The Kingdom of East Francia in 843
Martin Luther (1483–1546), Protestant Reformer
The German Confederation in 1815
Adolf Hitler, dictator of Nazi Germany (1933–1945)
German-occupied Europe in 1942 during World War II
American, Soviet, British, and French occupation zones in Germany and the French-controlled Saar Protectorate, 1947. Territories east of the Oder-Neisse line were transferred to Poland and the Soviet Union under the terms of the Potsdam Conference.
The Berlin Wall during its fall in 1989, with the Brandenburg Gate in the background
Physical map of Germany
Berchtesgaden National Park
German TPz Fuchs armoured personnel carrier
Frankfurt is a leading business centre in Europe and the seat of the European Central Bank.
An ICE 3 on the Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line
Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria
Cologne Cathedral is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Heidelberg University is Germany's oldest institution of higher learning and generally counted among its most renowned.
The Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Lübeck, established in 1286, is a precursor to modern hospitals.
A typical German Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) in Dresden
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), composer
The Brothers Grimm collected and published popular German folk tales.
Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam near Berlin, the world's first large-scale film studio
Bavarian Bratwurst with mustard, a pretzel and beer
The German national football team after winning the FIFA World Cup for the fourth time in 2014. Football is the most popular sport in Germany.

Country in Central Europe.

- Germany

500 related topics



Map of Berlin in 1688
Berlin Cathedral (left) and Berlin Palace (right), 1900
Berlin became the capital of the German Empire in 1871 and expanded rapidly in the following years.
Berlin in ruins after World War II (Potsdamer Platz, 1945)
The Berlin Wall (painted on the western side) was a barrier that divided the city from 1961 to 1989.
The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. On 3 October 1990, the German reunification process was formally finished.
The coat of arms proposed in the state contract
Satellite image of Berlin
The outskirts of Berlin are covered with woodlands and numerous lakes.
Aerial photo over central Berlin showing City West, Potsdamer Platz, Alexanderplatz and the Tiergarten
Panorama of the Gendarmenmarkt, showing the Konzerthaus Berlin, flanked by the German Church (left) and French Church (right)
The Berlin Cathedral at Museum Island
Charlottenburg Palace
Hackesche Höfe
Breitscheidplatz with Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church is the center of City West.
Berlin's population, 1880–2012
Rotes Rathaus (Red City Hall), seat of the Senate and Mayor of Berlin
Berlin's 12 boroughs and their 96 neighborhoods
Berlin is a UNESCO "City of Design" and recognized for its creative industries and startup ecosystem.
Deutsche Bahn, the world's second-largest transport company, is headquartered in Berlin.
The European Film Academy (logo pictured) was founded in Berlin.
The new building of Axel Springer SE which is heardquarted in Berlin
Berlin Hauptbahnhof is the largest grade-separated railway station in Europe.
The Berlin U-Bahn (Metro) at Heidelberger Platz station
Berlin Brandenburg Airport
Flights departing from Berlin serve 163 destinations around the globe.
Airports in Berlin, including those that are no longer used (as of November 2020)
Typical cycle street in Prenzlauer Berg
Heizkraftwerk Mitte power plant
The Charité university hospital
Café customers in Berlin Mitte using Wi-Fi devices
The Humboldt University of Berlin is affiliated with 57 Nobel Prize winners.
The Free University is one of Germany's eleven "Universities of Excellence".
The WISTA Science and Technology Park in Adlershof is home to several innovative businesses and research institutes.
The Alte Nationalgalerie is part of the Museum Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The alternative Holzmarkt, Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg
The Jewish Museum presents two millennia of German–Jewish history.
The reconstructed Ishtar Gate of Babylon at the Pergamon Museum
The Berlinale is the largest international spectator film festival.
The French Cathedral during the annual Festival of Lights
Hanukkah festival at the Brandenburg Gate
Sir Simon Rattle conducting the renowned Berlin Philharmonic
The Elephant Gate at the Berlin Zoo
The Victory Column in Tiergarten
The Olympiastadion hosted the 1936 Summer Olympics and the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final.
The Berlin Marathon is the world record course.
The Federal Chancellery building, seat of the Chancellor of Germany
The Reichstag, seat of the Bundestag
Schloss Bellevue, seat of the President of Germany
Prussian House of Lords, the seat of the Bundesrat of Germany
Headquarters of the Federal Intelligence Service

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population.


