A report on Georgian Orthodox Church

Coat of arms of the Orthodox Church of Georgia
Saint Nino of Cappadocia, baptizer of the Georgians.
Jvari Monastery, near Mtskheta, one of Georgia's oldest surviving monasteries (6th century)
A page from a rare 12th century Gelati Gospel depicting the Nativity
The Khakhuli triptych
Patriarch Anton II of Georgia was downgraded to the status of an archbishop by the Russian Imperial authorities.
Eparchies of the Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church as of 2010
The Holy Trinity Church (Tsminda Sameba) of Gergeti, in the mountains of Khevi

Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.

- Georgian Orthodox Church
Coat of arms of the Orthodox Church of Georgia

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Georgia (country)

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Country located in the Caucasus, at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, identifying itself as European.

Country located in the Caucasus, at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, identifying itself as European.

"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map
Patera depicting Marcus Aurelius uncovered in central Georgia, 2nd century AD
Northwestern Georgia is home to the medieval defensive Svan towers of Ushguli
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Queen Tamar, the first woman to rule medieval Georgia in her own right.
King Vakhtang VI, a Georgian monarch caught between rival regional powers
The reign of George XII was marked by instability.
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of Georgia who was exiled to France after the Soviet takeover
The Bolshevik Red Army in Tbilisi on 25 February 1921. Saint David's church on the Holy Mountain is visible in the distance.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
The Rose Revolution, 2003
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice holding a joint press conference with Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili during the Russo-Georgian war
Salome Zourabichvili, the first woman elected as president of Georgia
Presidential residence at the Orbeliani Palace in Tbilisi
Pro-NATO poster in Tbilisi
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
Georgian built Didgori-2 during the military parade in 2011
A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor operated by the Georgian Patrol Police.
Map of Georgia highlighting the disputed territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region (South Ossetia), both of which are outside the control of the central government of Georgia
Köppen climate classification map of Georgia
Mount Kazbek in eastern Georgia
Svaneti region of Georgia
View of the cave city of Vardzia and the valley of the Kura River below
Georgia's diverse climate creates varied landscapes, like these flat marshlands in the country's west
Southwest Georgia has a subtropical climate, with frequent rain and thick green vegetation
Georgian Shepherd Dog
GDP per capita development since 1973
A proportional representation of Georgia's exports in 2019
One of several plants operated by HeidelbergCement in Georgia
Wine-making is a traditional component of the Georgian economy.
The most visited ski resort of Georgia, Gudauri
The Georgian Railways represent a vital artery linking the Black Sea and Caspian Sea – the shortest route between Europe and Central Asia.
Port of Batumi
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region
Tbilisi State University, Corpus I
Illuminated manuscript from medieval Georgia, showing a scene from nativity
Old Tbilisi – Architecture in Georgia is in many ways a fusion of European and Asian.
Rather than serving food in courses, traditional supras often present all that a host has to offer
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.
Dinamo Tbilisi, winner of 1981 European Cup Winners' Cup on stamp of Georgia, 2002
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.

In the early 4th century, ethnic Georgians officially adopted Christianity, which contributed to the spiritual and political unification of the early Georgian states.

Ilia II in 2004

Ilia II of Georgia

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Ilia II in 2004
Patriarch Ilia II and HRH David Bagrationi Mukhrani (მუხრანბატონი)) of Georgia

Ilia II (ილია II), also transliterated as Ilya or Elijah (born 4 January 1933), is the Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia and the spiritual leader of the Georgian Orthodox Church.

Icon of Saint Nino at Svetitskhoveli Cathedral

Saint Nino

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Saint Nino (წმინდა ნინო; Սուրբ Նունե; Αγία Νίνα; sometimes St. Nune or St. Ninny) Equal to the Apostles and the Enlightener of Georgia (c.

Saint Nino (წმინდა ნინო; Սուրբ Նունե; Αγία Νίνα; sometimes St. Nune or St. Ninny) Equal to the Apostles and the Enlightener of Georgia (c.

Icon of Saint Nino at Svetitskhoveli Cathedral
Saint Nino with her scroll and grapevine cross
A mosaic in Samtavro Monastery, Mtskheta

St. Nino has become one of the most venerated saints of the Georgian Orthodox Church and her attribute, a grapevine cross, is a symbol of Georgian Christianity.

