German nationalistGerman nationalistsnationalistnationalisticnationalismnationalDeutscher NationalismusGermanGerman ethnic nationalismGerman identity
German nationalism is an ideological notion which promotes the unity of Germans and German-speakers into a nation state.wikipedia
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In the 1930s, the Nazis came to power and sought to create a Greater Germanic Reich, emphasizing ethnic German identity and German greatness to the exclusion of all others, eventually leading to the extermination of Jews, Poles, Romani, and other people deemed Untermenschen (subhumans) in the Holocaust during World War II. The Nazi Party (NSDAP), led by Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, believed in an extreme form of German nationalism.
The Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist, racist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany.
BismarckChancellor BismarckPrince Bismarck
The faction led by Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck succeeded in forging a Lesser Germany.
As the leader of what historians call "revolutionary conservatism", Bismarck became a hero to German nationalists; they built many monuments honoring the founder of the new Reich.
FichteJ. G. FichteJohann Fichte
Johann Gottlieb Fichte – considered the founding father of German nationalism – devoted the 4th of his Addresses to the German Nation (1808) to defining the German nation and did so in a very broad manner. This emphasis on the naturalness of ethno-linguistic nations continued to be upheld by the early-19th-century Romantic German nationalists Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Ernst Moritz Arndt, and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, who all were proponents of Pan-Germanism.
Fichte also wrote works of political philosophy; he has a reputation as one of the fathers of German nationalism.
ArndtArndt, Ernst MoritzE. M. Arndt
This emphasis on the naturalness of ethno-linguistic nations continued to be upheld by the early-19th-century Romantic German nationalists Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Ernst Moritz Arndt, and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, who all were proponents of Pan-Germanism.
He is one of the main founders of German nationalism and the 19th century movement for German unification.
War of 1866Seven Weeks' WarAustro-Prussian
Prussia achieved hegemony over Germany in the "wars of unification": the Second Schleswig War (1864), the Austro-Prussian War (which effectively excluded Austria from Germany) (1866), and the Franco-Prussian War (1870).
Partly in reaction to the triumphant French nationalism of Napoleon I and partly as an organic feeling of commonality glorified during the Romantic era, German nationalism became a potent force during this period.
Greater GermanyGroßdeutschlandKleindeutsche Lösung
In the 19th century Germans debated the German Question over whether the German nation state should comprise a "Lesser Germany" that excluded Austria or a "Greater Germany" that included Austria.
Both movements were part of a growing German nationalism.
folkPeopleVolk (German word)
]]The government established after WWI, the Weimar republic, established a law of nationality that was based on pre-unification notions of the German volk as an ethno-racial group defined more by heredity than modern notions of citizenship; the laws were intended to include Germans who had immigrated and to exclude immigrant groups.
Within an English-language context, the German word is of interest primarily for its use in German philosophy, as in Volksseele "national soul" and in German nationalism (notably the derived adjective völkisch "national, ethnic").
To the German Nation
Johann Gottlieb Fichte – considered the founding father of German nationalism – devoted the 4th of his Addresses to the German Nation (1808) to defining the German nation and did so in a very broad manner.
The Addresses to the German Nation (German: Reden an die deutsche Nation, 1808) is a political literature book by German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte that advocates German nationalism in reaction to the occupation and subjugation of German territories by Napoleon's French Empire.
The Nazi Party (NSDAP), led by Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, believed in an extreme form of German nationalism.
Like many Austrian Germans, Hitler began to develop German nationalist ideas from a young age.
Greater GermanyNazi EmpireGreater German Reich
In the 1930s, the Nazis came to power and sought to create a Greater Germanic Reich, emphasizing ethnic German identity and German greatness to the exclusion of all others, eventually leading to the extermination of Jews, Poles, Romani, and other people deemed Untermenschen (subhumans) in the Holocaust during World War II.
The region of South Tyrol had been a place of contending claims and conflict between German nationalism and Italian nationalism.
Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon INapoleon I of France
Advocacy of a German nation-state began to become an important political force in response to the invasion of German territories by France under Napoleon.
