GDP per capita development since 1973
A proportional representation of Georgia's exports in 2019
One of several plants operated by HeidelbergCement in Georgia
Wine-making is a traditional component of the Georgian economy.
The most visited ski resort of Georgia, Gudauri
The Georgian Railways represent a vital artery linking the Black Sea and Caspian Sea – the shortest route between Europe and Central Asia.
Port of Batumi
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region
Tbilisi State University, Corpus I
Illuminated manuscript from medieval Georgia, showing a scene from nativity
Old Tbilisi – Architecture in Georgia is in many ways a fusion of European and Asian.
Rather than serving food in courses, traditional supras often present all that a host has to offer
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.
Dinamo Tbilisi, winner of 1981 European Cup Winners' Cup on stamp of Georgia, 2002
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.

Country located in the Caucasus, at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

- Georgia (country)

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The Caspian Sea as taken by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite, June 2003

Caspian Sea

World's largest inland body of water, often described as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

World's largest inland body of water, often described as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

The Caspian Sea as taken by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite, June 2003
Area around the Caspian Sea. Yellow area indicates the (approximate) drainage area.
Caspian Sea near Aktau, Mangystau Region, Kazakhstan
Iran's northern Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests are maintained by moisture captured from the Caspian Sea by the Alborz Mountain Range.
Most tadpole gobies (Benthophilus) are only found in the Caspian Sea basin.
Illustration of two Caspian tigers, extinct in the region since the 1970s.
A New and Accurate Map of the Caspian Sea by the Soskam Sabbus & Emanuel Bowen, 1747.
Caspian Sea (Bahr ul-Khazar). 10th century map by Ibn Hawqal
The 17th-century Cossack rebel and pirate Stenka Razin, on a raid in the Caspian (Vasily Surikov, 1906)
Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan is the largest city by the Caspian Sea.
Makhachkala, the capital of the Russian republic of Dagestan, is the third-largest city on the Caspian Sea.
Oil pipelines in the Caspian region. September 2002
Drilling platform "Iran Khazar" in use at a Dragon Oil production platform in the Cheleken field (Turkmenistan).
Caspian region oil and natural gas infrastructure. August 2013.
Southern Caspian Energy Prospects (portion of Iran). Country Profile 2004.
Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan

Georgia (its east part)

The location of the Black Sea

Black Sea

Marginal mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean lying between Europe and Asia, east of the Balkans, south of the East European Plain, west of the Caucasus, and north of Anatolia.

Marginal mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean lying between Europe and Asia, east of the Balkans, south of the East European Plain, west of the Caucasus, and north of Anatolia.

The location of the Black Sea
The estuary of the Veleka in the Black Sea. Longshore drift has deposited sediment along the shoreline which has led to the formation of a spit. Sinemorets, Bulgaria
Black Sea coast of western Georgia, with the skyline of Batumi on the horizon
Swallow's Nest in Crimea
Coastline of Samsun in Turkey
A sanatorium in Sochi, Russia
Coast of the Black Sea at Ordu
Kapchik Cape in Crimea
The Black Sea near Constanța, Romania
Ice on the Gulf of Odessa
The bay of Sudak, Crimea
The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey, crosses the Bosporus strait near its entrance to the Black Sea. Connecting Europe and Asia, it is one of the tallest suspension bridges in the world.
This SeaWiFS view reveals the colorful interplay of currents on the sea's surface.
Black Sea coast in Ordu, Turkey
The port of Poti, Georgia
Phytoplankton blooms and plumes of sediment form the bright blue swirls that ring the Black Sea in this 2004 image.
The Bosporus, taken from the International Space Station
Map of the Dardanelles
A 16th-century map of the Black Sea by Diogo Homem
Greek colonies (8th–3rd century BCE) of the Black Sea (Euxine, or "hospitable" sea)
Ivan Aivazovsky. Black Sea Fleet in the Bay of Theodosia, just before the Crimean War
Yalta, Crimea
Amasra, Turkey, is located on a small island in the Black Sea.
Black Sea beach in Zatoka, Ukraine
Soviet frigate Bezzavetny (right) bumping the USS Yorktown during the 1988 Black Sea bumping incident
Ukrainian Navy artillery boat U170 in the Bay of Sevastopol
Jellyfish
Actinia
Actinia
Goby
Stingray
Goat fish
Hermit crab, Diogenes pugilator
Blue sponge
Spiny dogfish
Seahorse
Black Sea common dolphins with a kite-surfer off Sochi

The southern edge around Turkey and the eastern edge around Georgia, however, are typified by a narrow shelf that rarely exceeds 20 km in width and a steep apron that is typically 1:40 gradient with numerous submarine canyons and channel extensions.

Batumi

Detail from a map of Antonio Zatta, 1784, depicting Georgian principality of Guria and its major town Batumi.
Port of Batumi in 1881
British troops holding a military parade in Batumi, Georgia 1920
As Georgia's Black Sea coast continues to develop, high-rises are being built amongst Batumi's traditionally classical cityscapes.
Coast of Batumi as seen from a nearby cliff
Batumi at night
Street in Batumi
Batumi Neptun Square
Batumi boulevard and beach
Radisson Blu Hotel, Batumi
Batumi University Fountain
Panorama view of Batumi Europe Square and Medea Statue
Panorama view of Iveria Beach, Batumi Boulevard and Batumi Mirade Park
Georgian Orthodox Cathedral of the Mother of God
The seaport of Batumi with the city in the background.

