Germanisation

GermanizationGermanizedGermanisedGermanizeGermaniseGermanizinginfluenceTeutonizedassimilationcolonizing
Germanisation, or Germanization, is the spread of the German language, people and culture.wikipedia
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Ethnic nationalism

ethno-nationalistethnic nationalistethnonationalism
It was a central plank of German conservative thinking in the 19th and 20th centuries, during a period when conservatism and Ethno-nationalism went hand-in-hand.
This assimilation may or may not be predicated on a belief in some common ancestry with assimilated groups (for example with Germanisation in the Second World war).

East Prussia

Province of East PrussiaEastern PrussiaEast Prussian
In East Prussia, forced resettlement of the "Old" or "Baltic" Prussians by the Teutonic Order as well as acculturation by immigrants from various European countries – Poles, French and Germans – contributed to the eventual extinction of the Prussian language in the 17th century.
Because of Germanization and colonisation over the following centuries, Germans became the dominant ethnic group, while Masurians and Lithuanians formed minorities.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
Germanisation, or Germanization, is the spread of the German language, people and culture.
Some cities, such as Prague (Prag) and Budapest (Buda, Ofen), were gradually Germanized in the years after their incorporation into the Habsburg domain.

Polabian Slavs

SlavicPolabianWest Slavic
Early Germanisation went along with the Ostsiedlung during the Middle Ages in Hanoverian Wendland, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lusatia, and other areas, formerly inhabited by Slavic tribes – Polabian Slavs such as Obotrites, Veleti and Sorbs.
The tribes were gradually Germanized and assimilated in the following centuries; the Sorbs are the only descendants of the Polabian Slavs to have retained their identity and culture.

Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)

expelledexpulsion of Germans after World War IIexpulsion of Germans
Since the flight and expulsion of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe at the end of and after World War II, however, the process of Germanisation has been stopped or reversed in most of these territories.

German Empire

GermanyGermanImperial Germany
Under the policies of states such as the Teutonic Order, Austria, the German Empire, and Nazi Germany, non-Germans were often prohibited from using their native language, and had their traditions and culture suppressed.
One of the effects of the unification policies was the gradually increasing tendency to eliminate the use of non-German languages in public life, schools and academic settings with the intent of pressuring the non-German population to abandon their national identity in what was called "Germanisation".

Slavs

SlavicSlavSlavic peoples
There are examples of complete assimilation into German culture, as happened with the pagan Slavs in the Diocese of Bamberg (Franconia) in the 11th century.
The expansion of the Magyars into the Carpathian Basin and the Germanization of Austria gradually separated the South Slavs from the West and East Slavs.

Germanisation of Poles during the Partitions

GermanisationGermanisation of Poles during PartitionsGermanization
Germanisation efforts were pursued by Frederick the Great in territories of partitioned Poland.
Following the partitions, the previous Germanisation attempts pursued by Frederick the Great in largely Roman Catholic and formerly Austrian Silesia were naturally extended to encompass the newly gained Polish territories.

Sorbs

SorbianSorbLusatian Sorbs
Early Germanisation went along with the Ostsiedlung during the Middle Ages in Hanoverian Wendland, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lusatia, and other areas, formerly inhabited by Slavic tribes – Polabian Slavs such as Obotrites, Veleti and Sorbs.
From the beginning of the 16th century the whole Sorbian-inhabited area, with the exception of Lusatia, underwent Germanization.

Teutonic Order

Teutonic KnightsTeutonicTeutonic Knight
In East Prussia, forced resettlement of the "Old" or "Baltic" Prussians by the Teutonic Order as well as acculturation by immigrants from various European countries – Poles, French and Germans – contributed to the eventual extinction of the Prussian language in the 17th century. Under the policies of states such as the Teutonic Order, Austria, the German Empire, and Nazi Germany, non-Germans were often prohibited from using their native language, and had their traditions and culture suppressed.
These included nobles, burghers, and peasants, and the surviving Old Prussians were gradually assimilated through Germanization.

Prussia

PrussianPrussian statePrussian army
Frederick the Great settled around 300,000 colonists in the eastern provinces of Prussia.
Their monastic state was mostly Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia.

Silesia

SchlesienŚląskSilesian
The rise of nationalism in the late 18th and 19th centuries in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Pomerania, Lusatia, and Slovenia led to an increased sense of "pride" in national cultures.
During this time, German cultural and ethnic influence increased as a result of immigration from German-speaking parts of the Holy Roman Empire.

