A report on Germany

The Kingdom of East Francia in 843
Martin Luther (1483–1546), Protestant Reformer
The German Confederation in 1815
Adolf Hitler, dictator of Nazi Germany (1933–1945)
German-occupied Europe in 1942 during World War II
American, Soviet, British, and French occupation zones in Germany and the French-controlled Saar Protectorate, 1947. Territories east of the Oder-Neisse line were transferred to Poland and the Soviet Union under the terms of the Potsdam Conference.
The Berlin Wall during its fall in 1989, with the Brandenburg Gate in the background
Physical map of Germany
Berchtesgaden National Park
German TPz Fuchs armoured personnel carrier
Frankfurt is a leading business centre in Europe and the seat of the European Central Bank.
An ICE 3 on the Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line
Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria
Cologne Cathedral is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Heidelberg University is Germany's oldest institution of higher learning and generally counted among its most renowned.
The Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Lübeck, established in 1286, is a precursor to modern hospitals.
A typical German Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) in Dresden
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), composer
The Brothers Grimm collected and published popular German folk tales.
Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam near Berlin, the world's first large-scale film studio
Bavarian Bratwurst with mustard, a pretzel and beer
The German national football team after winning the FIFA World Cup for the fourth time in 2014. Football is the most popular sport in Germany.
Germany hosted the 2022 G7 summit at Schloss Elmau, Bavaria.

Country in Central Europe.

- Germany

242 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Berlin

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Map of Berlin in 1688
Berlin Cathedral (left) and Berlin Palace (right), 1900
Berlin became the capital of the German Empire in 1871 and expanded rapidly in the following years.
Berlin in ruins after World War II (Potsdamer Platz, 1945)
The Berlin Wall (painted on the western side) was a barrier that divided the city from 1961 to 1989.
The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. On 3 October 1990, the German reunification process was formally finished.
The coat of arms proposed in the state contract
Satellite image of Berlin
The outskirts of Berlin are covered with woodlands and numerous lakes.
Aerial photo over central Berlin showing City West, Potsdamer Platz, Alexanderplatz and the Tiergarten
Panorama of the Gendarmenmarkt, showing the Konzerthaus Berlin, flanked by the German Church (left) and French Church (right)
The Berlin Cathedral at Museum Island
Charlottenburg Palace
Hackesche Höfe
Breitscheidplatz with Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church is the center of City West.
Berlin's population, 1880–2012
Rotes Rathaus (Red City Hall), seat of the Senate and Mayor of Berlin
Berlin's 12 boroughs and their 96 neighborhoods
Berlin is a UNESCO "City of Design" and recognized for its creative industries and startup ecosystem.
Deutsche Bahn, the world's second-largest transport company, is headquartered in Berlin.
The European Film Academy (logo pictured) was founded in Berlin.
The new building of Axel Springer SE which is heardquarted in Berlin
Berlin Hauptbahnhof is the largest grade-separated railway station in Europe.
The Berlin U-Bahn (Metro) at Heidelberger Platz station
Berlin Brandenburg Airport
Flights departing from Berlin serve 163 destinations around the globe.
Airports in Berlin, including those that are no longer used (as of November 2020)
Typical cycle street in Prenzlauer Berg
Heizkraftwerk Mitte power plant
The Charité university hospital
Café customers in Berlin Mitte using Wi-Fi devices
The Humboldt University of Berlin is affiliated with 57 Nobel Prize winners.
The Free University is one of Germany's eleven "Universities of Excellence".
The WISTA Science and Technology Park in Adlershof is home to several innovative businesses and research institutes.
The Alte Nationalgalerie is part of the Museum Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The alternative Holzmarkt, Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg
The Jewish Museum presents two millennia of German–Jewish history.
The reconstructed Ishtar Gate of Babylon at the Pergamon Museum
The Berlinale is the largest international spectator film festival.
The French Cathedral during the annual Festival of Lights
Hanukkah festival at the Brandenburg Gate
Sir Simon Rattle conducting the renowned Berlin Philharmonic
The Elephant Gate at the Berlin Zoo
The Victory Column in Tiergarten
The Olympiastadion hosted the 1936 Summer Olympics and the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final.
The Berlin Marathon is the world record course.
The Federal Chancellery building, seat of the Chancellor of Germany
The Reichstag, seat of the Bundestag
Schloss Bellevue, seat of the President of Germany
Prussian House of Lords, the seat of the Bundesrat of Germany
Headquarters of the Federal Intelligence Service

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population.

