German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speakingdeStandard GermanModern High GermanGer.GerGerman:Germanophone
German (Deutsch, ) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.wikipedia
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Liechtenstein

Principality of LiechtensteinLIEFürstentum Liechtenstein
It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and Liechtenstein.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a German-speaking microstate in Alpine Central Europe.

South Tyrol

TyrolProvince of BolzanoSouth Tyrolean
It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and Liechtenstein.
Its official trilingual denomination is Autonome Provinz Bozen – Südtirol in German, Provincia autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige in Italian and Provinzia autonoma de Bulsan – Südtirol in Ladin, reflecting the three main language groups to which its population belongs.

Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenl
The languages that are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish.
It is the third-most-widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

West Germanic languages

West GermanicWest Germanic languageWest
German (Deutsch, ) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English, German, and Dutch.

Switzerland

SwissSwiss ConfederationSWI
It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and Liechtenstein.
Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz (German); Suisse (French); Svizzera (Italian); and Svizra (Romansh).

Opole Voivodeship

OpoleOpole VoivodshipOpolskie
It is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland.
A relatively large German minority, with representatives in the Sejm, lives in the voivodeship, and the German language is co-official in 28 communes.

Low German

Low SaxonPlattdeutschLow German language
The languages that are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups (e.g. Low German or Plautdietsch ) are alternatively referred to as "languages" or "dialects".
Like Dutch, it is spoken north of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses, while (Standard) German is spoken south of those lines.

List of territorial entities where German is an official language

German-speaking countriesGerman speaking countriesGerman-speaking Europe
The German-speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of annual publication of new books, with one tenth of all books (including e-books) in the world being published in the German language. Also closely related to Standard German are the Upper German dialects spoken in the southern German-speaking countries, such as Swiss German (Alemannic dialects – ''no.
The following is a list of the territorial entities where German is an official language.

Swedish language

SwedishSwedish-languageSwedish-speaking
There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. The first of these branches survives in modern Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Icelandic, all of which are descended from Old Norse.
While being strongly related to its southern neighbour language German in vocabulary, the word order, grammatic system and pronunciation are vastly different.

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.
The West Germanic languages include the three most widely spoken Germanic languages: English with around 360–400 million native speakers; German, with over 100 million native speakers; and Dutch, with 24 million native speakers.

Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and Liechtenstein.
The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from (compare Dutch), descended from Old High German diutisc "of the people" (from diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants.

Norwegian language

NorwegianNeutralNorwegian:
There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. The first of these branches survives in modern Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Icelandic, all of which are descended from Old Norse.
While the two Germanic languages with the greatest numbers of speakers, English and German, have close similarities with Norwegian, neither is mutually intelligible with it.

German dialects

German dialectdialectsdialectal
It is also notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in Europe and also other parts of the world.
German dialects are dialects often considered languages in their own right and are classified under the umbrella term of "German".

Pluricentric language

pluricentricPluricentric Serbo-Croatian languagepolycentric standard language
With standardized variants (German, Austrian and Swiss Standard German), German is a pluricentric language.
Examples include Armenian, Chinese, English, French, German, Korean, Portuguese, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish and Swedish.

Standard German

StandardGermanHigh German
Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups (e.g. Low German or Plautdietsch ) are alternatively referred to as "languages" or "dialects".
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch or, in Switzerland, Schriftdeutsch), is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts and for communication between different dialect areas.

Afrikaans

Afrikaans languageAfrikaans-speakingAfrikaans-language
The languages that are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish.
Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans is of Dutch origin.

Upper German

High GermanHigh-Germanoberdeutsch
Also closely related to Standard German are the Upper German dialects spoken in the southern German-speaking countries, such as Swiss German (Alemannic dialects – ''no.
Upper German (German: ) is a family of High German languages spoken primarily in the southern German-speaking area (Sprachraum).

Benrath line

BenrathBenratherquite different
Within the West Germanic language dialect continuum, the Benrath and Uerdingen lines (running through Düsseldorf-Benrath and Krefeld-Uerdingen, respectively) serve to distinguish the Germanic dialects that were affected by the High German consonant shift (south of Benrath) from those that were not (north of Uerdingen).
In German linguistics, the Benrath line (German: Benrather Linie) is the maken–machen isogloss: dialects north of the line have the original in maken (to make), while those to the south have the innovative (machen).

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
The languages that are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. German is also the second most widely taught foreign language in the EU after English at primary school level (but third after English and French at lower secondary level), the fourth most widely taught non-English language in the US (after Spanish, French and American Sign Language), and the second most commonly used scientific language as well as the third most widely used language on websites after English and Russian.
...... German (High):

Icelandic language

IcelandicModern IcelandicIceland
The first of these branches survives in modern Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Icelandic, all of which are descended from Old Norse. This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin, Ancient Greek and Sanskrit, and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English, modern Icelandic or Russian.
It is not mutually intelligible with the continental Scandinavian languages, and is farther away from the most widely spoken Germanic languages English and German than those three are.

Old High German

Old GermanOHGAlthochdeutsch
This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin, Ancient Greek and Sanskrit, and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English, modern Icelandic or Russian.
Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 750 to 1050.

History of German

History of the German languageGermanformerly German-speaking area
The history of the German language as separate from common West Germanic begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift.

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
German is the third most commonly spoken foreign language in the EU after English and French, making it the second biggest language in the EU in terms of overall speakers.
In Belgium, French is the official language of Wallonia (excluding a part of the East Cantons, which are German-speaking) and one of the two official languages—along with Dutch—of the Brussels-Capital Region, where it is spoken by the majority of the population often as their primary language.

Nordfriesland (district)

NordfrieslandNordfriesland districtNorth Frisia
Also related to German are the Frisian languages—North Frisian (spoken in Nordfriesland – ''no.
The district is called Kreis Nordfriesland in German, Kreis Noordfreesland in Low German, Kris Nordfraschlönj in Mooring North Frisian, Kreis Nuurdfresklun in Fering North Frisian and Nordfrislands amt in Danish.

Russian language

RussianRussian-languageRussian:
This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin, Ancient Greek and Sanskrit, and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English, modern Icelandic or Russian. German is also the second most widely taught foreign language in the EU after English at primary school level (but third after English and French at lower secondary level), the fourth most widely taught non-English language in the US (after Spanish, French and American Sign Language), and the second most commonly used scientific language as well as the third most widely used language on websites after English and Russian.
Over the course of centuries, the vocabulary and literary style of Russian have also been influenced by Western and Central European languages such as Greek, Latin, Polish, Dutch, German, French, Italian, and English, and to a lesser extent the languages to the south and the east: Uralic, Turkic, Persian, and Arabic, as well as Hebrew.