Old Prussian language

Old PrussianPrussianPrussian language
In East Prussia, forced resettlement of the "Old" or "Baltic" Prussians by the Teutonic Order as well as acculturation by immigrants from various European countries – Poles, French and Germans – contributed to the eventual extinction of the Prussian language in the 17th century.
Before the 1930s, when Nazi Germany began a program of Germanisation, one could find Old Prussian river- and place-names there, such as Tawe and Tawellningken.

Września children strike

1901 Września student revoltabuse of Polish children by Prussian officialsWrześnia school strike
(See Drzymała's van.) Germanisation in schools included the abuse of Polish children by Prussian officials.
Września school strike or Września children strike refers to the protests of Polish children and their parents against Germanization that occurred in Września in the years 1901–1904.

Obotrites

ObotriteObodritesObodrite
Early Germanisation went along with the Ostsiedlung during the Middle Ages in Hanoverian Wendland, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lusatia, and other areas, formerly inhabited by Slavic tribes – Polabian Slavs such as Obotrites, Veleti and Sorbs.
In 1170 they acknowledged the suzerainty of the Holy Roman Empire, leading to Germanisation and assimilation over the following centuries.

Rhaeto-Romance languages

Rhaeto-RomanceRhaeto-Romance languageRaeto-Romance
In Tyrol there was a Germanisation of the Ladino-Romantsch of the Venosta Valley by Austria in the 16th century.
From these two influences the Ladin area underwent the process of Germanisation.

Drzymała's wagon

Drzymała's van
(See Drzymała's van.) Germanisation in schools included the abuse of Polish children by Prussian officials.
Drzymała's wagon (wóz Drzymały) was a house on wheels built by Michał Drzymała as a protest against Imperial Germany's policy of Germanization in its Polish territories.

Rota (poem)

RotaRota (The oath)Rota'' (poem)
In 1910 Maria Konopnicka responded to the increasing persecution of Polish people by Germans by writing her famous song entitled Rota; it immediately became a national symbol for Poles, with its sentence known to many Poles: The German will not spit in our face, nor will he Germanise our children.
Rota's lyrics were written in 1908 by activist for Polish independence, poet Maria Konopnicka as a protest against German Empire's policies of forced Germanization of Poles.

Prussian Settlement Commission

Settlement CommissionAnsiedlungskommisionAnsiedlungskommission
In 1885 the Prussian Settlement Commission, financed by the national government, was set up to buy land from non-Germans and distribute it to German farmers.
The Commission was one of Prussia's prime instruments in the official policy of Germanization of the historically Polish lands of West Prussia (the former Royal Prussia) and the dissolved Grand Duchy of Posen.

Elbe

Elbe RiverRiver ElbeLabe
In Slavic countries, the term Germanisation is often understood to mean the process of acculturation of Slavic- and Baltic-language speakers – after conquest by or cultural contact with Germans in the early Middle Ages; especially the areas of modern southern Austria and eastern Germany to the line of the Elbe.
In the 10th century the Ottonian Dynasty (dominant from 919 to 1024) began conquering these lands; a slow process of Germanization ensued, including the Wendish Crusade of 1147.

Poles

PolishPolePolish people
In East Prussia, forced resettlement of the "Old" or "Baltic" Prussians by the Teutonic Order as well as acculturation by immigrants from various European countries – Poles, French and Germans – contributed to the eventual extinction of the Prussian language in the 17th century.
Most of Pomeranians became Germanized throughout history.

Croats

CroatianCroatCroatians
The Hungarian national revival subsequently triggered similar movements among the Slovak, Romanian, Serbian, and Croatian minorities within the Kingdom of Hungary.
In the 19th century Croatian romantic nationalism emerged to counteract the non-violent but apparent Germanization and Magyarization.

Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)

occupied Polandoccupation of PolandGerman-occupied Poland
Non-German population on the occupied lands were subject to forced resettlement, Germanization, economic exploitation, and slow but progressive extermination.

Intelligenzaktion

intelligentsia actionAktion gegen die polnische Intelligenzdeprived of their leaders and most of their intelligentsia
The intelligenzaktion was justified, even though these elites were regarded as likely to be of German blood, because such blood enabled them to provide leadership for the fatalistic Slavs.
The operations were conducted to realise the Germanization of the western regions of occupied Poland, before territorial annexation to the German Reich.

Expulsion of Poles by Nazi Germany

expulsion of PolesexpulsionsExpulsion of Poles by Nazi Germany (1939–1944)
Those unfit for Germanisation were to be expelled from the areas marked out for German settlement.
The Expulsion of Poles by Nazi Germany during World War II was a massive Nazi German operation consisting of the forced resettlement of over 1.7 million Poles from all territories of occupied Poland with the aim of their geopolitical Germanization (see Lebensraum) between 1939–1944.