Germanium

GeGe diodesGermangermanidesGermanium whisker
Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32.wikipedia
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Metalloid

metalloidsMetallicmetalloid staircase
It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbours silicon and tin.
The six commonly recognised metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium.

Silicon

Sisilicon revolutionsilicium
It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbours silicon and tin.
It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table: carbon is above it; and germanium, tin, and lead are below it.

Tin

SnGray tintinfoil
It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbours silicon and tin.
Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4.

Semiconductor

semiconductorssemiconductingsemiconductor material
Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon.
Some examples of semiconductors are silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, and elements near the so-called "metalloid staircase" on the periodic table.

Clemens Winkler

C. A. WinklerClemens Alexander WinklerWinkler
Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite.
Clemens Alexander Winkler (December 26, 1838 – October 8, 1904) was a German chemist who discovered the element germanium in 1886, solidifying Dmitri Mendeleev's theory of periodicity.

Mendeleev's predicted elements

Mendeleev's nomenclature for unnamed and undiscovered elementsekapredicted
In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties from its position on his periodic table, and called the element ekasilicon.
For example, germanium was called eka-silicon until its discovery in 1886, and rhenium was called dvi-manganese before its discovery in 1926.

Argyrodite

Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite.
Argyrodite is an uncommon silver germanium sulfide mineral with formula Ag 8 GeS 6.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32.

Arsenic

AsAs 2 Arsenate
Although the new element somewhat resembled arsenic and antimony in appearance, the combining ratios in compounds agreed with Mendeleev's predictions for a relative of silicon.
Like germanium, selenium, and bromine, which like arsenic succeed the 3d transition series, arsenic is much less stable in the group oxidation state of +5 than its vertical neighbors phosphorus and antimony, and hence arsenic pentoxide and arsenic acid are potent oxidizers.

Carbon group

group 1414group IV
It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbours silicon and tin.
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).

Transistor

transistorstransistorizedsilicon transistor
Elemental germanium is used as a semiconductor in transistors and various other electronic devices.
Most transistors are made from very pure silicon, and some from germanium, but certain other semiconductor materials can also be used.

Germanium dioxide

GeO 2 germanium oxideGermanium(IV) oxide
Winkler was able to prepare several new compounds of germanium, including fluorides, chlorides, sulfides, dioxide, and tetraethylgermane (Ge(C 2 H 5 ) 4 ), the first organogermane.
Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide, germania, and salt of germanium, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO 2.

Dmitri Mendeleev

MendeleevDmitri MendeleyevDmitry Mendeleev
In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties from its position on his periodic table, and called the element ekasilicon.
His proposal identified the potential for new elements such as germanium.

Germanium tetrachloride

Germanium(IV) chlorideGeCl 4
He also determined an atomic weight of 72.32 by analyzing pure germanium tetrachloride, while Lecoq de Boisbaudran deduced 72.3 by a comparison of the lines in the spark spectrum of the element.
It is used as an intermediate in the production of purified germanium metal.

Diode

diodessemiconductor diodegermanium diode
During World War II, small amounts of germanium were used in some special electronic devices, mostly diodes.
Today, most diodes are made of silicon, but other materials such as gallium arsenide and germanium are also used.

Neptunium

Npelement 93dineptunium
However, the name "neptunium" had already been given to another proposed chemical element (though not the element that today bears the name neptunium, which was discovered in 1940).
For example, pure neptunium is paramagnetic, NpAl 3 is ferromagnetic, NpGe 3 has no magnetic ordering, and NpSn 3 behaves fermionically.

Silicon-germanium

SiGesilicon germaniumGermanium silicide
The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955.
SiGe ( or ), or silicon-germanium, is an alloy with any molar ratio of silicon and germanium, i.e. with a molecular formula of the form Si 1−x Ge x.

Germanium fluoride

fluorides
Winkler was able to prepare several new compounds of germanium, including fluorides, chlorides, sulfides, dioxide, and tetraethylgermane (Ge(C 2 H 5 ) 4 ), the first organogermane.

Diamond

diamondsdiamond miningindustrial diamond
This form constitutes an allotrope known as α-germanium, which has a metallic luster and a diamond cubic crystal structure, the same as diamond.
At high pressures, silicon and germanium have a BC8 body-centered cubic crystal structure, and a similar structure is predicted for carbon at high pressures.

History of chemistry

chemistryburgeoning chemistrychemical revolution
Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry.
He even predicted the likely properties of three yet-to-be-discovered elements, which he called ekaboron (Eb), ekaaluminium (Ea), and ekasilicon (Es), which proved to be good predictors of the properties of scandium, gallium, and germanium, respectively, which each fill the spot in the periodic table assigned by Mendeleev.

Gallium

GaGa 2 67 Ga
Like silicon, gallium, bismuth, antimony, and water, germanium is one of the few substances that expands as it solidifies (i.e. freezes) from the molten state.
Gallium shares the higher-density liquid state with a short list of other materials that includes water, silicon, germanium, antimony, bismuth, and plutonium.

Zone melting

zone refiningfloating zonefloating zone crystal growth
Zone refining techniques have led to the production of crystalline germanium for semiconductors that has an impurity of only one part in 10 10,
Its first commercial use was in germanium, refined to one atom of impurity per ten billion, but the process can be extended to virtually any solute-solvent system having an appreciable concentration difference between solid and liquid phases at equilibrium.

Periodic table

periodic table of elementsperiodic table of the elementsperiodic system
In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties from its position on his periodic table, and called the element ekasilicon.
Newlands was nonetheless able to draft a table of the elements and used it to predict the existence of missing elements, such as germanium.

Diamond cubic

diamonddiamond latticediamond crystal
This form constitutes an allotrope known as α-germanium, which has a metallic luster and a diamond cubic crystal structure, the same as diamond.
While the first known example was diamond, other elements in group 14 also adopt this structure, including α-tin, the semiconductors silicon and germanium, and silicon/germanium alloys in any proportion.

Germanate

Germanium is insoluble in dilute acids and alkalis but dissolves slowly in hot concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids and reacts violently with molten alkalis to produce germanates.
In chemistry germanate is a compound containing an oxyanion of germanium.