The Georgian kings, queens consort and the Catholicos-Patriarch depicted on a Byzantine-influenced fresco wearing Byzantine dress at the Gelati Monastery, UNESCO's World Heritage Site landmark.

Georgians

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The Georgians, or Kartvelians (ქართველები, ), are a nation and indigenous Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia and the South Caucasus.

The Georgians, or Kartvelians (ქართველები, ), are a nation and indigenous Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia and the South Caucasus.

The Georgian kings, queens consort and the Catholicos-Patriarch depicted on a Byzantine-influenced fresco wearing Byzantine dress at the Gelati Monastery, UNESCO's World Heritage Site landmark.
Georgian peasant in Mestia, c. 1888
Armour of King Alexander III of Imereti with golden plates.
The Bagrati Cathedral, The Cathedral of the Dormition, built during the reign of King Bagrat III, one of Georgia's most significant medieval religious buildings returned to its original state in 2012.
Georgians having a feast at Supra and Tamada making a toast. Painting by Niko Pirosmani.

In the 4th century, the Georgians became one of the first to embrace Christianity and now the majority of Georgians are Orthodox Christians, with most following their national autocephalous Georgian Orthodox Church, although there are small Georgian Catholic and Muslim communities as well as a significant number of irreligious Georgians.

Sarcophagus of Mirian III at Samtavro Monastery

Mirian III of Iberia

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King of Iberia or Kartli (Georgia), contemporaneous to the Roman emperor Constantine the Great (r. 306–337).

King of Iberia or Kartli (Georgia), contemporaneous to the Roman emperor Constantine the Great (r. 306–337).

Sarcophagus of Mirian III at Samtavro Monastery
Map of the Caucasus in the 4th-century
The burials of King Mirian and Queen Nana at Samtavro church in Mtskheta

After Christianization of Iberia he is credited with establishment of Christianity as his kingdom's state religion and is regarded by the Georgian Orthodox Church as saint and is canonized as Saint Equal to the Apostles King Mirian (წმინდა მოციქულთასწორი მეფე მირიანი).

A fresco of King David IV from Gelati Monastery

David IV of Georgia

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The 5th king of United Georgia from 1089 until his death in 1125.

The 5th king of United Georgia from 1089 until his death in 1125.

A fresco of King David IV from Gelati Monastery
Reconstruction of David the Builder's personal banner
A later depiction of King David by an unknown artist
Expansion of Kingdom of Georgia under David IV's reign.
Georgia at the end of the reign of King David IV.
fresco of King David the Builder, Shio-Mghvime monastery.
Gelati Monastery fresco of King David, 12th century
The "Tomb of David IV" at Gelati reads: 
Ⴕ ႤႱႤႠႰႱႢႠႬ 
ႱႠႱႭႤႬႤ 
ႡႤႪႨႹ[ႫႨ] 
[ႭႩႨႭႩႤ] 
[ႤႱႤ]ႫႧႬႠ 
ႥႱႠႵႠႣႠ 
ႥႤႫႩჃႣႰႭ 
ႫႤ

A friend of the church and a notable promoter of Christian culture, he was canonized by the Georgian Orthodox Church.

Mtskheta

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City in Mtskheta-Mtianeti province of Georgia.

City in Mtskheta-Mtianeti province of Georgia.

Town square
Street near Svetitskhoveli Cathedral
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Svetitskhoveli seen from an old street
Jvari Monastery
Samtavro Monastery
"Pompey's bridge", August 2008

As the birthplace and one of the most vibrant centers of Christianity in Georgia, Mtskheta was declared as the "Holy City" by the Georgian Orthodox Church in 2014.

A benediction cross of Catholicos-Patriarch Domentius IV of Georgia showing the scenes of Triumphal Entry, Crucifixion and Ascension of Jesus, Dormition of the Mother of God, Raising of Lazarus and Pentecost. Catholicos-Patriarch asks for the "forgiveness of his sins" as written on the handle of the cross in Georgian Mkhedruli script. Kept at the Walters Art Museum in the United States.

Christianization of Iberia

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Ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli, known as Iberia in classical antiquity, which resulted in declaring it as a state religion by then-pagan King Mirian III of Iberia.

Ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli, known as Iberia in classical antiquity, which resulted in declaring it as a state religion by then-pagan King Mirian III of Iberia.

