German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speakingdeStandard GermanModern High GermanGer.GerGerman:Germanic
German (Deutsch ) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.wikipedia
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Liechtenstein

🇱🇮LIEPrincipality of Liechtenstein
It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Alpine Central Europe.

South Tyrol

TyrolBolzanoTyrolean
It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein.
Its official trilingual denomination is Autonome Provinz Bozen – Südtirol in German, Provincia autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige in Italian and Provinzia autonoma de Bulsan – Südtirol in Ladin, reflecting the three main language groups to which its population belongs.

Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenl
The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish.
It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

West Germanic languages

West GermanicWest Germanic languageWest
German (Deutsch ) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English, German, and Dutch.

Luxembourg

🇱🇺LUXGrand Duchy of Luxembourg
It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland.
Its capital, Luxembourg City, together with Brussels and Strasbourg, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French, German, and the national language, Luxembourgish (sometimes considered a dialect of German).

Switzerland

Swiss🇨🇭SWI
It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein.
Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz (German); Suisse (French); Svizzera (Italian); and Svizra or (Romansh).

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.
The West Germanic languages include the three most widely spoken Germanic languages: English with around 360-400 million native speakers; German, with over 100 million native speakers; and Dutch, with 24 million native speakers.

Germany

🇩🇪GermanGER
It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein.
The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from (compare Dutch), descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" (i.e. belonging to the diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants.

Opole Voivodeship

OpoleOpolskieOP
It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland.
A relatively large German minority, with representatives in the Sejm, lives in the voivodeship, and the German language is co-official in 28 communes.

Low German

Low SaxonLow German/Low Saxonnds
The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups (e.g. Low German or Plautdietsch ) are alternatively referred to as "languages" or "dialects".
Like Dutch (Istvaeonic), it is spoken north of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses, while (Standard) German (Irminonic) is spoken south of those lines.

Norwegian language

NorwegianNeutralNorwegian:
There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. The first of these branches survives in modern Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Icelandic, all of which are descended from Old Norse.
While the two Germanic languages with the greatest numbers of speakers, English and German, have close similarities with Norwegian, neither is mutually intelligible with it. Norwegian is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.

Pluricentric language

pluricentricPluricentric Serbo-Croatian languagepolycentric language
With slightly different standardized variants (German, Austrian and Swiss Standard German), German is a pluricentric language.
Examples include English, French, Portuguese, German, Korean, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Swedish, Armenian and Chinese.

German dialects

German dialectdialectsdialectal
It is also notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in Europe and also other parts of the world.
German dialects are unique dialects or languages classified under the umbrella term of "German".

Standard German

StandardGermanHigh German
Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups (e.g. Low German or Plautdietsch ) are alternatively referred to as "languages" or "dialects".
Standard German, High German, or more precisely Standard High German, (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Standard German Schriftdeutsch), is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.

Benrath line

BenrathBenratherquite different
Within the West Germanic language dialect continuum, the Benrath and Uerdingen lines (running through Düsseldorf-Benrath and Krefeld-Uerdingen, respectively) serve to distinguish the Germanic dialects that were affected by the High German consonant shift (south of Benrath) from those that were not (north of Uerdingen).
In German linguistics, the Benrath line (German: Benrather Linie) is the maken–machen isogloss: dialects north of the line have the original in maken (to make), while those to the south have the innovative (machen). The Line runs from Benrath (part of Düsseldorf) and Aachen to eastern Germany near Frankfurt an der Oder in the area of Berlin and Dessau and later in Prussian dividing Low Prussian dialect and High Prussian dialect.

Afrikaans

Afrikaans-speakingAfrikaans-languageAfrikaans language
The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish.
Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans is of Dutch origin.

Old High German

Old GermanOHGGerman
The history of the German language begins with the High German consonant shift during the migration period, which separated Old High German (OHG) dialects from Old Saxon.
Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.

History of German

formerly German-speaking areaGermanGerman language
The history of the German language begins with the High German consonant shift during the migration period, which separated Old High German (OHG) dialects from Old Saxon.
The history of the German language as separate from common West Germanic begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift.

Nordfriesland (district)

NordfrieslandNorth FrisiaNorth Frisian
Also related to German are the Frisian languages—North Frisian (spoken in Nordfriesland – no. 28), Saterland Frisian (spoken in Saterland – no. 27), and West Frisian (spoken in Friesland – no. 26)—as well as the Anglic languages of English and Scots.
The district is called Kreis Nordfriesland in German, Kreis Noordfreesland in Low German, Kris Nordfraschlönj in Mooring North Frisian, Kreis Nuurdfresklun in Fering North Frisian and Nordfrislands amt in Danish.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. Also related to German are the Frisian languages—North Frisian (spoken in Nordfriesland – no. 28), Saterland Frisian (spoken in Saterland – no. 27), and West Frisian (spoken in Friesland – no. 26)—as well as the Anglic languages of English and Scots.
English is classified as a Germanic language because it shares innovations with other Germanic languages such as Dutch, German, and Swedish.

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
Together with French, German is the second most commonly spoken foreign language in the EU after English, making it the second biggest language in the EU in terms of overall speakers.
In Belgium, French is the official language of Wallonia (excluding a part of the East Cantons, which are German-speaking) and one of the two official languages—along with Dutch—of the Brussels-Capital Region, where it is spoken by the majority of the population often as their primary language.

Icelandic language

IcelandicModern IcelandicIcel.
The first of these branches survives in modern Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Icelandic, all of which are descended from Old Norse.
It is also farther away from the largest Germanic languages English and German than those three are.

Migration Period

barbarian invasionsGreat MigrationsGreat Migration
The history of the German language begins with the High German consonant shift during the migration period, which separated Old High German (OHG) dialects from Old Saxon.
It has also been termed in English by the German loanword Völkerwanderung and—from the Mediterranean perspective—the Barbarian Invasions. Many of the migrations were movements of Germanic, Hunnic, Slavic and other peoples into the territory of the then declining Roman Empire, with or without accompanying invasions or war.

World language

global languageinternational languageworld languages
One of the major languages of the world, German is the first language of almost 100 million people worldwide and the most widely spoken native language in the European Union.
German served as a lingua franca in large portions of Europe for centuries, mainly the Holy Roman Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Middle High German

MHGGermanMiddle German
While there is no complete agreement over the dates of the Middle High German (MHG) period, it is generally seen as lasting from 1050 to 1350.
Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.