A byproduct of the French occupation was a strong development in German nationalism.
This debate did not give comfort to those concerned about whether a reunited Germany might be a danger to other countries, nor did the rise of skinhead neo-nazi groups in the former East Germany, as exemplified by riots in Hoyerswerda in 1991.
Neo-Nazism found expression outside of Germany, including in countries who fought against the Third Reich during the Second World War, and sometimes adopted Pan-European or "Universal" characteristics, beyond the parameters of German nationalism.
AfDAlternative für DeutschlandAlternative for Germany (AfD)
The Alternative for Germany party was created in 2013 as a backlash against further European integration and bailouts of other countries during the European debt crisis; from its founding to 2017 the party took on nationalist and populist stances, rejecting German guilt over the Nazi era and calling for Germans to take pride in their history and accomplishments.
The party has been described as a German nationalist, right-wing populist, and Eurosceptic party.
This emphasis on the naturalness of ethno-linguistic nations continued to be upheld by the early-19th-century Romantic German nationalists Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Ernst Moritz Arndt, and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, who all were proponents of Pan-Germanism. The earliest origins of German nationalism began with the birth of romantic nationalism during the Napoleonic Wars when Pan-Germanism started to rise.
Led by the radical German nationalist and anti-semite Georg von Schönerer, organisations such as the Pan-German Society demanded the annexation of all German-speaking territories of the Danube Monarchy to the German Empire, and fervently rejected Austrian patriotism and a pan-Austrian identity.
DNVPDeutschnationale VolksparteiGerman National People's Party (DNVP)
It was an alliance of nationalists, reactionary monarchists, völkisch and antisemitic elements supported by the Pan-German League.
Deutschsozialistische ParteiDSPGerman Social Democratic Party of Poland
The German Socialist Party (German: Deutschsozialistische Partei, DSP) was a short-lived German nationalist, far-right party during the early years of the Weimar Republic.
The German Romantic nationalism derived from the Enlightenment era philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau's and French Revolutionary philosopher Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès' ideas of naturalism and that legitimate nations must have been conceived in the state of nature.
Above all the antagonism helped stimulate and shape German nationalism.
Fatherland PartyDeutsche VaterlandsparteiFatherland Party (Germany)
The party represented conservative, nationalist, antisemitic and völkisch political circles, united in their opposition against the Reichstag Peace Resolution of July 1917.
National Democratic Party of GermanyNDPDNational Democratic Party
German nationalism had been a potent force during the interwar era and millions of Germans had been members of the NSDAP, and Stalin wanted to use them to create a new pro-Soviet and anti-Western strain in German politics.
German unificationunificationunified Germany
The self-interests of the various parties hampered the process over nearly a century of autocratic experimentation, beginning in the era of the Napoleonic Wars, which prompted the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, and the subsequent rise of German nationalism.
There have been rival nationalists within Germany, particularly Bavarian nationalists who claim that the terms that Bavaria entered into Germany in 1871 were controversial and have claimed the German government has long intruded into the domestic affairs of Bavaria.
In modern times, examples can be seen in the emergence of German nationalism as a reaction against Napoleonic control of Germany as the Confederation of the Rhine around 1805–14.
Away from RomeLos von Rom!promoted the conversion of all German speaking Catholics
German nationalists in the German Empire who advocated a Greater Germany during the Bismarck era focused on overcoming dissidence by Protestant Germans to the inclusion of Catholic Germans in the state by creating the Los von Rom! ("Away from Rome!") movement that advocated assimilation of Catholic Germans to Protestantism.
Many Austrian Protestants had already been affected by the Protestant Prussian dominated German Empire („Deutsches Reich“) and the identification of German Protestantism with German Nationalism (as opposed to the relatively pluralistic policy of the Catholic Habsburg monarchy) tended to make this tendency even stronger.
National Liberal PartyNational LiberalNational Liberals
The party strongly advocated the interests of the Grand Burgher (German: Großbürger) dynasties and business magnates as well as nationalist-minded Protestant circles of the educated bourgeoisie (Bildungsbürgertum).