Poland

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Country in Central Europe.

Country in Central Europe.

A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Topographic map of Poland
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent in 1619

The country is bordered by Lithuania and Russia to the northeast, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west.

France

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Transcontinental country primarily located in Western Europe and spanning overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Transcontinental country primarily located in Western Europe and spanning overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans.

One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – approximately 17,000 BC. Lascaux is famous for its "exceptionally detailed depictions of humans and animals".
Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar during the Battle of Alesia. The Gallic defeat in the Gallic Wars secured the Roman conquest of the country.
The Maison Carrée was a temple of the Gallo-Roman city of Nemausus (present-day Nîmes) and is one of the best-preserved vestiges of the Roman Empire.
Frankish expansion from 481 to 870
With Clovis's conversion to Catholicism in 498, the Frankish monarchy, elective and secular until then, became hereditary and of divine right.
Joan of Arc led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453), which paved the way for the final victory.
Metropolitan France territorial evolution from 985 to 1947
The Château de Chenonceau, nowadays part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was built in the early 16th century.
Louis XIV, the "Sun King", was the absolute monarch of France and made France the leading European power.
Ouverture des États généraux à Versailles, 5 mai 1789 by Auguste Couder
The Storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789 was the most emblematic event of the French Revolution.
Le Serment du Jeu de paume by Jacques-Louis David, 1791
Napoleon, Emperor of the French, built a vast empire across Europe. His conquests spread the ideals of the French Revolution across much of the continent, such as popular sovereignty, equality before the law, republicanism and administrative reorganisation while his legal reforms had a major impact worldwide. Nationalism, especially in Germany, emerged in reaction against him.
Animated map of the growth and decline of the French colonial empire
French Poilus posing with their war-torn flag in 1917, during World War I
Charles de Gaulle took an active part in many major events of the 20th century: a hero of World War I, leader of the Free French during World War II, he then became President, where he facilitated decolonisation, maintained France as a major power and overcame the revolt of May 1968.
The May 68 protests, a massive social movement, would ultimately led to many social changes, such as the right to abortion, women empowerment as well as the decriminalisation of homosexuality.
Republican marches were organised across France after the January 2015 attacks perpetrated by Islamist terrorists; they became the largest public rallies in French history.
A relief map of Metropolitan France, showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitants
Mont Blanc, the highest summit in Western Europe, marks the border with Italy.
Geological formations near Roussillon, Vaucluse
Reed bed on the Gironde estuary, the largest estuary in Western Europe
Köppen climate classification map of Metropolitan France
Marine (blue), regional (green) and national (red) parks in France (2019)
The lands making up the French Republic, shown at the same geographic scale
Official logo of the French Republic
The National Assembly is the lower house of the French Parliament.
The basic principles that the French Republic must respect are found in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
88 states and governments are part of La Francophonie, which promotes values of democracy, multilingualism and cultural diversity. France has been a key member of this global organisation since its inception in 1970.
The European Parliament in Strasbourg, near the border with (Germany). France is a founding member of all EU institutions.
