German colonial empire

German colonyGermany's colonial empireGerman coloniesGerman EmpireGermancolonial empireGermanyGermany's coloniesGerman colonialcolonial
The German colonial empire (Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany.wikipedia
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Otto von Bismarck

BismarckChancellor BismarckPrince Bismarck
Unified in the early 1870s, the chancellor of this time period was Otto von Bismarck.
He disliked colonialism but reluctantly built an overseas empire when it was demanded by both elite and mass opinion.

German Empire

GermanyGermanImperial Germany
The German colonial empire (Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany.
Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism.

French colonial empire

FrenchFrench EmpireFrance
Claiming much of the left-over uncolonized areas in the Scramble for Africa, Germany managed to build the third largest colonial empire at the time, after the British and French.
Republicans, at first hostile to empire, only became supportive when Germany after 1880 started to build its own colonial empire.

German East Africa

East AfricaGerman colonial ruleGerman
However some colonial military units held out for a while longer: German South West Africa surrendered in 1915, Kamerun in 1916 and German East Africa in 1918. Belgium gained Ruanda-Urundi in northwestern German East Africa, the United Kingdom obtained by far the greater land mass of this colony, thus gaining the "missing link" in the chain of British possessions stretching from South Africa to Egypt (Cape to Cairo), and Portugal received the Kionga Triangle, a sliver of German East Africa.
German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika) (GEA) was a German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included present-day Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of Tanzania.

German New Guinea

New GuineaGerman MicronesiaDeutsch-Neuguinea
Germany was also active in the Pacific annexing a series of islands that would be called German New Guinea.
German New Guinea (Deutsch-Neuguinea) consisted of the northeastern part of the island of New Guinea and several nearby island groups and was the first part of the German colonial empire.

Colonialism

colonialcolonial powerscolonialist
The rise of German imperialism and colonialism coincided with the latter stages of the "Scramble for Africa" during which enterprising German individuals, rather than government entities, competed with other already established colonies and colonialist entrepreneurs.
Imperial Japan, the Ottoman Empire and the United States also acquired colonies, as did imperialist China and finally in the late 19th century the Germans and the Italians.

Colonial empire

colonial empiresEuropean imperialismEuropean colonial empires
Claiming much of the left-over uncolonized areas in the Scramble for Africa, Germany managed to build the third largest colonial empire at the time, after the British and French.

Imperialism

imperialistimperialisticimperial
The rise of German imperialism and colonialism coincided with the latter stages of the "Scramble for Africa" during which enterprising German individuals, rather than government entities, competed with other already established colonies and colonialist entrepreneurs. Until their 1871 unification, the German states had not concentrated on the development of a navy, and this essentially had precluded German participation in earlier imperialist scrambles for remote colonial territory – the so-called "place in the sun".
The establishment of the German colonial empire started with German New Guinea in 1884.

League of Nations

The League of NationsCouncil of the League of NationsLeague
Germany's colonial empire was officially confiscated with the Treaty of Versailles after Germany's defeat in the war and each colony became a League of Nations mandate under the supervision (but not ownership) of one of the victorious powers.
The B mandates were applied to the former German colonies that the League took responsibility for after the First World War.

Lomé

LomeLome, TogoLomé, Togo
Dar es Salaam evolved into "the showcase city of all of tropical Africa," Lomé grew into the "prettiest city in western Africa", and Tsingtao, China was, "in miniature, as German a city as Hamburg or Bremen".
The city was founded by the Ewes and thereafter in the 19th century by German, British and African traders, becoming the capital of Togoland in 1897.

German Cameroon

KamerunCameroonGerman Kamerun
However some colonial military units held out for a while longer: German South West Africa surrendered in 1915, Kamerun in 1916 and German East Africa in 1918.
German Cameroon (Kamerun) was an African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of today's Republic of Cameroon.

Japan during World War I

Japan's participation in World War IWorld War Iactions
In the Pacific, Britain's ally Japan declared war on Germany in 1914 and quickly seized several of Germany's island colonies, the Mariana, Caroline and Marshall Islands, with virtually no resistance.
Japanese forces quickly occupied German-leased territories in the Far East.

Jiaozhou Bay

KiautschouKiaochow BayKiaochow
In the Pacific, Japan gained Germany's islands north of the equator (the Marshall Islands, the Carolines, the Marianas, the Palau Islands) and Kiautschou in China.
It was a German colonial concession from 1898 until 1914.

Kleinstaaterei

KleinstaatenGerman states300 medieval feudal states
Short-lived attempts of colonization by individual German states had occurred in preceding centuries, but crucial colonial efforts only began in 1884 with the Scramble for Africa.
The unification of the German Empire put Germany on the map as a major European power, albeit too late to become a major colonial presence.