Batumi (ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia and the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, located on the coast of the Black Sea in Georgia's southwest.

Kingdom of Georgia

Medieval Eurasian monarchy that was founded in circa 1008 AD.

Medieval Eurasian monarchy that was founded in circa 1008 AD.

Kingdom of Georgia in ~1220, at the peak of its territorial expansion.
Map of the Caucasus region and surrounding areas at 1000 AD, before the death of David III.
Kingdom of Georgia in ~1220, at the peak of its territorial expansion.
Kingdom of Georgia in 1045 AD
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Expansion of Kingdom of Georgia under David IV's reign.
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Kingdom of Georgia under Queen Tamar's reign.
Queen Tamar and her father King George III (restored fresco from the Betania monastery)
Medieval Georgian monasteries in Balkans and Near East.
During Tamara's reign, the Kingdom patronized Georgian-built religious centers overseas, such as this Iviron Monastery
Eldiguzid campaign of Tamar of Georgia in 1208 and 1210–1211 years.
Mongol invasion of Georgia and battle of Khunan.
Map of Kingdom of Georgia during Mongol invasions, 1245 AD.
Western and Eastern Georgia around 1311 AD.
Kingdom of Georgia, 1380.
Map of Caucasus Region 1405.
Map of Caucasus Region 1460.
Map of Caucasus Region 1490.
Map of Georgia (Description of the Kingdom of Georgia) by Prince Vakhushti Bagrationi, 1740s.
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Archangel of Kintsvisi, complete with scarce natural ultramarine paint, evidenced the increasing resources of the realm
Golden Theotokos of Khobi Monastery, with some precious stones taken by the communists
Triptych of Khakhuli
Detail of the Khakhuli Triptych
Atskuri Triptych
Georgian tondo commemorating Roman martyr Mammes of Caesarea
David IV's processional cross
Crucifixion from Mestia
Fresco from Ubisi, Georgia
The Last Supper of Ubisi
Annunciation of Ubisi
Gelati Monastery
Walls of the Khobi Monastery showing strong Roman influence
Kvatakhevi monastery
Betania Monastery
Pitareti Monastery
Despite setbacks at the hands of Mongols, Georgia continued to produce cultural landmarks, such as these frescoes at Ubisi by Damiane - one of Georgia's distinctive medieval artists.
Golden cross of Queen Tamar, composed of rubies, emeralds, and large pearls
Gelati Theotokos. The use of costly mosaics in church decorations heralded Georgia's imperial ambitions.{{sfn|Eastmond|1998|p=61}}

It was the principal historical precursor of present-day Georgia.

Safavid Iran

One of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia, which ruled from 1501 to 1736 by the Safavid dynasty.

One of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia, which ruled from 1501 to 1736 by the Safavid dynasty.

The Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas the Great
Mannequin of a Safavid Qizilbash soldier, showing characteristic red cap (Sa'dabad Palace, Teheran)
The Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas the Great
Ismail declares himself "Shah" by entering Tabriz; his troops in front of Arg of Tabriz, painter Chingiz Mehbaliyev, in private collection.
Shah Ismail I
Shāh Ismāʻil's empire
Ismail's battle with Uzbek warlord Muhammad Shaybani Khan in 1510, on a folio from the Kebir Musaver Silsilname. After the battle Ismail purportedly gilded the skull of Shaybani Khan for use as a wine goblet.
Artwork of the Battle of Chaldiran.
Shah Tahmasp, fresco on the walls of the Chehel Sotoun Palace
Shah Suleiman I and his courtiers, Isfahan, 1670. Painter is Aliquli Jabbadar, and is kept at The St. Petersburg Institute of Oriental Studies in Russia, ever since it was acquired by Tsar Nicholas II. Note the two Georgian figures with their names at the top left.
Shah Tahmasp greets the exiled Humayun
"Jealousy among Rivals" attributed to Muhammadi. Miniature painting contained in a Persian volume entitled Busta by Sa'di in 1579, possibly under the patronage of Vizier Mirza Salman Jaberi. E.M. Soudavar Trust, Houston, Texas.
Shah ‘Abbās King of the Persians, copper engraving by Dominicus Custos, Atrium heroicum Caesarum (1600–1602)
Safavid Persia, 1598
Safavid Persia, 1610
Abbas I as shown on one of the paintings in the Chehel Sotoun pavilion.
The ambassador Husain Ali Beg led the first Persian embassy to Europe (1599–1602).
Fresco in the Doge's Palace, depicting Doge Marino Grimani receiving the Persian Ambassadors, 1599
Abbas I as a new Caesar being honoured by the Trumpets of Fame, together with the 1609–1615 Persian embassy, in [[:File:Allegorie de l Occasion Frans II Francken 1628.jpg|Allégorie de l'Occasion]], by Frans II Francken, 1628
Shah Abbas the II holding a banquet for foreign dignitaries. Detail from a ceiling fresco at the Chehel Sotoun Palace in Isfahan.
David II of Kakheti (Emamqoli Khan)
Map of the Safavid Empire, published 1736.
A map of Safavid Empire in 1720, showing different states of Persia
Part of the Safavid Persian Empire (on right), the Ottoman Empire, and West Asia in general, Emanuel Bowen, 1744–52
A persian miniature depicting a polo-match
Lady's clothing in the 1600s
Men's clothing in the 1600s
A brocade garment, Safavid era
Daud Khan Undiladze, military commander, ghilman and the governor of Ganja and Karabakh from 1625 to 1630.
Frontpage on Jean Chardin's book on his journeys to Persia, published in 1739.
View of Tbilisi by French traveler Jean Chardin, 1671.
The Karkan, a tool used for punishment of state criminals
A Safavid helmet
Persian Musketeer in time of Abbas I by Habib-Allah Mashadi after Falsafi (Berlin Museum of Islamic Art).
A 19th-century drawing of Isfahan
The Mothers Inn caravanserai in Isfahan, that was built during the reign of Shah Abbas II, was a luxury resort meant for the wealthiest merchants and selected guests of the shah. Today it is a luxury hotel and goes under the name of Hotel Abassi.
The Chehel Sotoun Palace in Isfahan was where the Shah would meet foreign dignitaries and embassies. It is famous for the frescoes that cover its walls.
The Silk Road
Reza Abbasi, Youth reading, 1625–26
Painting by the French architect, Pascal Coste, visiting Persia in 1841 (from Monuments modernes de la Perse). In the Safavid era the Persian architecture flourished again and saw many new monuments, such as the Masjid-e Shah, part of Naghsh-i Jahan Square which is the biggest historic plaza in the world.
Naqshe Jahan square in Isfahan is the epitome of 16th-century Iranian architecture.
The 16th-century Chehel Sotun pavilion in Qazvin, Iran. It is the last remains of the palace of the second Safavid king, Shah Tahmasp; it was heavily restored by the Qajars in the 19th century.
19th-century painting of the Chahar Bagh School in Isfahan, built during the time of Soltan Hossein to serve as a theological and clerical school
A Latin copy of The Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, USA.
Scene from Attar's The Conference of the Birds, by Habibulla Meshedi (1600).
Prince Muhammad-Beik of Georgia by Reza Abbasi (1620)
Safavid Star from ceiling of Shah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran.

The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736 and 1750 to 1773) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Republic of Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus including Russia, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

Kingdom of Iberia

Exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.

Exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.

Colchis and Iberia
Map of Iberia and Colchis by Christoph Cellarius printed in Leipzig in 1706
Iberia during the Roman Empire.

Iberia, centered on present-day Eastern Georgia, was bordered by Colchis in the west, Caucasian Albania in the east and Armenia in the south.

Heraclius II of Georgia

Monument of Erekle II in Telavi.
The Palace of King Heraclius II in Telavi
Royal charter of King Erekle II.
The tomb of Heraclius II in Svetitskhoveli cathedral.

Heraclius II (ერეკლე II), also known as Erekle II and The Little Kakhetian (პატარა კახი ) (7 November 1720 or 7 October 1721 [according to C. Toumanoff ] – 11 January 1798), was a Georgian monarch of the Bagrationi dynasty, reigning as the king of Kakheti from 1744 to 1762, and of Kartli and Kakheti from 1762 until 1798.

Zviad Gamsakhurdia

Leaders of Georgian independence movement in late 80s, Zviad Gamsakhurdia (left) and Merab Kostava (right)
Gravestone of President Gamsakhurdia in Tbilisi.
Gamsakhurdia on a 2019 postage stamp commemorating his would-be 80th birthday

Zviad Konstantines dze Gamsakhurdia (ზვიად გამსახურდია; Звиа́д Константи́нович Гамсаху́рдия; 31 March 1939 – 31 December 1993) was a Georgian politician, dissident, scholar, and writer who became the first democratically elected President of Georgia in the post-Soviet era.

President of Georgia

Standard of the President of Georgia (until 2020)
Flag of the president of Georgia prior to 2020

The president of Georgia (საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი) is the ceremonial head of state of Georgia as well as the commander-in-chief of the Defense Forces.

Kakheti

Signagi is becoming an important cultural center in the region
Alaverdi Monastery
King Levan, a fresco from the Philotheou monastery
Royal charter of Alexander II
George Saakadze's portrait drawn by Teramo Castelli in Constantinople, Ottoman Empire in 1626
King Archil II by Nicolaes Witsen
King Teimuraz II by Efim Vinogradov and Alexei Grekov
King Heraclius II
The Alazani River Plain, with the Caucasus Mountains in the background
Gremi church in Kakheti.

Kakheti (კახეთი K’akheti; ) is a region (mkhare) formed in the 1990s in eastern Georgia from the historical province of Kakheti and the small, mountainous province of Tusheti.