Examples of France's military. Clockwise from top left: nuclear aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle; a Dassault Rafale fighter aircraft; French Chasseurs Alpins patrolling the valleys of Kapisa province in Afghanistan; a Leclerc tank
La Défense (as seen from the Eiffel Tower) was in 2017 ranked by Ernst & Young as the leading Central business district in continental Europe, and the fourth in the world.
Composition of the French economy (GDP) in 2016 by expenditure type
Champagne is from the Champagne region in Northeast France.
The Eiffel Tower is the world's most-visited paid monument, an icon of both Paris and France.
The Château de Marqueyssac, featuring a French formal garden, is one of the Remarkable Gardens of France.
Belleville Nuclear Power Plant. France derives most of its electricity from nuclear power, the highest percentage in the world.
A TGV Duplex crossing the Cize–Bolozon viaduct. The train can reach a maximum speed of 360 km/h.
Air France is one of the biggest airlines in the world.
France is in 2020 the biggest national financial contributor to the European Space Agency, which conceived the Ariane rocket family, launched from French Guiana (Ariane 5 pictured).
The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble
Population density in France by arrondissement. The main urban areas are visible, notably the Paris (centre-north), Lille (north), Marseille (southeast) and Lyon (centre-southeast) urban areas.
Notre-Dame de Reims is the Roman Catholic cathedral where the Kings of France were crowned until 1825.
The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, a teaching hospital in Paris, is one of Europe's largest hospitals.
The École normale supérieure (ENS) in Paris, established in the end of the 18th century, produces more Nobel Prize laureates per capita than any other institution in the world.
Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People (1830) portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. Since Liberty is part of the motto "Liberté, égalité, fraternité", as the French put it, this painting has become the primary symbol of the French Republic.
The Louvre Museum, widely recognised as one of the finest art museums in the world, was in 2019 both the largest and the most-visited museum in the world.
Claude Monet, founder of the Impressionist movement
Le Penseur by Auguste Rodin (1902), Musée Rodin, Paris
Saint Louis's Sainte-Chapelle represents the French impact on religious architecture.
Place de la Bourse in Bordeaux, an example of French baroque architecture
The Capitole de Toulouse hosts Toulouse City Hall.
French literary figures. Clockwise from top left: Molière is the most played author in the Comédie-Française; Victor Hugo is one of the most important French novelist and poet; 19th-century poet, writer and translator Charles Baudelaire; 20th-century philosopher and novelist Jean-Paul Sartre
René Descartes, founder of modern Western philosophy
Claude Debussy
Serge Gainsbourg, one of the world's most influential popular musicians
Daft Punk, pioneers of the French house movement
A Palme d'Or from the Cannes Film Festival, one of the "Big Three" film festivals alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival
Louis de Funès, often called "France's favourite actor", has played over 130 roles in film and over 100 on stage.
Chanel's headquarters on Place Vendôme, Paris
The Parisian headquarters of Agence France-Presse, one of the world's oldest and leading news agencies
Le Figaro was founded in 1826; many of France's most prominent authors have written in its columns over the decades, and it is still considered a newspaper of record.
Admittance of Germaine Tillion, Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz, Pierre Brossolette and Jean Zay at the Pantheon, a mausoleum for distinguished French people, in 2015
Sculpture of Marianne, a common national personification of the French Republic
French wines are usually made to accompany French cuisine.
Some French cheeses with fruits
Starting in 1903, the Tour de France is the oldest and most prestigious of Grands Tours, and the world's most famous cycling race.
Pierre de Coubertin, father of the modern Olympic Games
Zidane was named the best European footballer of the past 50 years in a 2004 UEFA poll.
Map of the Francophone world:
Native language
Administrative language
Secondary or non-official language
Francophone minorities

