German Confederation

GermanyGermanGerman statesImperial Confederate of GermanyGerman ConfederacyConfederationDeutscher BundFederal17 independent states19th-century Germany
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe (adding the mainly non-German speaking Kingdom of Bohemia and Duchy of Carniola), created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.wikipedia
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German revolutions of 1848–1849

Revolutions of 1848 in the German statesRevolution of 1848Revolutions of 1848
The Confederation was weakened by rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire, revolution, and the inability of the multiple members to compromise.
They were a series of loosely coordinated protests and rebellions in the states of the German Confederation, including the Austrian Empire.

Austrian Empire

AustrianAustriaAustrians
The Confederation was weakened by rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire, revolution, and the inability of the multiple members to compromise.
Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation.

Austro-Prussian War

War of 1866Seven Weeks' WarAustro-Prussian
The Confederation was finally dissolved after the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks' War over Austria in 1866.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.

Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
A number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, which was renamed and proclaimed as the "German Empire" in 1871 for the now unified Germany (aside from Austria) with the Prussian king as emperor (Kaiser) after the victory over French Emperor Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870.
After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815.

Frankfurt Constitution

Constitution of St. Paul's ChurchPaulskirchenverfassungPaulskirche Constitution
In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists attempted to establish a unified German state with a progressive liberal constitution under the Frankfurt Convention.
The Frankfurt Constitution (Frankfurter Reichsverfassung, FRV) or Constitution of St. Paul's Church (Paulskirchenverfassung), officially named the Constitution of the German Empire (Verfassung des Deutschen Reiches) of 28 March 1849, was an unsuccessful attempt to create a unified German nation state in the successor states of the Holy Roman Empire organised in the German Confederation.

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor

Francis IIFrancis IFrancis I of Austria
Following defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz by the French under Napoleon in December 1805, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, and the Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806.
He was also Apostolic King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia as Francis I. He also served as the first president of the German Confederation following its establishment in 1815.

German Empire

GermanyGermanImperial Germany
A number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, which was renamed and proclaimed as the "German Empire" in 1871 for the now unified Germany (aside from Austria) with the Prussian king as emperor (Kaiser) after the victory over French Emperor Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870.
The German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris.

North German Confederation

North German FederationGermanyState
The dispute over which had the inherent right to rule German lands ended in favour of Prussia, leading to the creation of the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership in 1867, to which the eastern portions of the Kingdom of Prussia were added.
For the most of 1815–1848, Austria and Prussia worked together and used the German Confederation as a tool to suppress liberal and national ambitions in the German population.

Grand Duchy of Baden

BadenBaden, GermanyDuchy of Baden
Six other major states had one vote each in the Federal Assembly: the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Kingdom of Saxony, the Kingdom of Württemberg, the Electorate of Hesse, the Grand Duchy of Baden, and the Grand Duchy of Hesse.
In 1815 it joined the German Confederation.

Anhalt-Dessau

Principality of Anhalt-DessauPrince of Anhalt-DessauDuchy of Anhalt-Dessau
Anhalt-Dessau was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire and later a duchy of the German Confederation.

Electorate of Hesse

Hesse-KasselHesseKurhessen
Six other major states had one vote each in the Federal Assembly: the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Kingdom of Saxony, the Kingdom of Württemberg, the Electorate of Hesse, the Grand Duchy of Baden, and the Grand Duchy of Hesse.
The state was the only electorate within the German Confederation.

Duchy of Brunswick

BrunswickDuke of BrunswickDukes of Brunswick
In the course of the 19th-century history of Germany, the duchy was part of the German Confederation, the North German Confederation and from 1871 the German Empire.

Kingdom of Hanover

HanoverHanoverianKingdom of Hannover
It succeeded the former Electorate of Hanover (known formally as the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg), and joined 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation in June 1815.

Duchy of Limburg (1839–67)

LimburgDuchy of LimburgDuke of Limburg
In 1839, as compensation for the loss of the province of Luxemburg to Belgium, the Duchy of Limburg (held by the Netherlands) was created and it was a member of the German Confederation until its dissolution in 1866. All the constituent states of the former German Confederation became part of the Kaiserreich in 1871, except Austria, Luxembourg, the Duchy of Limburg, and Liechtenstein.
The duchy was a province of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and at the same time was a member of the German Confederation.

