Germans

Germanethnic Germanethnic GermansGerman peopleGermanicGermanyGerman descentGerman ancestryGerman-bornPrussian
For a specific analysis of the population of Germany, see Demographics of Germanywikipedia
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German Canadians

GermanGerman CanadianGerman-Canadian
There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry mainly in the United States, Brazil (mainly in the South Region of the country), Argentina, Canada, South Africa, the post-Soviet states (mainly in Russia and Kazakhstan), and France, each accounting for at least 1 million.
German Canadians (Deutsch-Kanadier or Deutschkanadier, ) are Canadian citizens of ethnic German ancestry.

German Argentine

GermansGerman ArgentinesGerman
There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry mainly in the United States, Brazil (mainly in the South Region of the country), Argentina, Canada, South Africa, the post-Soviet states (mainly in Russia and Kazakhstan), and France, each accounting for at least 1 million.
Germany as a political entity was founded only in 1871, but immigrants from earlier dates are also considered German Argentines due to their shared ethnic heritage, language and culture.

Prussia

PrussianPrussian statePrussian army
The former German state of Prussia took its name from the Baltic Prussians, although it was led by Germans who had assimilated the Old Prussians; the old Prussian language was extinct by the 17th or early 18th century.
Prussia (Preußen, Old Prussian: Prūsa or Prūsija) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea.

Franks

FrankishFrankFrankish kingdom
The migration-period peoples who later coalesced into a "German" ethnicity were the Germanic tribes of the Saxons, Franci, Thuringii, Alamanni and Bavarii.
For example, in 1099, the crusader population of Jerusalem mostly comprised French settlers who, at the time, called themselves Franks, and other Europeans such as Spaniards, Germans and Hungarians.

Saxons

SaxonSassenachSaxon people
The migration-period peoples who later coalesced into a "German" ethnicity were the Germanic tribes of the Saxons, Franci, Thuringii, Alamanni and Bavarii. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni (in what became Swabia) (some, like standard Italian tedeschi, retain an older borrowing of the endonym, while the Romanian 'germani' stems from the historical correlation with the ancient region of Germania), the Old Norse, Finnish, and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons.
The Finns and Estonians have changed their usage of the root Saxon over the centuries to apply now to the whole country of Germany (Saksa and Saksamaa respectively) and the Germans (saksalaiset and sakslased, respectively).

Old Prussians

PrussiansOld PrussianPrussian
During the wars waged in the Baltic by the Catholic German Teutonic Knights; the lands inhabited by the ethnic group of the Old Prussians (the current reference to the people known then simply as the "Prussians"), were conquered by the Germans.
The former German state of Prussia took its name from the Baltic Prussians, although it was led by Germans.

German town law

town privilegestowncity rights
German town law (Stadtrecht) was promoted by the presence of large, relatively wealthy German populations, their influence and political power.
As Germans began establishing towns throughout northern Europe as early as the 10th century, they often received town privileges granting them autonomy from local secular or religious rulers.

North German Confederation

North German FederationGermanyState
In the final battle of the German war (Battle of Königgrätz) the Prussians successfully defeated the Austrians and succeeded in creating the North German Confederation.
The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870.

Reformation

Protestant Reformationthe ReformationProtestant
Ever since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide.
The Germans fished near Iceland's coast, and the Hanseatic League engaged in commerce with the Icelanders.

Unification of Germany

German unificationunificationunified Germany
These terms came to a sudden halt following the Revolutions of 1848 and the Crimean War in 1856, paving the way for German unification in the 1860s.
The negotiators at Vienna took no account of Prussia's growing strength within and among the German states and so failed to foresee that Prussia would rise to challenge Austria for leadership of the German peoples.

Second Polish Republic

PolandPolishinterwar Poland
This idea was initially welcomed by many ethnic Germans in Sudetenland, Austria, Poland, Danzig and western Lithuania, particularly the Germans from Klaipeda (Memel).
Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ruthenians; 10% Ashkenazi Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% Czechs and Lithuanians.

Volksdeutsche

ethnic GermansVolksdeutschVolksdeutscher
During the Third Reich, the Nazis, led by Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, attempted to unite all the people they claimed were "Germans" (Volksdeutsche) under the slogan Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer ("One People, One Empire, One Leader").
For Hitler and the other ethnic Germans of his time, the term "Volksdeutsche" also carried overtones of blood and race not captured in the common English translation "ethnic Germans".