France borders Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Andorra, and Spain in continental Europe, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname, and Brazil in the Americas via its overseas territories in French Guiana and Saint Martin.

The Kingdom of Prussia (light gray) within the German Empire (1871–1918)

States of Germany

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The Kingdom of Prussia (light gray) within the German Empire (1871–1918)
The states of the Weimar Republic in 1925, with the Free State of Prussia as the largest
West Germany (blue) and East Germany (red) and West Berlin (yellow)
Composition of German states' governing coalitions
Map of German districts. Yellow districts are urban, white are sub-urban or rural.

The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consists of sixteen partly sovereign federated states (Land (state), plural Länder (states); commonly informally Bundesland / federated state, plural Bundesländer / federated states).

Netherlands

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Country located in Northwestern Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

Country located in Northwestern Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

The name of the historic County of Holland is currently used as a pars pro toto for the Netherlands.
Oak figurine found in Willemstad (4500 BC)
The Rhine frontier around 70 AD
Franks, Frisians and Saxons (710s AD) with Traiecturm and Dorestad in the middle
Frankish expansion (481 to 870 AD)
Rorik of Dorestad, Viking ruler of Friesland (romantic 1912 depiction)
A Medieval Tombe of the Brabantian knight Arnold van der Sluijs
Map of the Habsburg dominions. From 1556 the dynasty's lands in the Low Countries were retained by the Spanish Habsburgs.
The Spanish Fury at Maastricht, 1579
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
Winter landscape with skaters near the city of Kampen by Hendrick Avercamp (1620s)
Amsterdam's Dam Square in 1656
Map of the Dutch colonial empire. Light green: territories administered by or originating from territories administered by the Dutch East India Company; dark green: the Dutch West India Company. In yellow are the territories occupied later, during the 19th century.
The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830. Painting by Nicolaas Pieneman
Rotterdam after German air raids in 1940
Former Prime Ministers Wim Kok, Dries van Agt, Piet de Jong, Ruud Lubbers and Jan Peter Balkenende with Prime Minister Mark Rutte, in 2011
Relief map of the European Netherlands
The Christmas flood of 1717 was the result of a northwesterly storm that resulted in the death of thousands.
Map illustrating areas of the Netherlands below sea level
A polder at 5.53 metres below sea level
The Delta Works are located in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland.
Common seals on Terschelling, a Wadden Sea island
Underwater life of Klein Bonaire
The Binnenhof, where the lower and upper houses of the States General meet
De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffeeshops that sell marijuana, symbolising the Dutch political culture and tradition of tolerance.
The Netherlands has a culture of respectful and friendly debate. From left to right, members of the House of Representatives Sander de Rouwe (CDA), Ineke van Gent (GL), Han ten Broeke (VVD), Kees Verhoeven (D66) and Farshad Bashir (SP), 2010
Provinces and territories of the Netherlands
The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis), in The Hague
General Onno Eichelsheim is the current Chief of Defence.
Zr. Ms. Holland, a Royal Netherlands Navy offshore patrol vessel
Historical GDP per capita development (Our World in Data)
A proportional representation of Netherlands exports, 2019
The Netherlands is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and the EU single market.
Natural gas concessions in the Netherlands. Today the Netherlands accounts for more than 25% of all natural gas reserves in the EU.
The Groningen gas field whose discovery in 1959 transformed the Dutch economy, generating €159 billion in revenue since the mid-1970s.
Cows near the city of Arnhem
Population of the Netherlands from 1900 to 2000
Population pyramid of the Netherlands in 2017
In Rotterdam almost half the population has an immigrant background.
Population density in the Netherlands by municipality. The largest urban area, the Randstad is clearly visible along the west coast.
Knowledge of foreign languages in the Netherlands, in per cent of the population over the age of 15, in 2006
An international primary school in The Hague
View on the Utrecht Science Park of Utrecht University. The building in the centre is the library.
Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), known as "the father of microbiology"
A public hospital in Amersfoort
A1 motorway, in Gelderland
A regional train operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS)
Bike passage at Rotterdam Centraal station
Some symbols and icons of Dutch culture
Carnival in North Brabant and Limburg
Dutch people in orange celebrating King's Day in Amsterdam, 2017
Pop singer Anouk in 2013
Johan Cruyff Arena, the largest Dutch concert venue
Dutch star football players Arjen Robben and Robin van Persie during a game with the Netherlands against Denmark at Euro 2012
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
A Dutch doctor vaccinating Indonesian patients

The Netherlands consists of twelve provinces; it borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, with a North Sea coastline to the north and west.

