A report on Georgia (country)

"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map
Patera depicting Marcus Aurelius uncovered in central Georgia, 2nd century AD
Northwestern Georgia is home to the medieval defensive Svan towers of Ushguli
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Queen Tamar, the first woman to rule medieval Georgia in her own right.
King Vakhtang VI, a Georgian monarch caught between rival regional powers
The reign of George XII was marked by instability.
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of Georgia who was exiled to France after the Soviet takeover
The Bolshevik Red Army in Tbilisi on 25 February 1921. Saint David's church on the Holy Mountain is visible in the distance.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
The Rose Revolution, 2003
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice holding a joint press conference with Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili during the Russo-Georgian war
Salome Zourabichvili, the first woman elected as president of Georgia
Presidential residence at the Orbeliani Palace in Tbilisi
Pro-NATO poster in Tbilisi
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
Georgian built Didgori-2 during the military parade in 2011
A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor operated by the Georgian Patrol Police.
Map of Georgia highlighting the disputed territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region (South Ossetia), both of which are outside the control of the central government of Georgia
Köppen climate classification map of Georgia
Mount Kazbek in eastern Georgia
Svaneti region of Georgia
View of the cave city of Vardzia and the valley of the Kura River below
Georgia's diverse climate creates varied landscapes, like these flat marshlands in the country's west
Southwest Georgia has a subtropical climate, with frequent rain and thick green vegetation
Georgian Shepherd Dog
GDP per capita development since 1973
A proportional representation of Georgia's exports in 2019
One of several plants operated by HeidelbergCement in Georgia
Wine-making is a traditional component of the Georgian economy.
The most visited ski resort of Georgia, Gudauri
The Georgian Railways represent a vital artery linking the Black Sea and Caspian Sea – the shortest route between Europe and Central Asia.
Port of Batumi
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region
Tbilisi State University, Corpus I
Illuminated manuscript from medieval Georgia, showing a scene from nativity
Old Tbilisi – Architecture in Georgia is in many ways a fusion of European and Asian.
Rather than serving food in courses, traditional supras often present all that a host has to offer
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.
Dinamo Tbilisi, winner of 1981 European Cup Winners' Cup on stamp of Georgia, 2002
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.

Country located in the Caucasus, at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, identifying itself as European.

- Georgia (country)

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Cylinder with a ritual scene, early 2nd millennium BC, Geoy Tepe, Iran

History of Iran

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Commonly known until the mid-20th century as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

Commonly known until the mid-20th century as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

Cylinder with a ritual scene, early 2nd millennium BC, Geoy Tepe, Iran
Chogha Zanbil is one of the few extant ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia and is considered to be the best preserved example in the world.
A gold cup at the National Museum of Iran, dating from the first half of 1st millennium BC
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent.
Map showing key sites during the Persian invasions of Greece.
A panoramic view of Persepolis
The Seleucid Empire in 200 BC, before Antiochus was defeated by the Romans
Bronze Statue of a Parthian prince, National Museum of Iran
Bagadates I, first native Persian ruler after Greek rule
Rock-face relief at Naqsh-e Rustam of Iranian emperor Shapur I (on horseback) capturing Roman emperor Valerian (kneeing) and Philip the Arab (standing).
Hunting scene on a gilded silver bowl showing king Khosrau I.
Battle between Heraclius' army and Persians under Khosrow II. Fresco by Piero della Francesca, c. 1452.
Phases of the Islamic conquest
The Saffarid dynasty in 900 AD.
Map of the Iranian dynasties in the mid 10th-century.
Babak Khorramdin was the leader of the Khurramīyah movement. A devout Zoroastrian, he led the Persian freedom movement against oppressive Arab rule.
Extract from a medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian astronomer, depicting an epicyclic planetary model
Persian manuscript describing how an ambassador from India, probably sent by the Maukhari King Śarvavarman of Kannauj, brought chess to the Persian court of Khosrow I.
The Kharaghan twin towers, built in 1067, Persia, contain tombs of Seljuq princes.
Seljuq empire at the time of its greatest extent, at the death of Malik Shah I
Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200
The Mongol Empire's expansion
Mongol successor khanates
Imam Reza shrine, the tomb of the eighth Imam of the twelver Shiites
Detailed map of the Timurid Empire with its tributary states and sphere of influence in Western-Central Asia (1402-1403)
Forensic facial reconstruction of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur from skull, performed by the Soviet archaeologist and anthropologist Mikhail Mikhaylovich Gerasimov (1941)
The Aq Qoyunlu confederation at its greatest extent.
The Safavid Empire at its greatest extent
Portrait of Shah Abbas I
Nader Shah
Persian Cossack Brigade in Tabriz in 1909
Tehran men celebrating the 1953 Iranian coup d'état
Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran after 14 years exile in France on 1 February 1979.
An Iranian soldier with gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War
Mohammad Khatami, reformist President of Iran from 1997 to 2005
Hassan Rouani 2017
Ebrahim Raisi in 2021
The tomb of Cyrus the Great
Ruins of the Gate of All Nations, Persepolis
Ruins of the Apadana, Persepolis
Depiction of united Medes and Persians at the Apadana, Persepolis
Ruins of the Tachara, Persepolis
Mihr 'Ali (Iranian, active ca. 1800–1830). Portrait of Fath-Ali Shah Qajar. Brooklyn Museum.
Qajar era currency bill with depiction of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar.
A map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century.
A map showing the 19th-century northwestern borders of Iran, comprising modern-day eastern Georgia, Dagestan, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, before being ceded to the neighboring Russian Empire by the Russo-Iranian wars.
Painting showing the Battle of Sultanabad, 13 February 1812. State Hermitage Museum.
Storming of Lankaran, 1812. Painted by Franz Roubaud.

