Max Schreck as Count Orlok in the 1922 film Nosferatu. Critic and historian Kim Newman declared it as a film that set the template for the horror film.
Conrad Veidt from director Robert Wiene's 1920 silent film The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
Depiction of the usage of mirrors in horror films.
American newspaper ad for the German film The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) from the Goldwyn Pictures press book.
Bela Lugosi in Dracula (1931), a film noted as inspiring a wave of subsequent American horror films in the 1930s.
George A. Romero's Night of the Living Dead (1968) led to what Newman described as a "slow burning influence" in independent and thoughtful horror films in the 1970s.
Some cast and crew members of The Blair Witch Project (1999), one of the highest grossing horror films of the 1990s.
Park Chan-wook, the director of Thirst (2009), one of the many varied Korean horror films from the early 21st century.
French director Julia Ducournau (centre) won the Palme d'Or for horror film Titane. She is pictured with actors Agathe Rousselle and Vincent Lindon, who star in the film, at the 2021 Cannes Film Festival.
Jörg Buttgereit in 2015. Buttgereit was described by Kai-Uwe Werbeck as "arguably the most visible German horror director of the 1980s and early 1990s"
Still from Dario Argento's Suspiria (1977). Curti described the film as developing an "artistic rebirth" and "irrational dimension" to the Italian gothic from its "set pieces to the color and the music."
Filmmaker and composer John Carpenter, who has directed and scored numerous horror films, performing in 2016.
Cannibal Holocaust (1980) uses a found footage style.
Still of Madhubala in Mahal (1949), considered one of the first Indian horror films.

From origins in silent films and German Expressionism, horror only became a codified genre after the release of Dracula (1931).

- Horror film

Two genres that were especially influenced by Expressionism are horror film and film noir.

- German Expressionism (cinema)
Max Schreck as Count Orlok in the 1922 film Nosferatu. Critic and historian Kim Newman declared it as a film that set the template for the horror film.

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Two silhouetted figures in The Big Combo (1955). The film's cinematographer, John Alton, was the creator of many of film noir's stylized images.

Film noir

Cinematic term used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas, particularly those that emphasize cynical attitudes and motivations.

Cinematic term used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas, particularly those that emphasize cynical attitudes and motivations.

Two silhouetted figures in The Big Combo (1955). The film's cinematographer, John Alton, was the creator of many of film noir's stylized images.
Marlene Dietrich, an actress frequently called upon to play a femme fatale.
The October 1934 issue of Black Mask featured the first appearance of the detective character whom Raymond Chandler developed into the famous Philip Marlowe.
Out of the Past (1947) directed by Jacques Tourneur, features many of the genre's hallmarks: a cynical private detective as the protagonist, a femme fatale, multiple flashbacks with voiceover narration, dramatically shadowed photography, and a fatalistic mood leavened with provocative banter. Pictured are noir icons Robert Mitchum and Jane Greer.
A scene from In a Lonely Place (1950), directed by Nicholas Ray and based on a novel by noir fiction writer Dorothy B. Hughes. Two of noir's defining actors, Gloria Grahame and Humphrey Bogart, portray star-crossed lovers in the film.
Rita Hayworth in the trailer for The Lady from Shanghai (1947)
Detour (1945) cost $117,000 to make when the biggest Hollywood studios spent around $600,000 on the average feature. Produced at small PRC, however, the film was 30 percent over budget.
Stray Dog (1949), directed and cowritten by Akira Kurosawa, contains many cinematographic and narrative elements associated with classic American film noir.
As car thief Michel Poiccard, a.k.a. Laszlo Kovacs, Jean-Paul Belmondo in À bout de souffle (Breathless; 1960). Poiccard reveres and styles himself after Humphrey Bogart's screen persona. Here he imitates a characteristic Bogart gesture, one of the film's motifs.
Sharon Stone as Catherine Tramell, archetypal modern femme fatale, in Basic Instinct (1992). Her diabolic nature is underscored by an "extra-lurid visual code", as in the notorious interrogation scene.
Harrison Ford as detective Rick Deckard in Blade Runner (1982). Like many classic noirs, the film is set in a version of Los Angeles where it constantly rains. The steam in the foreground is a familiar noir trope, while the "bluish-smoky exterior" updates the black-and-white mode.
"Loneliness has followed me my whole life, everywhere. In bars, in cars, sidewalks, stores, everywhere. There's no escape. I'm God's lonely man." Robert De Niro as neo-noir antihero Travis Bickle in Taxi Driver (1976)
Some consider Vertigo (1958) a noir on the basis of plot and tone and various motifs, but it has a modernist graphic design typical of the 1950s and a more modern set design, which would remove it from the category of film noir. Others say the combination of color and the specificity of director Alfred Hitchcock's vision exclude it from the category.
Barbara Stanwyck and Burt Lancaster were two of the most prolific stars of classic noir. The complex structure of Sorry, Wrong Number (1948) involves a real-time framing story, multiple narrators, and flashbacks within flashbacks.
By the late 1940s, the noir trend was leaving its mark on other genres. A prime example is the Western Pursued (1947), filled with psychosexual tensions and behavioral explanations derived from Freudian theory.
"You've got a touch of class, but I don't know how far you can go." "A lot depends on who's in the saddle." Bogart and Bacall in The Big Sleep.