Prehistoric Heunischenburg, in the vicinity of Kronach

Bavaria

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Prehistoric Heunischenburg, in the vicinity of Kronach
Bavaria in the 10th century
The Bavarian duchies after the partition of 1392
Bavarian herald Joerg Rugenn wearing a tabard of the arms around 1510
Bavaria in the 19th century and beyond
Bavaria within the German Empire
A memorial to soldiers who died in the two World Wars in Dietelskirchen (Kröning), Bavaria
Expression of Bavarian (linguistic) identity in a shop window in the town of Regensburg, Upper Palatinate
View of the Bavarian Alps (foreground); in the background Austria (specifically Tyrol): Inn valley (center) with (left) Kaisergebirge and (right) Pendling mountain. In the extreme background (center-left) the snow-capped High Tauern
Administrative regions (Regierungsbezirke and Bezirke) of Bavaria
Map of the Landkreise of Bavaria
Munich city center with Frauenkirche (left) and Rathaus (town hall)
Nuremberg
Augsburg
Regensburg with the Danube (foreground) and Regensburg Cathedral
The Bavarian State Chancellery in Munich
Current composition of the Landtag:
Markus Söder, the current prime minister ("Ministerpräsident") of Bavaria
BMW Welt and BMW Headquarters in Munich
Neuschwanstein Castle is one of the most famous tourist attractions in Bavaria. (The Alps are to the left of the picture frame)
Bavaria is one of Germany's least densely populated states.
A Catholic church near Füssen with the Alps in the background
Upper German and the southern counterpart to Central German both form the High German languages, while the Austro-Bavarian dialects are in blue
The Allianz Arena, one of the world's most famous football stadiums
Allgäuer meadows
Asparagus with sauce hollandaise
Vineyards in Klingenberg-am-Main
Refinery Ingolstadt
BMW 7 Series
Audi A5
MAN TGX
Faun HK 100
Setra S515HDH
Eurofighter Typhoon
PARS 3 LR
Leopard 2
Bavaria R40
MAN marine diesel
Robel BR 711.2
Campeon - Infineon and Intel R&D centers
CNC controls Heidehain iTNC 530
Programmable logic controller Siemens Simatic S7-1500
Silicon wafers
Siemens E.Cam Duet
Brauerei Aying
Cold reservoirs

Bavaria (Bayern, ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern, ; Freistoot Bayern), is a state in the south-east of Germany.

Austria

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Landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, situated at Eastern Alps.

Landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, situated at Eastern Alps.

Venus of Willendorf, 28,000 to 25,000 BC, at the Museum of Natural History Vienna
The Battle of Vienna in 1683 broke the advance of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.
The Congress of Vienna met in 1814–15. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
Map of the German Confederation (1815–1836) with its 39 member states
An ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, whose assassination sparked World War I, one of the most disastrous conflicts in human history
German-speaking provinces claimed by German-Austria in 1918: The border of the subsequent Second Republic of Austria is outlined in red.
Adolf Hitler speaking at Heldenplatz, Vienna, 1938
Austria in 1941 when it was known as the "Ostmark"
The liberation of Mauthausen concentration camp, 1945
The United Nations Office in Vienna is one of the four major UN office sites worldwide.
Austria joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
The Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna
The Leopoldine Wing of Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna, home to the offices of the Austrian president
The Federal Chancellery on Ballhausplatz
The European Parliament: Austria is one of the 27 EU members.
A topographic map of Austria showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitants
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Austria
A proportional representation of Austria exports, 2019
Austria is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU single market.
The Kölnbrein Dam in Carinthia
Children in Austria, near Au, Vorarlberg
Bilingual sign of Oberwart (in Hungarian Felsőőr) in Burgenland
The birthplaces of foreign-born naturalised residents of Austria
The Basilica of Mariazell is Austria's most popular pilgrimage site.
Stiftsgymnasium Melk is the oldest Austrian school.
The University of Vienna
The campus of the Vienna University of Economics and Business
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791)
The Vienna State Opera
Arnold Schwarzenegger is a well-known Austrian and American actor.
Karl Popper
Wiener Schnitzel, a traditional Austrian dish
Innsbruck hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics, as well as the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics, the first in history.
Ski racer Franz Klammer won a gold medal at the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck.
The campus of JKU University of Linz

The country is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west.

