German Emperor

EmperorKaiserGerman EmperorsGerman KaiserEmperor of GermanyDeutscher KaiserGerman EmpressMonarchismEmperor of the GermansEmperors
The German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser ) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire.wikipedia
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Wilhelm II, German Emperor

Wilhelm IIKaiser Wilhelm IIKaiser Wilhelm
A specifically chosen term, it was introduced with the 1 January 1871 constitution and lasted until the official abdication of Wilhelm II on 28 November 1918.
Wilhelm II or William II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert; 27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia.

Abdication of Wilhelm II

abdicatedpost-imperialabdicating the Imperial throne
A specifically chosen term, it was introduced with the 1 January 1871 constitution and lasted until the official abdication of Wilhelm II on 28 November 1918.
Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated as German Emperor and King of Prussia in November 1918.

President of Germany (1919–1945)

PresidentPresident of GermanyReichspräsident
Following the revolution of 1918, the function of head of state was succeeded by the President of the Reich (Reichspräsident), beginning with Friedrich Ebert.
It was intended that the president would rule in conjunction with the Reichstag (legislature) and that his emergency powers would be exercised only in extraordinary circumstances, but the political instability of the Weimar period, and a paralysing factionalism in the legislature, meant that the president came to occupy a position of considerable power (not unlike that of the German Emperor he replaced), capable of legislating by decree and appointing and dismissing governments at will.

William I, German Emperor

Wilhelm IWilliam IKaiser Wilhelm I
The title was carefully chosen by Otto von Bismarck, Minister President of Prussia and [[List of Chancellors of Germany#North German Confederation (Bundeskanzler) (1867–1871)|Chancellor]] of the North German Confederation, after discussion which continued until the proclamation of King William I of Prussia as emperor at the Palace of Versailles during the Siege of Paris.
William I, (Wilhelm I.; 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern, was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany.

Frederick William IV of Prussia

Frederick William IVFriedrich Wilhelm IVFriedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia
In the wake of the revolutions of 1848 and during the German Empire (1848–49), King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title "Emperor of the Germans" (Kaiser der Deutschen) by the Frankfurt Parliament in 1849, but declined it as "not the Parliament's to give".
During the German revolutions of 1848–1849, he at first accommodated the revolutionaries but rejected the title of Emperor of the Germans offered by the Frankfurt Parliament in 1849 as not the Parliament's to give and used military force to crush the revolutionaries throughout the German Confederation.

List of chancellors of Germany

Chancellor of GermanyChancellorcomplete list
The title was carefully chosen by Otto von Bismarck, Minister President of Prussia and [[List of Chancellors of Germany#North German Confederation (Bundeskanzler) (1867–1871)|Chancellor]] of the North German Confederation, after discussion which continued until the proclamation of King William I of Prussia as emperor at the Palace of Versailles during the Siege of Paris.
Originally, the chancellor was only responsible to the emperor.

German Empire

GermanyGermanImperial Germany
The German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser ) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire.
On 10 December 1870, the North German Confederation Reichstag renamed the Confederation the "German Empire" and gave the title of German Emperor to William I, the King of Prussia, as Bundespräsidium of the Confederation.

Holy Roman Emperor

EmperorHoly Roman EmperorsImperial
The Holy Roman Emperor is sometimes also called "German Emperor" when the historical context is clear, as derived from the Holy Roman Empire's official name of "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" from 1512.
In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser ("Roman-German emperor") is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, and that of German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) on the other.

Federal monarchy

FederalFederal ConstitutionFederal constitutional monarchy
This empire was a federal monarchy; the emperor was head of state and president of the federated monarchs (the kings of Bavaria, Württemberg, Saxony, the grand dukes of Baden, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Hesse, among others, as well as the principalities, duchies and of the free cities of Hamburg, Lübeck and Bremen).
The head of state of the federation was a monarch, the German Emperor, who was also head of state of the largest constituent part to the federation as King of Prussia; other constituent monarchies, such as the kingdoms of Bavaria, Saxony and Württemberg and various grand duchies, duchies and principalities, retained their own monarchs and armies.

North German Confederation

North German FederationGermanyState
The title was carefully chosen by Otto von Bismarck, Minister President of Prussia and [[List of Chancellors of Germany#North German Confederation (Bundeskanzler) (1867–1871)|Chancellor]] of the North German Confederation, after discussion which continued until the proclamation of King William I of Prussia as emperor at the Palace of Versailles during the Siege of Paris.
It was originally called Deutscher Bund (German Confederation), but on 10 December 1870 the Reichstag of the North German Confederation adopted the name Deutsches Reich (German Realm or German Empire) and granted the title of German Emperor to the King of Prussia as Bundespräsidium of the Confederation.

Imperial and Royal Majesty

Her Royal MajestyHis Imperial and Royal MajestyImperial and Royal
His Imperial and Royal Majesty Wilhelm I, By the Grace of God, German Emperor and King of Prussia; Margrave of Brandenburg, Burgrave of Nuremberg, Count of Hohenzollern; sovereign and supreme Duke of Silesia and of the County of Glatz; Grand Duke of the Lower Rhine and of Posen; Duke of Saxony, of Westphalia, of Angria, of Pomerania, Lunenburg, Holstein and Schleswig, of Magdeburg, of Bremen, of Guelders, Cleves, Jülich and Berg, Duke of the Wends and the Kassubes, of Crossen, Lauenburg and Mecklenburg; Landgrave of Hesse and Thuringia; Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia; Prince of Orange; Prince of Rügen, of East Friesland, of Paderborn and Pyrmont, of Halberstadt, Münster, Minden, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, of Verden, Cammin, Fulda, Nassau and Moers; Princely Count of Henneberg; Count of Mark, of Ravensberg, of Hohenstein, Tecklenburg and Lingen, of Mansfeld, Sigmaringen and Veringen; Lord of Frankfurt.
The style was notably used by the Emperor of Austria (who was also the King of Hungary and Bohemia) and by the German Emperor (who was also the King of Prussia).