Film noir of this era is associated with a low-key, black-and-white visual style that has roots in German Expressionist cinematography.

Nor does film noir rely on anything as evident as the monstrous or supernatural elements of the horror film, the speculative leaps of the science fiction film, or the song-and-dance routines of the musical.

Newspaper advert

Nosferatu

Newspaper advert
An iconic shot of the shadow of Count Orlok ascending a staircase
Schreck in a promotional still for the film
Prana Film logo
Hutter's departure from Wisborg was filmed in Heiligen-Geist-Kirche's yard in Wismar; this photograph is from 1970.
The Salzspeicher in Lübeck served as the set for Orlok's house in Wisborg.
The Marmorsaal (marble hall) in the Berlin Zoological Garden, here shown in a 1900 postcard, was where Nosferatu premiered.

Nosferatu: A Symphony of Horror (German: Nosferatu – Eine Symphonie des Grauens) is a 1922 silent German Expressionist horror film directed by F. W. Murnau and starring Max Schreck as Count Orlok, a vampire who preys on the wife (Greta Schröder) of his estate agent (Gustav von Wangenheim) and brings the plague to their town.

Theatrical release poster

The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari

Theatrical release poster
The designers of The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari chose a fantastic, graphic visual style instead of a naturalistic one. This included twisted city scenes that were painted directly onto canvases.
Werner Krauss, who portrayed Caligari, suggested changes to his own make-up and costumes so they would match the film's Expressionist style.
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari used stylised intertitles.
The visual style of The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari included deliberately distorted forms, and shadows and streaks of light painted directly onto the sets.
The premiere of The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari was so successful that women in the audience were said to have screamed during the famous scene in which Cesare (Conrad Veidt) is revealed.
Goldwyn Releasing lobby card from Caligari showing doctors examining Cesare.

The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari) is a 1920 German silent horror film, directed by Robert Wiene and written by Hans Janowitz and Carl Mayer.

Considered the quintessential work of German Expressionist cinema, it tells the story of an insane hypnotist (Werner Krauss) who uses a somnambulist (Conrad Veidt) to commit murders.

Theatrical release poster for Godzilla (1954).

Monster movie

Film that focuses on one or more characters struggling to survive attacks by one or more antagonistic monsters, often abnormally large ones.

Film that focuses on one or more characters struggling to survive attacks by one or more antagonistic monsters, often abnormally large ones.

Theatrical release poster for Godzilla (1954).

The film may also fall under the horror, comedy, fantasy, or science fiction genres.

In the 1930s, American film studios began to produce more successful films of this type, usually based on gothic tales such as Dracula and Frankenstein in 1931, both heavily influenced by German Expressionism, followed by The Mummy (1932) and The Invisible Man (1933).