Map of the Ruhr area; in Green is a stricter or narrower definition of the Ruhr, comprising municipalities that are members of the Ruhr regional institution
Gamete of Dortmund, old market square with St. Reinold's Church
Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex in Essen, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001
Zeche Zollern in Dortmund
View of the redeveloped Duisburg Inner Harbour in 2010
Dortmund is the largest city of the Ruhr
Essen is the second largest city of the Ruhr
Opera Dortmund
Grillo-Theater Essen
Ostwall Museum at U-Tower Dortmund
Dortmund University's Mathetower
Ruhr University
Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts
Main building of the Folkwang University in Essen-Werden
Public Transport Rhein-Ruhr
Bundesautobahn 52 in Mülheim
A40 in Dortmund
Located in the East of the Ruhr is Dortmund Airport

The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet ), also referred to as the Ruhr area, sometimes Ruhr district, Ruhr region, or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.


Landlocked country at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe.

Founded in 44 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus, Augusta Raurica (near Basel) was the first Roman settlement on the Rhine and is now among the most important archaeological sites in Switzerland.
The Old Swiss Confederacy from 1291 (dark green) to the sixteenth century (light green) and its associates (blue). In the other colours shown are the subject territories.
The 1291 Bundesbrief (federal charter)
The Act of Mediation was Napoleon's attempt at a compromise between the Ancien Régime and a Republic.
The first Federal Palace in Bern (1857). One of the three cantons presiding over the Tagsatzung (former legislative and executive council), Bern was chosen as the permanent seat of federal legislative and executive institutions in 1848, in part because of its closeness to the French-speaking area.
Inauguration in 1882 of the Gotthard Rail Tunnel connecting the southern canton of Ticino, the longest in the world at the time
General Ulrich Wille, appointed commander-in-chief of the Swiss Army for the duration of World War I
In 2003, by granting the Swiss People's Party a second seat in the governing cabinet, the Parliament altered the coalition that had dominated Swiss politics since 1959.
Physical map of Switzerland (in German)
Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for Switzerland
The Swiss Federal Council in 2022 with President Ignazio Cassis (bottom) standing on an abstract, reduced railway lines map and positioned at their respective political origins
The Federal Palace, seat of the Federal Assembly and the Federal Council
The Landsgemeinde is an old form of direct democracy, still in practice in two cantons.
The colour-reversed Swiss flag became the symbol of the Red Cross Movement, founded in 1863 by Henry Dunant.
A Swiss Air Force F/A-18 Hornet at Axalp Air Show
Swiss-built Mowag Eagles of the Land Forces
The Old City of Bern
A proportional representation of Switzerland exports, 2019
The city of Basel (Roche Tower) is the capital of the country's pharmaceutical industry, which accounts for around 38% of Swiss exports worldwide.
The Greater Zürich area, home to 1.5 million inhabitants and 150,000 companies, is one of the most important economic centres in the world.
The University of Basel is Switzerland's oldest university (1460).
Some Swiss scientists who played a key role in their discipline (clockwise):
Leonhard Euler (mathematics)
Louis Agassiz (glaciology)
Auguste Piccard (aeronautics)
Albert Einstein (physics)
The LHC tunnel. CERN is the world's largest laboratory and also the birthplace of the World Wide Web.
Members of the European Free Trade Association (green) participate in the European Single Market and are part of the Schengen Area.
Switzerland has the tallest dams in Europe, among which the Mauvoisin Dam, in the Alps. Hydroelectricity is the most important domestic source of energy in the country.
Entrance of the new Lötschberg Base Tunnel, the third-longest railway tunnel in the world, under the old Lötschberg railway line. It was the first completed tunnel of the greater project NRLA.
Population density in Switzerland (2019)
Percentage of foreigners in Switzerland (2019)
Urbanisation in the Rhone Valley (outskirts of Sion)
Alphorn concert in Vals
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was not only a writer but also an influential philosopher of the eighteenth century.
Ski area over the glaciers of Saas-Fee
Roger Federer has won 20 Grand Slam singles titles, making him among the most successful men's tennis players ever.
Fondue is melted cheese, into which bread is dipped

Switzerland is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east.

