Germanic substrate hypothesis

a creole originbeen influenced by a non-Indo-European languagenon-Indo-European substratumPre-Germanicthe influence of lost non-Indo-European languages on the Proto-Germanic lexiconwords without cognates
The Germanic substrate hypothesis attempts to explain the distinctive nature of the Germanic languages within the context of the Indo-European languages.wikipedia
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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-GermanicCommon GermanicGermanic
Based on the elements of Common Germanic vocabulary and syntax which do not seem to have cognates in other Indo-European languages, it claims that Proto-Germanic may have been either a creole or a contact language that subsumed a non-Indo-European substrate language, or a hybrid of two quite different Indo-European languages, mixing the centum and satem types.
According to the Germanic substrate hypothesis, it may be influenced by non-Indo-European cultures, such as the Funnelbeaker culture, but the sound change in the Germanic languages known as Grimm's law points to a non-substratic development away from other branches of Indo-European.

Creole language

creolecreolescreole languages
Based on the elements of Common Germanic vocabulary and syntax which do not seem to have cognates in other Indo-European languages, it claims that Proto-Germanic may have been either a creole or a contact language that subsumed a non-Indo-European substrate language, or a hybrid of two quite different Indo-European languages, mixing the centum and satem types.
For example, in 1933 Sigmund Feist postulated a creole origin for the Germanic languages.

Sigmund Feist

The non-Indo-European substrate theory was first proposed by Sigmund Feist in 1932, who estimated that roughly a third of Proto-Germanic lexical items came from a non-Indo-European substrate and that the supposed reduction of the Proto-Germanic inflectional system was the result of pidginization with that substrate.
He was the author of the Germanic substrate hypothesis as well as a number of important works concerning Jewish ethnic and racial identity.

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
The Germanic substrate hypothesis attempts to explain the distinctive nature of the Germanic languages within the context of the Indo-European languages.

Stratum (linguistics)

substratumsubstratesuperstrate
Theo Vennemann has hypothesized a Basque substrate and a Semitic superstrate in Germanic; however, his speculations also are generally rejected by specialists in the relevant fields.
For example, the earliest form of the Germanic languages may have been influenced by a non-Indo-European language, purportedly the source of about one quarter of the most ancient Germanic vocabulary.

Corded Ware culture

Corded WareBattle Axe cultureSingle Grave culture
The battle-axe people are an ancient culture identified by archaeology who have been proposed as candidates for the people who influenced Germanic with their non-Indo-European speech.
According to Edgar Polomé, 30% of the non-Indo-European substratum found in modern German derives from non-Indo-European-speakers of Funnelbeaker culture, indigenous to southern Scandinavia.

Nordwestblock

Nordwestblok
Notable candidates for possible substrate culture(s) include the Maglemosian, Nordwestblock and Funnelbeaker culture but also older cultures of northern Europe like the Hamburgian or even the Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician culture.

Neolithic Europe

NeolithicEuropean NeolithicPre-Indo-European
Wiik's argument is based on the assumption that only three language groups existed in pre-Indo-European Europe: Uralic, Indo-European and Basque, corresponding to three ice age refugia.

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
The Germanic substrate hypothesis attempts to explain the distinctive nature of the Germanic languages within the context of the Indo-European languages. Wiik's argument is based on the assumption that only three language groups existed in pre-Indo-European Europe: Uralic, Indo-European and Basque, corresponding to three ice age refugia.

Language contact

contact languagecontactcontact linguistics
Based on the elements of Common Germanic vocabulary and syntax which do not seem to have cognates in other Indo-European languages, it claims that Proto-Germanic may have been either a creole or a contact language that subsumed a non-Indo-European substrate language, or a hybrid of two quite different Indo-European languages, mixing the centum and satem types.

Pidgin

pidgin languagepidginsPidgin English
The non-Indo-European substrate theory was first proposed by Sigmund Feist in 1932, who estimated that roughly a third of Proto-Germanic lexical items came from a non-Indo-European substrate and that the supposed reduction of the Proto-Germanic inflectional system was the result of pidginization with that substrate.

Archaeological culture

cultureculturesmaterial culture
Which culture or cultures may have contributed the substrate material is an ongoing subject of academic debate and study.

Maglemosian culture

MaglemosianMaglemoseMaglemosian people
Notable candidates for possible substrate culture(s) include the Maglemosian, Nordwestblock and Funnelbeaker culture but also older cultures of northern Europe like the Hamburgian or even the Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician culture.

Funnelbeaker culture

Funnel Beaker cultureFunnelbeakerFunnel Beaker
Notable candidates for possible substrate culture(s) include the Maglemosian, Nordwestblock and Funnelbeaker culture but also older cultures of northern Europe like the Hamburgian or even the Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician culture. Alternatively, in the framework of the Kurgan hypothesis, the battle-axe people may be seen as an already "kurganized" culture, built on the substrate of the earlier Funnelbeaker culture.

Hamburg culture

HamburgianHamburgian cultureHamburg
Notable candidates for possible substrate culture(s) include the Maglemosian, Nordwestblock and Funnelbeaker culture but also older cultures of northern Europe like the Hamburgian or even the Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician culture.

Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician

Notable candidates for possible substrate culture(s) include the Maglemosian, Nordwestblock and Funnelbeaker culture but also older cultures of northern Europe like the Hamburgian or even the Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician culture.

Creolization

creolisationcreolizedcreolised
The non-Indo-European substrate hypothesis attempts to explain the anomalous features of Proto-Germanic as a result of creolization between an Indo-European and a non-Indo-European language.

John A. Hawkins (linguist)

John A. HawkinsHawkins, John A.
Germanicist John A. Hawkins sets forth the arguments for a Germanic substrate.

Archaeology

archaeologistarchaeologicalarchaeologists
The battle-axe people are an ancient culture identified by archaeology who have been proposed as candidates for the people who influenced Germanic with their non-Indo-European speech.

Kurgan hypothesis

Kurgan cultureKurgan theoryKurgan
Alternatively, in the framework of the Kurgan hypothesis, the battle-axe people may be seen as an already "kurganized" culture, built on the substrate of the earlier Funnelbeaker culture.

Fraxinus

ashash treeash trees
A number of rootwords for modern European words seem to limit the geographical origin of the Germanic influences, such as the root word for ash (the tree) and other environmental references suggest a limited root stream subset, which can be localized to Northern Europe.