The empire's territory, at its height, encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Abkhazia, Dagestan, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, parts of Afghanistan, Turkey, Syria, parts of Pakistan, Central Asia, Eastern Arabia, and parts of Egypt.

Map of Azerbaijan, with Georgia to the north-west

Azerbaijan–Georgia border

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Map of Azerbaijan, with Georgia to the north-west
Map of the former Tiflis Governorate, with the disputed Zakatala okrug in the east
A crossing on the border
The Red Bridge border crossing

The Azerbaijan–Georgia border (Azərbaycan–Gürcüstan sərhədi, აზერბაიჯან-საქართველოს საზღვარი) is the international boundary between Azerbaijan and Georgia.

1937 portrait of Stalin used in state propaganda

Joseph Stalin

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Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who led the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1953.

Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who led the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1953.

1937 portrait of Stalin used in state propaganda
In 1894 Stalin began his studies at the Tiflis Spiritual Seminary (pictured here in the 1870s).
Police photograph of Stalin, taken in 1902, when he was 23 years old.
Stalin first met Vladimir Lenin at a 1905 conference in Tampere. Lenin became "Stalin's indispensable mentor".
A mugshot of Stalin made in 1911 by the Tsarist secret police.
The first issue of Pravda, the Bolshevik newspaper of which Stalin was editor
Stalin in 1915
Joseph Stalin in 1917 as a young People's Commissar.
The Moscow Kremlin, which Stalin moved into in 1918
Joseph Stalin in 1920.
Stalin wearing a Order of the Red Banner. According to info published in Pravda (Pravda. 24 December 1939. No: 354 (8039)), this photograph was taken in Ordzhonikidze's house in 1921.
Stalin (right) confers with an ailing Lenin at Gorky in September 1922
(From left to right) Stalin, Alexei Rykov, Lev Kamenev, and Grigori Zinoviev in 1925
Stalin and his close associates Anastas Mikoyan and Sergo Ordzhonikidze in Tbilisi, 1925
Aleksei Grigorievich Stakhanov with a fellow miner; Stalin's government initiated the Stakhanovite movement to encourage hard work. It was partly responsible for a substantial rise in production during the 1930s.
Photograph taken of the 1931 demolition of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow in order to make way for the Palace of the Soviets
Soviet famine of 1932–33. Areas of most disastrous famine marked with black.
Review of Soviet armoured fighting vehicles used to equip the Republican People's Army during the Spanish Civil War
Exhumed mass grave of the Vinnytsia massacre
Victims of Stalin's Great Terror in the Bykivnia mass graves
Stalin greeting the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop in the Kremlin, 1939
With all the men at the front, women dig anti-tank trenches around Moscow in 1941
The center of Stalingrad after liberation, 2 February 1943
The Big Three: Stalin, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at the Tehran Conference, November 1943
Soviet soldiers in Polotsk, 4 July 1944
British Prime Minister Clement Attlee, U.S. President Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945
Banner of Stalin in Budapest in 1949
Stalin at his 71st birthday celebration with (left to right) Mao Zedong, Nikolai Bulganin, Walter Ulbricht and Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal
The Eastern Bloc until 1989
Stalin's casket on howitzer carriage drawn by horses, caught on camera by US assistant army attaché Major Martin Manhoff from the embassy balcony
A mourning parade in honour of Stalin in Dresden, East Germany
A statue of Stalin in Grūtas Park near Druskininkai, Lithuania; it originally stood in Vilnius, Lithuania
Lavrenti Beria with Stalin's daughter, Svetlana, on his lap and Stalin seated in the background smoking a pipe. Photographed at Stalin's dacha near Sochi in the mid-1930s.
Chinese Marxists celebrate Stalin's seventieth birthday in 1949
Stalin carrying his daughter, Svetlana
A poster of Stalin at the 3rd World Festival of Youth and Students in East Berlin, East Germany, 1951
Interior of the Joseph Stalin Museum in Gori, Georgia
A contingent from the Communist Party of Great Britain (Marxist–Leninist) carrying a banner of Stalin at a May Day march through London in 2008
Interior of the Gulag Museum in Moscow
Stalin's tomb in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis
Marxist–Leninist activists from the opposition Communist Party of the Russian Federation laying wreaths at Stalin's Moscow grave in 2009