A benediction cross of Catholicos-Patriarch Domentius IV of Georgia showing the scenes of Triumphal Entry, Crucifixion and Ascension of Jesus, Dormition of the Mother of God, Raising of Lazarus and Pentecost. Catholicos-Patriarch asks for the "forgiveness of his sins" as written on the handle of the cross in Georgian Mkhedruli script. Kept at the Walters Art Museum in the United States.
Solar eclipse of 11 July 2010, totality seen from the French Polynesia.

Even though Iberia officially embraced Christianity in the early 4th century, the Georgian Orthodox Church claims apostolic origin and regards Andrew the Apostle as the founder of the Georgian church, also supported by some Byzantine sources.

Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia

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Catholicos-Patriarch has been the title of the heads of the Georgian Orthodox Church since 1010.

Saint George's Cathedral, Istanbul, Turkey

Eastern Orthodox Church

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Second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptized members.

Second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptized members.

Saint George's Cathedral, Istanbul, Turkey
Christ Pantocrator, sixth century, Saint Catherine's Monastery, Sinai; the oldest known icon of Christ, in one of the oldest monasteries in the world
Emperor Constantine presents a representation of the city of Constantinople as tribute to an enthroned Mary and baby Jesus in this church mosaic (Hagia Sophia, c. 1000)
An icon of Saint John the Baptist, 14th century, North Macedonia
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Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Hagia Sophia, the largest church in the world and patriarchal basilica of Constantinople for nearly a thousand years, later converted into a mosque, then a museum, then back to a mosque.
The baptism of Princess Olga in Constantinople, a miniature from the Radzivill Chronicle
Latin Crusaders sacking the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Orthodox controlled Byzantine Empire, in 1204.
Timeline showing the main autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches, from an Eastern Orthodox point of view, up to 2021
Canonical territories of the main autocephalous and autonomous Eastern Orthodox jurisdictions as of 2020
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Percentage distribution of Eastern Orthodox Christians by country
John of Damascus
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Our Lady of Tinos is the major Marian shrine in Greece.
The Theotokos of Vladimir, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary
Last Judgment: 12th-century Byzantine mosaic from Torcello Cathedral
David glorified by the women of Israel from the Paris Psalter, example of the Macedonian art (Byzantine) (sometimes called the Macedonian Renaissance)
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Chanters singing on the kliros at the Church of St. George, Patriarchate of Constantinople
An illustration of the traditional interior of an Orthodox church.
Shards of pottery vases on the street, after being thrown from the windows of nearby houses. A Holy Saturday tradition in Corfu.
An Eastern Orthodox baptism
Eucharistic elements prepared for the Divine Liturgy
The wedding of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
Eastern Orthodox subdeacon being ordained to the diaconate. The bishop has placed his omophorion and right hand on the head of the candidate and is reading the Prayer of Cheirotonia.
The consecration of the Rt Rev. Reginald Heber Weller as an Anglican bishop at the Cathedral of St. Paul the Apostle in the Episcopal Diocese of Fond du Lac, with the Rt. Rev. Anthony Kozlowski of the Polish National Catholic Church and Saint Tikhon, then Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska (along with his chaplains Fr. John Kochurov and Fr. Sebastian Dabovich) of the Russian Orthodox Church present
Pope Francis and Patriarch Bartholomew I in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, 2014
The Constantinople Massacre of April 1821: a religious persecution of the Greek population of Constantinople under the Ottomans. Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople was executed.
The Pan-Orthodox Council, Kolymvari, Crete, Greece, June 2016
Cathedral of Evangelismos, Alexandria
Patriarchate of Peć in Kosovo, the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church from the 14th century when its status was upgraded into a patriarchate
Traditional Paschal procession by Russian Orthodox Old-Rite Church
Greek Orthodox massacred during the Greek Genocide in Smyrna in 1922.

These include the fourteen autocephalous churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Georgia, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Serbia, Russia, Greece, Poland, Romania, Albania, and the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which were officially invited to the Pan-Orthodox Council of 2016; the Orthodox Church in America formed in 1970; the autocephalous Orthodox Church of Ukraine created in 2019; and the Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric, granted autocephaly by Serbian Orthodox Church in 2022; as well as a number of autonomous churches.