Geostationary orbit

GeostationaryGEOgeostationary satelliteClarke BeltGeostationary Earth OrbitClarke orbitgeo-stationary orbitgeo-stationarygeostationary beltgeostationary satellites
A geostationary orbit, also referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit 35786 km above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.wikipedia
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Satellite

satellitesartificial satelliteartificial satellites
The concept of a geostationary orbit was popularised by Arthur C. Clarke in the 1940s as a way to revolutionise telecommunications, and the first satellite to be placed in this kind of orbit was launched in 1963.
Approximately 63% of operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 6% are in medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), 29% are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km) and the remaining 2% are in elliptic orbit.

Arthur C. Clarke

Arthur C ClarkeSir Arthur C. ClarkeClarke
The concept of a geostationary orbit was popularised by Arthur C. Clarke in the 1940s as a way to revolutionise telecommunications, and the first satellite to be placed in this kind of orbit was launched in 1963.
In 1945, he proposed a satellite communication system using geostationary orbits.

Geosynchronous orbit

geosynchronousGEOGSO
A geostationary orbit, also referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit 35786 km above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.
A special case of geosynchronous orbit is the geostationary orbit, which is a circular geosynchronous orbit in Earth's equatorial plane (that is, directly above the Equator).

Communications satellite

satellite communicationssatellitecommunication satellite
Communications satellites are often placed in a geostationary orbit so that Earth-based satellite antennas (located on Earth) do not have to rotate to track them, but can be pointed permanently at the position in the sky where the satellites are located.
Many are in geostationary orbit 22,236 mi above the equator, so that the satellite appears stationary at the same point in the sky, so the satellite dish antennas of ground stations can be aimed permanently at that spot and do not have to move to track it.

Satellite dish

satellite dishesdishsatellite antenna
Communications satellites are often placed in a geostationary orbit so that Earth-based satellite antennas (located on Earth) do not have to rotate to track them, but can be pointed permanently at the position in the sky where the satellites are located.
The term most commonly means a dish used by consumers to receive direct-broadcast satellite television from a direct broadcast satellite in geostationary orbit.

Harold Rosen (electrical engineer)

Harold RosenHarold A. RosenRosen, Harold
The first geostationary satellite was designed by Harold Rosen while he was working at Hughes Aircraft in 1959.
Harold A. Rosen (March 20, 1926 – January 30, 2017 ) was an American electrical engineer, known as "the father of the geostationary satellite", and "father of the communications satellite".

Parking orbit

coast time in orbittemporary orbit
Geostationary satellites are launched via a temporary orbit, and placed in a slot above a particular point on the Earth's surface.
Geostationary spacecraft require an orbit in the plane of the equator.

Graveyard orbit

disposal orbitJunk orbitabove its previous orbit
The orbit requires some stationkeeping to keep its position, and modern retired satellites are placed in a higher graveyard orbit to avoid collisions.
De-orbiting a geostationary satellite requires a delta-v of about 1500 m/s, whereas re-orbiting it to a graveyard orbit only requires about 11 m/s.

Syncom

Syncom 3Syncom 2Syncom 1
They lost Syncom 1 to electronics failure, but Syncom 2 was successfully placed into a geosynchronous orbit in 1963. The first satellite placed in a geostationary orbit was Syncom 3, which was launched by a Delta D rocket in 1963.
Syncom 3, launched in 1964, was the world's first geostationary satellite.

Weather satellite

satellitemeteorological satelliteWeather
Weather satellites are also placed in this orbit for real time monitoring and data collection, and navigation satellites to provide a known calibration point and enhance GPS accuracy.
Satellites can be polar orbiting, covering the entire Earth asynchronously, or geostationary, hovering over the same spot on the equator.

Meteosat

MSG-4Meteosat Second GenerationMeteosat Third Generation
The Meteosat series of satellites are geostationary meteorological satellites operated by EUMETSAT under the Meteosat Transition Programme (MTP) and the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) program.

Geostationary Ocean Color Imager

oceanography
Geostationary satellite imagery has been used for tracking volcanic ash, measuring cloud top temperatures and water vapour, oceanography, measuing land temperature and vegetation coverage, facilitating cyclone path prediction, and providing real time cloud coverage and other tracking data.
Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI, ), is the world's first geostationary orbit satellite image sensor in order to observe or monitor an ocean-color around the Korean Peninsula [1][2].

Indian National Satellite System

INSATINSAT-1BINSAT 4B
or INSAT, is a series of multipurpose geo-stationary satellites launched by ISRO to satisfy the telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology, and search and rescue operations.

Circular orbit

circularcircular orbitscircular Keplerian orbits
A geostationary orbit, also referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit 35786 km above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.
Maneuvering into a large circular orbit, e.g. a geostationary orbit, requires a larger delta-v than an escape orbit, although the latter implies getting arbitrarily far away and having more energy than needed for the orbital speed of the circular orbit.

Elektro–L

Elektro-LElektro LElektro-L No.3
It is the first Russian weather satellite that successfully operates in geostationary orbit, and is currently the second operational Russian weather satellite.

Molniya orbit

Molniyahighly elliptical orbitMolniya orbit satellite
Because of this, some Russian communication satellites have used elliptical Molniya and Tundra orbits, which have excellent visibility at high latitudes.
Geostationary orbits, which are necessarily inclined over the equator, can only view these regions from a low angle, hampering performance.

Low Earth orbit

Low EarthLEOlow-Earth orbit
Conventional wisdom at the time was that it would require too much rocket power to place a satellite in a geostationary orbit and it would not survive long enough to justify the expense, so early efforts were put towards constellations of satellites in low or medium Earth orbit.
Higher orbits include medium Earth orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), and further above, geostationary orbit (GEO).

Delta (rocket family)

DeltaDelta rocketDelta G
The first satellite placed in a geostationary orbit was Syncom 3, which was launched by a Delta D rocket in 1963.
Syncom 3, the first geostationary communications satellite

Latency (engineering)

latencylow latencylow-latency
However, latency becomes significant as it takes about 240ms for a signal to pass from a ground based transmitter on the equator to the satellite and back again.
Satellites in geostationary orbits are far enough away from Earth that communication latency becomes significant — about a quarter of a second for a trip from one ground-based transmitter to the satellite and back to another ground-based transmitter; close to half a second for two-way communication from one Earth station to another and then back to the first.

Tundra orbit

TundraTundra elliptical orbit
Because of this, some Russian communication satellites have used elliptical Molniya and Tundra orbits, which have excellent visibility at high latitudes.
Tundra and Molniya orbits are used to provide high-latitude users with higher elevation angles than a geostationary orbit.

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GOESGOES-RGOES-S
Designed to operate in geostationary orbit 35790 km above the Earth, the GOES spacecraft continuously view the continental United States, the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, Central America, South America, and southern Canada.

Orbital period

periodsynodic periodsynodic
An object in such an orbit has an orbital period equal to the Earth's rotational period, one sidereal day, and so to ground observers it appears motionless, in a fixed position in the sky.

Medium Earth orbit

Medium EarthMEOintermediate circular orbit
Conventional wisdom at the time was that it would require too much rocket power to place a satellite in a geostationary orbit and it would not survive long enough to justify the expense, so early efforts were put towards constellations of satellites in low or medium Earth orbit.

European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service

EGNOSEuropean Geostationary Navigation Overlay System
EGNOS consists of a network of about 40 ground stations and 3 geostationary satellites.

Orbit

orbitsorbital motionplanetary motion
The first appearance of a geostationary orbit in popular literature was in October 1942, in the first Venus Equilateral story by George O. Smith, but Smith did not go into details.