Born to a poor family in Gori in the Russian Empire (now Georgia), Stalin attended the Tbilisi Spiritual Seminary before joining the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.

Map of NATO countries' chronological membership

Enlargement of NATO

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Military alliance of twenty-eight European and two North American countries that constitutes a system of collective defense.

Military alliance of twenty-eight European and two North American countries that constitutes a system of collective defense.

Map of NATO countries' chronological membership
Negotiations in London and Paris in 1954 ended the allied occupation of West Germany and allowed for its rearmament as a NATO member.
Hans-Dietrich Genscher and other negotiators during the first round of talks for the Two Plus Four Treaty
In December 1997, Russian President Boris Yeltsin described NATO expansion as a threat to Russia.
Václav Havel, József Antall, and Lech Wałęsa signed the treaty establishing the Visegrád Group in February 1991.
Prime Minister Zoran Zaev supported the 2018 Prespa Agreement, which allowed North Macedonia to complete accession to NATO.
Map of NATO in Europe
 Note that Membership Action Plan, Intensified Dialogue, and Individual Partnership Action Plan countries are also Partnership for Peace members.
Marina Pendeš, Minister of Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina, speaking at NATO's headquarters in Sarajevo in 2018
Protestors at a February 2022 rally against Russia's invasion of Ukraine march past the statue of Tsar Alexander II in Senate Square in Helsinki
Prime Minister Sanna Marin and President Sauli Niinistö at the press conference announcing Finland's intent to apply to NATO on 15 May 2022.
Georgian President Salome Zourabichvili speaking following meetings with NATO representatives in 2021
Sweden has close relations with NATO and its member states, and participates in annual training exercises like the BALTOPS exercise in the Baltic Sea.
Prime Minister Magdalena Andersson held talks in March 2022 with her counterpart from Finland about potential NATO memberships for both countries.
As president, Viktor Yanukovych pursued closer relations with Russia.
The Euromaidan protests that ousted Viktor Yanukovych from presidential office attracted large numbers of Ukrainians in support of better ties with European countries.
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy meeting with Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg in 2019.
Austria's neutrality is enshrined in law and treaty, but it participates in peacekeeping missions like Operation Althea in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Ireland currently does not seek to join NATO, but does work to improve the Defence Forces' interoperability with NATO.
Kosovo President Hashim Thaçi meeting with the U.S. Ambassador to NATO at NATO Headquarters in 2017
During the Cold War, NATO used radar facilities in Malta, which, like other non-NATO member European states, has generally cooperative relations with the organization.
Anti-NATO graffiti on a street in Novi Sad

, five additional states have formally informed NATO of their membership aspirations: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, Georgia, Sweden and Ukraine.