Holy Roman Empire

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Political entity in Western, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.

Political entity in Western, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.

The change of territory of the Holy Roman Empire superimposed on present-day state borders
The double-headed eagle with coats of arms of individual states, the symbol of the Holy Roman Empire (painting from 1510)
The change of territory of the Holy Roman Empire superimposed on present-day state borders
A map of the Carolingian Empire (a.k.a. Francia, the Frankish Empire) within Europe circa 814 CE.
The Holy Roman Empire during the Ottonian Dynasty
The Holy Roman Empire between 972 and 1032
The Hohenstaufen-ruled Holy Roman Empire and Kingdom of Sicily. Imperial and directly held Hohenstaufen lands in the Empire are shown in bright yellow.
The Reichssturmfahne, a military banner during the 13th and early 14th centuries
Lands of the Bohemian Crown since the reign of Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV
An illustration from Schedelsche Weltchronik depicting the structure of the Reich: The Holy Roman Emperor is sitting; on his right are three ecclesiastics; on his left are four secular electors.
The Holy Roman Empire when the Golden Bull of 1356 was signed
Innsbruck, most important political centre under Maximilian, seat of the Hofkammer (Court Treasury) and the Court Chancery, which functioned as "the most influential body in Maximilian's government". Painting of Albrecht Dürer (1496)
Maximilian I paying attention to an execution instead of watching the betrothal of his son Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile. The top right corner shows Cain and Abel. Satire against Maximilian's legal reform, associated with imperial tyranny. Created on behalf of the councilors of Augsburg. Plate 89 of Von der Arztney bayder Glück by the Petrarcameister.
Personification of the Reich as Germania by Jörg Kölderer, 1512. The "German woman", wearing her hair loose and a crown, sitting on the Imperial throne, corresponds both to the self-image of Maximilian I as King of Germany and the formula Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (omitting other nations). While usually depicted during the Middle Age as subordinate to both imperial power and Italia or Gallia, she now takes central stage in Maximilian's Triumphal Procession, being carried in front of Roma.
The Holy Roman Empire during the 16th century
Carta itineraria europae by Waldseemüller, 1520 (dedicated to Emperor Charles V)
The Holy Roman Empire around 1600, superimposed over current state borders
Religion in the Holy Roman Empire on the eve of the Thirty Years' War
The Empire after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648
The Empire on the eve of the French Revolution, 1789
The crown of the Holy Roman Empire (2nd half of the 10th century), now held in the Schatzkammer (Vienna)
The Seven Prince-electors (Codex Balduini Trevirorum, c. 1340)
A map of the Empire showing division into Circles in 1512
Vienna, circa 1580 by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg
Front page of the Peace of Augsburg, which laid the legal groundwork for two co-existing religious confessions (Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism) in the German-speaking states of the Holy Roman Empire

This state developed into modern Germany.