Kingdom of Saxony

SaxonySaxonKing of Saxony
The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany.

Congress of Vienna

Vienna CongressTreaty of ViennaFinal Act of the Congress of Vienna
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe (adding the mainly non-German speaking Kingdom of Bohemia and Duchy of Carniola), created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
These states formed a loose German Confederation under the leadership of Austria and Prussia.

List of rulers of Limburg

Duke of LimburgLimburgCount of Limburg
Three member states were ruled by foreign monarchs: the King of Denmark as Duke of Holstein; the King of the Netherlands as Grand Duke of Luxembourg and Duke of Limburg; and the King of Great Britain (until 1837) as King of Hanover were members of the German Confederation.
According to this treaty the new duchy (without the cities of Maastricht and Venlo), was joined to the German Confederation.

German Federal Army

ArmyBundesheerFederal Army
The German Federal Army (Deutsche Bundesheer) was formed in 1815 to collectively defend the German Confederation from external enemies, primarily France.
The German Federal Army (Deutsches Bundesheer) was the military arm of the German Confederation from 1815 to 1866 whose purpose was the defence of the Confederation against external enemies – primarily France, from where several wars of occupation had been launched in earlier times against the Holy Roman Empire, but also Russia and its attempts at expansion in the cause of Pan-Slavism.

Fortresses of the German Confederation

federal fortressFortress of the German ConfederationFederal Fortresses
The members pledged themselves to mutual defense, and joint maintenance of the fortresses at Mainz, the city of Luxembourg, Rastatt, Ulm, and Landau.
Under the term of the 1815 Peace of Paris, France was obliged to pay for the construction of a line of fortresses to protect the German Confederation against any future aggression by France.

Kingdom of Bavaria

BavariaBavarianKing of Bavaria
Six other major states had one vote each in the Federal Assembly: the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Kingdom of Saxony, the Kingdom of Württemberg, the Electorate of Hesse, the Grand Duchy of Baden, and the Grand Duchy of Hesse.
Attempts by Prussia to reorganize the loose and un-led German Confederation were opposed by Bavaria and Austria, with Bavaria taking part in its own discussions with Austria and other allies in 1863, in Frankfurt, without Prussia and its allies attending.

Luxembourg

Grand Duchy of LuxembourgLUXLuxemburg
All the constituent states of the former German Confederation became part of the Kaiserreich in 1871, except Austria, Luxembourg, the Duchy of Limburg, and Liechtenstein.
The Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
Following defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz by the French under Napoleon in December 1805, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, and the Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806. The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe (adding the mainly non-German speaking Kingdom of Bohemia and Duchy of Carniola), created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The Napoleonic Confederation of the Rhine was replaced by a new union, the German Confederation, in 1815, following the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

Napoleon III

Napoléon IIILouis NapoleonNapoleon III of France
A number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, which was renamed and proclaimed as the "German Empire" in 1871 for the now unified Germany (aside from Austria) with the Prussian king as emperor (Kaiser) after the victory over French Emperor Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870.
In the winter and spring of 1864, when the German Confederation invaded and occupied the German-speaking provinces of Denmark (Schleswig and Holstein), Napoleon III recognized the threat that a unified Germany would pose to France, and he looked for allies to challenge Germany, without success.

Fortress of Mainz

Mainz FortressMainzFortress Mainz
The members pledged themselves to mutual defense, and joint maintenance of the fortresses at Mainz, the city of Luxembourg, Rastatt, Ulm, and Landau.
At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, under the term of the 1815 Peace of Paris, the control of Mainz passed to the German Confederation and became part of a chain of strategic fortresses which protected the Confederation.

Carlsbad Decrees

Karlsbad DecreesTreaty of Frankfurt, 1819Carlsbad
Metternich used the murder as a pretext to issue the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819, which dissolved the Burschenschaften, cracked down on the liberal press, and seriously restricted academic freedom.
The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation by resolution of the Bundesversammlung on 20 September 1819 after a conference held in the spa town of Carlsbad, Bohemia.