Northern Germany

Uerdingen line: ich ("I") and ik isogloss
Holy Roman Empire
Saxony in yellow (circa 1000 AD)
The Volkswagen Arena
Am Rothenbaum tennis stadium

Northern Germany (Norddeutschland) is the region in the northern part of Germany, whose exact area is not precisely or consistently defined.


Most populous city in the German state of Hesse.

Often stereotyped as a financial city, Frankfurt is multifaceted, including the entertainment district at Bahnhofsviertel.
The legend of the Frankenfurt (ford of the Franks)
View of Frankfurt am Main, including the Alte Brücke (Old Bridge), by Gustave Courbet (1858)
Frankfurt as seen by the European Space Agency's Sentinel-2A
The 46 Stadtteile (city districts) of central Frankfurt
The central Innenstadt district, as seen by a SkySat satellite
Frankfurt urban area within Hesse
Lord Mayor Peter Feldmann (SPD)
Römer, the city hall
The New Frankfurt Old Town was completed in 2018, including 15 reconstructed historical buildings.
Alte Oper, now a concert hall, at Opernplatz
The Squaire in 2017
Upper section of the Main Tower with a public observation deck at 200 metres
Frankfurt skyline in June 2013, view from south-west
Skyline at dusk, seen from Deutschherrnbrücke (2014)
Top of the Europaturm, a 337 m communications tower
Zeil, Frankfurt's central shopping street
Frankfurt City Forest
The Städel
Senckenberg Natural History Museum
Festhalle Frankfurt
The English Theatre
The Museumsuferfest in 2005
"OVO" at Luminale 2012
A "Frankfurt kitchen" in the version of 1926 in an Austrian museum
"Bembel" (jug) and "Geripptes" (glass)
Frankfurt Airport (with the fourth runway under construction in 2010) and the Frankfurter Kreuz (lower right corner)
Frankfurter Kreuz
Frankfurt Central Station
S-Bahn at Central Station (underground)
Public transport network
Velotaxi at the Zeil
The new headquarters of the European Central Bank in the Ostend district
Deutsche Bank Twin Towers
Westend Tower, also known as Westendstraße 1 or Crown Tower, headquarters of DZ Bank
Opernturm, headquarters of UBS Germany, at the Opernplatz
Bull and bear in front of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange
Messeturm seen from the trade fair premises
Two Lufthansa Airbus A380s at Frankfurt Airport
Industriepark Höchst
Mainova heating plant
Westhafen Tower, home to the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA)
Greek consulate
Johann Wolfgang Goethe University
Max Planck Institute for Brain Research
Main Forum, home to IG Metall
Editorial department building of Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
The Waldstadion (currently known as the Deutsche Bank Park), home of the football club Eintracht Frankfurt
Wiesbaden Kurhaus with the Casino
Roman Empire Army Camp Saalburg
The real Frankenstein Castle

Its 763,380 inhabitants as of 31 December 2019 make it the fifth-most populous city in Germany.


Transcontinental country located in north-western Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