Weimar Republic

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Weimar Republic in 1930
Weimar Republic in 1930
Naval jack of the Kaiserliche Marine (1903–1919)
Weimar Republic in 1930
Naval jack of the Reichsmarine (1918–1935)
Sailors during the mutiny in Kiel, November 1918
Philipp Scheidemann addresses a crowd from a window of the Reich Chancellery, 9 November 1918
Official postcard of the National Assembly
Chart of the definite constitution, the so-called Weimar Constition of 11 August 1919. It replaces the law concerning the provisional Reich power of 10 February 1919.
One-million mark notes used as notepaper, October 1923
A 50 million mark banknote issued in 1923, worth approximately one U.S. dollar when issued, would have been worth approximately 12 million U.S. dollars nine years earlier, but within a few weeks inflation made the banknote practically worthless.
A begging disabled WWI veteran (Berlin, 1923)
Wilhelm Marx's Christmas broadcast, December 1923
The "Golden Twenties" in Berlin: a jazz band plays for a tea dance at the hotel Esplanade, 1926
The Elephant Celebes by Max Ernst (1921)
Troops of the German Army feeding the poor in Berlin, 1931
Gross national product (inflation adjusted) and price index in Germany, 1926–1936 while the period between 1930 and 1932 is marked by a severe deflation and recession
Unemployment rate in Germany between 1928 and 1935 as during Brüning's policy of deflation (marked in purple), the unemployment rate soared from 15.7% in 1930 to 30.8% in 1932.
Communist Party (KPD) leader Ernst Thälmann (person in foreground with raised clenched fist) and members of the Roter Frontkämpferbund (RFB) marching through Berlin-Wedding, 1927
Federal election results 1919–1933: the Communist Party (KPD) (red) and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) (brown) were radical enemies of the Weimar Republic and the surge in unemployment during the Great Depression led to a radicalisation of many voters as the Nazi Party rose from 3% of the total votes in 1928 to 44% in 1933 while the DNVP (orange) lost its conservative wing and subsequently joined the radical opposition in 1929.
Nazi Party (NSDAP) leader Adolf Hitler saluting members of the Sturmabteilung in Brunswick, Lower Saxony, 1932
The SA had nearly two million members at the end of 1932.
Poster for the nationalist "Black–White–Red" coalition of Alfred Hugenberg (DNVP leader), Franz von Papen, and Franz Seldte

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik ), officially named the German Reich (Deutsches Reich), was the government of Germany from 1918 to 1933, during which it was a constitutional federal republic for the first time in history; hence it is also referred to, and unofficially proclaimed itself, as the German Republic (Deutsche Republik).

Denmark

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Nordic country in Northern Europe.

Nordic country in Northern Europe.

The gilded side of the Trundholm sun chariot dating from the Nordic Bronze Age
The Ladby ship, the largest ship burial found in Denmark.
Larger of the two Jelling stones, raised by Harald Bluetooth
Extent of the Dano-Norwegian Realm. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland.
The Assault on Copenhagen on 11 February 1659 during the Second Northern War. Danish defenders under King Frederick III successfully repelled the forces of the Swedish Empire. Painting by Frederik Christian Lund.
The National Constitutional Assembly was convened by King Frederick VII in 1848 to adopt the Constitution of Denmark.
Denmark became a member of the European Union in 1973 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
A satellite image of Jutland and the Danish islands
A map showing major urban areas, islands and connecting bridges
Bay of Aarhus viewed from southern Djursland
Beech trees are common throughout Denmark, especially in the sparse woodlands.
The European Environment Agency in Copenhagen
Christiansborg Palace houses the Folketing, the Supreme Court, and government offices.
King Christian V presiding over the Supreme Court in 1697.
The village of Kunoy on Kunoy island, in the Faroe Islands. Kalsoy island is at right.
Danish prime minister Mette Frederiksen (second from left) with foreign counterparts at the Nordic Council in Copenhagen, 2021
Danish MP-soldiers conducting advanced law enforcement training
A proportional representation of Denmark exports, 2019
Lego bricks are produced by The Lego Group, headquartered in Billund.
Denmark is a major producer and exporter of pork products.
With an investment of 8.5 million euros over the ten-year construction period, Denmark confirms participation in E-ELT.
Middelgrunden, an offshore wind farm near Copenhagen
Denmark railway network
Copenhagen Airport is the largest airport in Scandinavia and the 15th-busiest in Europe.
Roskilde Cathedral has been the burial place of Danish royalty since the 15th century. In 1995 it became a World Heritage Site.
The oldest surviving Danish lecture plan dated 1537 from the University of Copenhagen
Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen
Mjølnerparken in Copenhagen
Statue of philosopher Søren Kierkegaard
Director Lars von Trier, who co-created the Dogme film movement
Grundtvig's Church in Copenhagen, an example of expressionist architecture
A portrait of Hans Christian Andersen (1836), by Christian Albrecht Jensen
Woman in Front of a Mirror, (1841), by Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg
Smørrebrød, a variety of Danish open sandwiches piled high with delicacies
Michael Laudrup, named the best Danish football player of all time by the Danish Football Union

European Denmark is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, lying southwest of Sweden, south of Norway, and north of Germany.