Adolf Hitler

HitlerFührerthe leader
During the Third Reich, the Nazis, led by Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, attempted to unite all the people they claimed were "Germans" (Volksdeutsche) under the slogan Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer ("One People, One Empire, One Leader").
His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.

East Prussia

Province of East PrussiaEastern PrussiaEast Prussian
Germans were also forced to leave the former eastern territories of Germany, which were annexed by Poland (Silesia, Pomerania, parts of Brandenburg and southern part of East Prussia) and the Soviet Union (northern part of East Prussia).
Because of Germanization and colonisation over the following centuries, Germans became the dominant ethnic group, while Masurians and Lithuanians formed minorities.

Lithuanians

LithuanianLithuanian peopleLithuanian diaspora
The Old Prussians were an ethnic group related to the Latvian and Lithuanian Baltic peoples.
According to the census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of the population identified themselves as ethnic Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles, 6.31% as Russians, 1.23% as Belarusians, and 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups such as Ukrainians, Jews, Germans, Tatars, Latvians, Romani, Estonians, Crimean Karaites, Scandinavians etc.

Austrians

AustrianAustriaAustrian Germans
After World War II, Austrians increasingly saw themselves as a separate nation from the German nation.
Historically, Austrians were regarded as ethnic Germans and viewed themselves as such.

Bavarians

BavariiBavarianBaiuvarii
The migration-period peoples who later coalesced into a "German" ethnicity were the Germanic tribes of the Saxons, Franci, Thuringii, Alamanni and Bavarii.
Bavarians (Bavarian: Boarn, Standard German: Bayern) are an ethnographic group of Germans of the Bavaria region, a state within Germany.

Anschluss

annexation of AustriaAnschlußannexation
An Austrian identity was vastly emphasized along with the "first-victim of Nazism theory."
The idea of grouping all Germans into one nation-state had been the subject of debate in the 19th century from the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 until the break-up of the German Confederation in 1866.

Volksliste

Deutsche VolkslisteGerman Nationality ListDeutsche Volksliste
During the war, Heinrich Himmler who was issued with the policy of "strengthening of ethnic Germandom" created a Volksliste ("German People's List") which was used to classify all those living in the German occupied territories into different categories according to criteria by Himmler.
Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) topped the list as a category.

Austria

AUTAustrianRepublic of Austria
Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities which were earlier part of the Holy Roman Empire, (such as Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and other historically-tied countries like Luxembourg), most often subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not also self-identify as ethnically German.
Historically Austrians were regarded as ethnic Germans and viewed themselves as such, although this national identity was challenged by Austrian nationalism in the decades after the end of World War I and even more so after World War II.

German Americans

GermanGerman-AmericanGerman American
There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry mainly in the United States, Brazil (mainly in the South Region of the country), Argentina, Canada, South Africa, the post-Soviet states (mainly in Russia and Kazakhstan), and France, each accounting for at least 1 million.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner, ) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.

Teutonic Order

Teutonic KnightsTeutonicTeutonic Knight
During the wars waged in the Baltic by the Catholic German Teutonic Knights; the lands inhabited by the ethnic group of the Old Prussians (the current reference to the people known then simply as the "Prussians"), were conquered by the Germans.
To make up for losses from the plague and to replace the partially exterminated native population, the Order encouraged immigration from the Holy Roman Empire (mostly Germans, Flemish, and Dutch) and from Masovia (Poles), the later Masurians.

German Brazilians

GermanGerman-BrazilianGerman Brazilian
There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry mainly in the United States, Brazil (mainly in the South Region of the country), Argentina, Canada, South Africa, the post-Soviet states (mainly in Russia and Kazakhstan), and France, each accounting for at least 1 million.
German Brazilians (German: Deutschbrasilianer, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch: Deitschbrasiliooner, teuto-brasileiros) refers to Brazilian people of ethnic German ancestry or origin.

Sudetenland

SudetenSudeten crisisSudetenland Crisis
This idea was initially welcomed by many ethnic Germans in Sudetenland, Austria, Poland, Danzig and western Lithuania, particularly the Germans from Klaipeda (Memel).
From as early as the second half of the 13th century onwards these Bohemian border regions were settled by ethnic Germans, who were invited by the Přemyslid Bohemian kings — especially by Ottokar II (1253–1278) and Wenceslaus II (1278–1305).

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
The English term Germans has historically referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages.
German speaking farmers, traders, and craftsmen from the western part of the Empire, both Christians and Jews, moved into these areas.