Sarcophagus of Mirian III at Samtavro Monastery

Mirian III of Iberia

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Sarcophagus of Mirian III at Samtavro Monastery
Map of the Caucasus in the 4th-century
The burials of King Mirian and Queen Nana at Samtavro church in Mtskheta

Mirian III (მირიან III) was a king of Iberia or Kartli (Georgia), contemporaneous to the Roman emperor Constantine the Great (r. 306–337).

Constitution of Georgia In The Parliament

Constitution of Georgia (country)

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Constitution of Georgia In The Parliament
Fragments of the Constitution of 1921
Eduard Shevardnadze at the Pentagon
Eduard Shevardnadze signing the constitution. 1998 Postage Stamp

The Constitution of Georgia (საქართველოს კონსტიტუცია, sakartvelos k'onstitutsia) is the supreme law of Georgia.

Map of Georgia showing the border with Russia, as well as the disputed Abkhazian and South Ossetian sections

Georgia–Russia border

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Map of Georgia showing the border with Russia, as well as the disputed Abkhazian and South Ossetian sections
The Psou crossing point
Map of Georgia from 1954, showing the areas annexed to Georgia in the north

The Georgia–Russia border is the state border between Georgia and Russia.

Zhordania in 1918

Noe Zhordania

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Zhordania in 1918
Zhordania in 1903
The first State Duma deputy
Georgia celebrates the first anniversary of its independence. Noe Zhordania, S. Mdivani, N. Tsereteli, P. Kakhiani, G. Lordkipanidze, E. Takaishvili, and foreign guests are seen on the tribune.
Karl Kautsky with the Georgian Social-Democrats, Tbilisi, 1920. In the first row: S. Devdariani, Noe Ramishvili, Noe Zhordania, Karl Kautsky and his wife Luise, Silibistro Jibladze, Razhden Arsenidze; in the second row: Kautsky's secretary Olberg, Victor Tevzaia, K. Gvarjaladze, Konstantine Sabakhtarashvili, S. Tevzadze, Avtandil Urushadze, R. Tsintsabadze
Zhordania with the Second International Delegation. Tbilisi, 1920

Noe Zhordania (ნოე ჟორდანია /nɔɛ ʒɔrdɑniɑ/; Ной Никола́евич Жорда́ния; born January 14 1868 (or 21 March 1869) — January 11, 1953) was a Georgian journalist and Menshevik politician.

Map of Armenia, with Georgia to the north

Armenia–Georgia border

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Map of Armenia, with Georgia to the north
Claimed territory of the Georgian Democratic Republic, with the disputed Lori region in pink
Borders between the Armenian and Georgian Soviet republics in 1926. The northern part of the Borchaly district was part of the Armenian SSR.

The Armenia–Georgia border (Հայաստան-Վրաստան սահման, სომხეთ-საქართველოს საზღვარი) is the international boundary between Armenia and Georgia.

Ilia Chavchavadze

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Georgian public figure, journalist, publisher, writer and poet who spearheaded the revival of Georgian nationalism during the second half of the 19th century and ensured the survival of the Georgian language, literature, and culture during the last decades of Tsarist rule.

Georgian public figure, journalist, publisher, writer and poet who spearheaded the revival of Georgian nationalism during the second half of the 19th century and ensured the survival of the Georgian language, literature, and culture during the last decades of Tsarist rule.

Chavchavadze as a 1st year gymnasium student
Ilia Chavchavadze during his student years
Newspaper "Iveria" (Iberia) founded and edited by Chavchavadze during his political career. The newspaper focused on the national liberation movement of Georgia in the late 1800s.
Shot trajectory of Ilia Chavchavadze's assassination
Prince Chavchavadze's funeral in Tbilisi
Monument to Chavchavadze (left) and Akaki Tsereteli (right) in front of the first Gymnasium in Tbilisi
The tomb of Ilia Chavchavadze in Mtatsminda Pantheon.
The tomb of Ilia Chavchavadze at Mtatsminda Pantheon.

They spread modern and European liberal ideals in Georgia.