Carl Peters

Karl PetersPetersalleetitular German colonial leader
In eastern Africa the imperialist and "man-of-action" Karl Peters accumulated vast tracts of land for his colonization group, "emerging from the bush with X-marks [affixed by unlettered tribal chiefs] on documents ... for some 60 thousand square miles of the Zanzibar Sultanate’s mainland property."
Carl Peters (27 September 1856 – 10 September 1918), was a German colonial ruler, explorer, politician and author and a major promoter of the establishment of the German colony of East Africa (part of the modern republic Tanzania).

Herero people

HereroOvahereroHereros
Political and economic subjugation of Herero and Nama was envisioned. Exposés followed in the print media throughout Germany of the Herero rebellions in 1904 in German South-West Africa (Namibia today) where in military interventions between 50% to 70% of the Herero population perished, known as the Herero and Namaqua Genocide.
The territory became a German colony under the name of German South West Africa.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
However, with the onset of World War II the organization entered a decline, before being disbanded by decree in 1943 for "activity irrelevant to the war".
Under the treaty, Germany lost around 13 percent of its home territory and all its overseas possessions, while German annexation of other states was prohibited, reparations were imposed, and limits were placed on the size and capability of the country's armed forces.

German South West Africa

German South-West AfricaGerman Southwest AfricaSouth-West Africa
However some colonial military units held out for a while longer: German South West Africa surrendered in 1915, Kamerun in 1916 and German East Africa in 1918. Exposés followed in the print media throughout Germany of the Herero rebellions in 1904 in German South-West Africa (Namibia today) where in military interventions between 50% to 70% of the Herero population perished, known as the Herero and Namaqua Genocide.
In 1914 a series of drafts were made for proposed Coat of Arms and Flags for the German Colonies.

Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck

Paul Emil von Lettow-VorbeckLettow-Vorbeckvon Lettow-Vorbeck
In the case of German East Africa, the defenders under the command of Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, had engaged a guerrilla war against British colonial and Portuguese forces and did not surrender until after the end of the war.

Kiautschou Bay concession

KiaochowKiautschouKiautschou Bay
The German pre–World War I colonial population consisted of 19,696 Germans in Africa and the Pacific colonies in 1913, including more than 3,000 police and soldiers, and 3,806 in Kiaochow (1910), of which 2,275 were navy and military staff.
The Kiautschou Bay Leased Territory was a German leased territory in Imperial and Early Republican China which existed from 1898 to 1914.

Ruanda-Urundi

Rwanda-UrundiBelgian colonial ruleBelgian rule
Belgium gained Ruanda-Urundi in northwestern German East Africa, the United Kingdom obtained by far the greater land mass of this colony, thus gaining the "missing link" in the chain of British possessions stretching from South Africa to Egypt (Cape to Cairo), and Portugal received the Kionga Triangle, a sliver of German East Africa.
The Treaty of Versailles divided the German colonial empire among the Allied nations.

Anglo-Japanese Alliance

Anglo-Japanese TreatyAnglo–Japanese Alliancean alliance with Britain
In the Pacific, Britain's ally Japan declared war on Germany in 1914 and quickly seized several of Germany's island colonies, the Mariana, Caroline and Marshall Islands, with virtually no resistance.
The Treaty also made possible the Japanese seizure of German possessions in the Pacific north of the equator during the First World War, a huge boon to Japan's imperial interests.

Reichskolonialbund

Colonialcolonial questionGerman Colonial League
Established in 1936, the Reichskolonialbund under Franz Ritter von Epp absorbed all colonial organizations and was meant to raise pro-colonial sentiments, public interest in former German colonies, and take part in political agitation.
Led by Ritter von Epp, the organisation's alleged purpose was to "keep the population informed about the loss of the German Imperial colonies, to maintain contact with the former colonial territories and to create conditions in opinion favourable to a new German African Empire".

Herero and Namaqua genocide

Herero and Namaqua WarHerero genocidegenocide
Exposés followed in the print media throughout Germany of the Herero rebellions in 1904 in German South-West Africa (Namibia today) where in military interventions between 50% to 70% of the Herero population perished, known as the Herero and Namaqua Genocide.
In January 1904, the Herero people who were led by Samuel Maharero and Nama who were led by Captain Hendrik Witbooi rebelled against German colonial rule.

German Samoa

SamoaGerman colonyGerman
Governor Wilhelm Solf of Samoa would call the islanders "unsere braunen Schützlinge" [our brown charges], who could be guided but not forced.
In 1914 a series of drafts were made for proposed coats of arms and flags for the German colonies, including German Samoa.