The name of the historic County of Holland is currently used as a pars pro toto for the Netherlands.
Oak figurine found in Willemstad (4500 BC)
The Rhine frontier around 70 AD
Franks, Frisians and Saxons (710s AD) with Traiecturm and Dorestad in the middle
Frankish expansion (481 to 870 AD)
Rorik of Dorestad, Viking ruler of Friesland (romantic 1912 depiction)
A Medieval Tombe of the Brabantian knight Arnold van der Sluijs
Map of the Habsburg dominions. From 1556 the dynasty's lands in the Low Countries were retained by the Spanish Habsburgs.
The Spanish Fury at Maastricht, 1579
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
Winter landscape with skaters near the city of Kampen by Hendrick Avercamp (1620s)
Amsterdam's Dam Square in 1656
Map of the Dutch colonial empire. Light green: territories administered by or originating from territories administered by the Dutch East India Company; dark green: the Dutch West India Company. In yellow are the territories occupied later, during the 19th century.
The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830. Painting by Nicolaas Pieneman
Rotterdam after German air raids in 1940
Former Prime Ministers Wim Kok, Dries van Agt, Piet de Jong, Ruud Lubbers and Jan Peter Balkenende with Prime Minister Mark Rutte, in 2011
Relief map of the European Netherlands
The Christmas flood of 1717 was the result of a northwesterly storm that resulted in the death of thousands.
Map illustrating areas of the Netherlands below sea level
A polder at 5.53 metres below sea level
The Delta Works are located in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland.
Common seals on Terschelling, a Wadden Sea island
Underwater life of Klein Bonaire
The Binnenhof, where the lower and upper houses of the States General meet
De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffeeshops that sell marijuana, symbolising the Dutch political culture and tradition of tolerance.
The Netherlands has a culture of respectful and friendly debate. From left to right, members of the House of Representatives Sander de Rouwe (CDA), Ineke van Gent (GL), Han ten Broeke (VVD), Kees Verhoeven (D66) and Farshad Bashir (SP), 2010
Provinces and territories of the Netherlands
The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis), in The Hague
General Onno Eichelsheim is the current Chief of Defence.
Zr. Ms. Holland, a Royal Netherlands Navy offshore patrol vessel
Historical GDP per capita development (Our World in Data)
A proportional representation of Netherlands exports, 2019
The Netherlands is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and the EU single market.
Natural gas concessions in the Netherlands. Today the Netherlands accounts for more than 25% of all natural gas reserves in the EU.
The Groningen gas field whose discovery in 1959 transformed the Dutch economy, generating €159 billion in revenue since the mid-1970s.
Cows near the city of Arnhem
Population of the Netherlands from 1900 to 2000
Population pyramid of the Netherlands in 2017
In Rotterdam almost half the population has an immigrant background.
Population density in the Netherlands by municipality. The largest urban area, the Randstad is clearly visible along the west coast.
Knowledge of foreign languages in the Netherlands, in per cent of the population over the age of 15, in 2006
An international primary school in The Hague
View on the Utrecht Science Park of Utrecht University. The building in the centre is the library.
Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), known as "the father of microbiology"
A public hospital in Amersfoort
A1 motorway, in Gelderland
A regional train operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS)
Bike passage at Rotterdam Centraal station
Some symbols and icons of Dutch culture
Carnival in North Brabant and Limburg
Dutch people in orange celebrating King's Day in Amsterdam, 2017
Pop singer Anouk in 2013
Johan Cruyff Arena, the largest Dutch concert venue
Dutch star football players Arjen Robben and Robin van Persie during a game with the Netherlands against Denmark at Euro 2012
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
A Dutch doctor vaccinating Indonesian patients

In Europe, the Netherlands consists of twelve provinces, and borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, with a North Sea coast-line to the north and west.


Country in Central Europe.

A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Topographic map of Poland
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.

The country is bordered by Lithuania and Russia to the northeast, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west.