List of monarchs of Prussia

King of PrussiaDuke of PrussiaKings of Prussia
The title was carefully chosen by Otto von Bismarck, Minister President of Prussia and [[List of Chancellors of Germany#North German Confederation (Bundeskanzler) (1867–1871)|Chancellor]] of the North German Confederation, after discussion which continued until the proclamation of King William I of Prussia as emperor at the Palace of Versailles during the Siege of Paris.
In 1871, in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War, the German Empire was formed, and the King of Prussia, Wilhelm I was crowned German Emperor.

Margrave

margraviateMargravineMarkgraf
His Imperial and Royal Majesty Wilhelm I, By the Grace of God, German Emperor and King of Prussia; Margrave of Brandenburg, Burgrave of Nuremberg, Count of Hohenzollern; sovereign and supreme Duke of Silesia and of the County of Glatz; Grand Duke of the Lower Rhine and of Posen; Duke of Saxony, of Westphalia, of Angria, of Pomerania, Lunenburg, Holstein and Schleswig, of Magdeburg, of Bremen, of Guelders, Cleves, Jülich and Berg, Duke of the Wends and the Kassubes, of Crossen, Lauenburg and Mecklenburg; Landgrave of Hesse and Thuringia; Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia; Prince of Orange; Prince of Rügen, of East Friesland, of Paderborn and Pyrmont, of Halberstadt, Münster, Minden, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, of Verden, Cammin, Fulda, Nassau and Moers; Princely Count of Henneberg; Count of Mark, of Ravensberg, of Hohenstein, Tecklenburg and Lingen, of Mansfeld, Sigmaringen and Veringen; Lord of Frankfurt.
Mark Brandenburg became the nucleus of the House of Hohenzollern's later Kingdom of Prussia and the springboard to their eventual accession as German Emperors in 1871.

Popular monarchy

popularpopular monarchiesKing of the French
"Emperor of the Germans", as had been proposed at the Frankfurt Parliament in 1849, was ruled out by William as he considered himself a king who ruled by divine right and chosen "By the Grace of God", not by the people in a popular monarchy.

House of Hohenzollern

HohenzollernHohenzollernsHohenzollern dynasty
His Imperial and Royal Majesty Wilhelm I, By the Grace of God, German Emperor and King of Prussia; Margrave of Brandenburg, Burgrave of Nuremberg, Count of Hohenzollern; sovereign and supreme Duke of Silesia and of the County of Glatz; Grand Duke of the Lower Rhine and of Posen; Duke of Saxony, of Westphalia, of Angria, of Pomerania, Lunenburg, Holstein and Schleswig, of Magdeburg, of Bremen, of Guelders, Cleves, Jülich and Berg, Duke of the Wends and the Kassubes, of Crossen, Lauenburg and Mecklenburg; Landgrave of Hesse and Thuringia; Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia; Prince of Orange; Prince of Rügen, of East Friesland, of Paderborn and Pyrmont, of Halberstadt, Münster, Minden, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, of Verden, Cammin, Fulda, Nassau and Moers; Princely Count of Henneberg; Count of Mark, of Ravensberg, of Hohenstein, Tecklenburg and Lingen, of Mansfeld, Sigmaringen and Veringen; Lord of Frankfurt. The German Emperors had an extensive list of titles and claims that reflected the geographic expanse and diversity of the lands ruled by the House of Hohenzollern.
The Kingdom of Prussia was created in 1701, eventually leading to the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871, with the Hohenzollerns as hereditary German Emperors and Kings of Prussia.

Bundespräsidium

President
Since 1867, the presidency (Bundespräsidium) of the North German Confederation had been a hereditary office of the kings of Prussia.
The constitutional changes of 1870-71 renamed the North German Confederation as the German Empire; the title and function of Bundespräsidium remained, but were now combined with the additional title Deutscher Kaiser.

Berlin Palace

Berliner StadtschlossBerlin City PalaceCity Palace
From the 15th century to the early 20th century, the Berliner Schloss was a royal and imperial palace and served mostly as the main residence of the Electors of Brandenburg, the Kings of Prussia, and the German Emperors.

Year of the Three Emperors

Year of Three Emperors1888
The year is considered to have memorable significance because of the deaths of two German Emperors, or Kaisers, leading to a rapid succession of three monarchs within one year.

History of Germany

German historyGermanyMedieval Germany
During the Siege of Paris, the German princes assembled in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles on 18 January 1871 and announced the establishment of the German Empire and proclaimed the Prussian King Wilhelm I as German Emperor.

Head of state

heads of stateChief of Stateheads of states
The German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser ) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire.

Hereditary monarchy

hereditaryhereditary monarchieshereditary monarch
The German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser ) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
The Holy Roman Emperor is sometimes also called "German Emperor" when the historical context is clear, as derived from the Holy Roman Empire's official name of "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" from 1512.

German Revolution of 1918–1919

German RevolutionGerman Revolution of 1918–19November Revolution
Following the revolution of 1918, the function of head of state was succeeded by the President of the Reich (Reichspräsident), beginning with Friedrich Ebert.

Friedrich Ebert

EbertFriedrich-EbertPresident Friedrich Ebert
Following the revolution of 1918, the function of head of state was succeeded by the President of the Reich (Reichspräsident), beginning with Friedrich Ebert.