Weimar Republic

Weimar Republic in 1930
Weimar Republic in 1930
Naval jack of the Kaiserliche Marine (1903–1919)
Weimar Republic in 1930
Naval jack of the Reichsmarine (1918–1935)
Sailors during the mutiny in Kiel, November 1918
Philipp Scheidemann addresses a crowd from a window of the Reich Chancellery, 9 November 1918
Official postcard of the National Assembly
Chart of the definite constitution, the so-called Weimar Constition of 11 August 1919. It replaces the law concerning the provisional Reich power of 10 February 1919.
One-million mark notes used as notepaper, October 1923
A 50 million mark banknote issued in 1923, worth approximately one U.S. dollar when issued, would have been worth approximately 12 million U.S. dollars nine years earlier, but within a few weeks inflation made the banknote practically worthless.
A begging disabled WWI veteran (Berlin, 1923)
Wilhelm Marx's Christmas broadcast, December 1923
The "Golden Twenties" in Berlin: a jazz band plays for a tea dance at the hotel Esplanade, 1926
The Elephant Celebes by Max Ernst (1921)
Troops of the German Army feeding the poor in Berlin, 1931
Gross national product (inflation adjusted) and price index in Germany, 1926–1936 while the period between 1930 and 1932 is marked by a severe deflation and recession
Unemployment rate in Germany between 1928 and 1935 as during Brüning's policy of deflation (marked in purple), the unemployment rate soared from 15.7% in 1930 to 30.8% in 1932.
Communist Party (KPD) leader Ernst Thälmann (person in foreground with raised clenched fist) and members of the Roter Frontkämpferbund (RFB) marching through Berlin-Wedding, 1927
Federal election results 1919–1933: the Communist Party (KPD) (red) and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) (brown) were radical enemies of the Weimar Republic and the surge in unemployment during the Great Depression led to a radicalisation of many voters as the Nazi Party rose from 3% of the total votes in 1928 to 44% in 1933 while the DNVP (orange) lost its conservative wing and subsequently joined the radical opposition in 1929.
Nazi Party (NSDAP) leader Adolf Hitler saluting members of the Sturmabteilung in Brunswick, Lower Saxony, 1932
The SA had nearly two million members at the end of 1932.
Poster for the nationalist "Black–White–Red" coalition of Alfred Hugenberg (DNVP leader), Franz von Papen, and Franz Seldte

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik ), officially named the German Reich (Deutsches Reich), was the government of Germany from 1918 to 1933, during which it was a constitutional federal republic for the first time in history; hence it is also referred to, and unofficially proclaimed itself, as the German Republic (Deutsche Republik).


Transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans.

One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – approximately 17,000 BC. Lascaux is famous for its "exceptionally detailed depictions of humans and animals".
Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar during the Battle of Alesia. The Gallic defeat in the Gallic Wars secured the Roman conquest of the country.
The Maison Carrée was a temple of the Gallo-Roman city of Nemausus (present-day Nîmes) and is one of the best-preserved vestiges of the Roman Empire.
Frankish expansion from 481 to 870
With Clovis's conversion to Catholicism in 498, the Frankish monarchy, elective and secular until then, became hereditary and of divine right.
Joan of Arc led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453), which paved the way for the final victory.
Metropolitan France territorial evolution from 985 to 1947
The Château de Chenonceau, nowadays part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was built in the early 16th century.
Louis XIV, the "Sun King", was the absolute monarch of France and made France the leading European power.
Ouverture des États généraux à Versailles, 5 mai 1789 by Auguste Couder
The Storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789 was the most emblematic event of the French Revolution.
Le Serment du Jeu de paume by Jacques-Louis David, 1791
Napoleon, Emperor of the French, built a vast empire across Europe. His conquests spread the ideals of the French Revolution across much of the continent, such as popular sovereignty, equality before the law, republicanism and administrative reorganisation while his legal reforms had a major impact worldwide. Nationalism, especially in Germany, emerged in reaction against him.
Animated map of the growth and decline of the French colonial empire
French Poilus posing with their war-torn flag in 1917, during World War I
Charles de Gaulle took an active part in many major events of the 20th century: a hero of World War I, leader of the Free French during World War II, he then became President, where he facilitated decolonisation, maintained France as a major power and overcame the revolt of May 1968.
The May 68 protests, a massive social movement, would ultimately led to many social changes, such as the right to abortion, women empowerment as well as the decriminalisation of homosexuality.
Republican marches were organised across France after the January 2015 attacks perpetrated by Islamist terrorists; they became the largest public rallies in French history.
A relief map of Metropolitan France, showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitants
Mont Blanc, the highest summit in Western Europe, marks the border with Italy.
Geological formations near Roussillon, Vaucluse
Reed bed on the Gironde estuary, the largest estuary in Western Europe
Köppen climate classification map of Metropolitan France
Marine (blue), regional (green) and national (red) parks in France (2019)
The lands making up the French Republic, shown at the same geographic scale
Official logo of the French Republic
The National Assembly is the lower house of the French Parliament.
The basic principles that the French Republic must respect are found in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
88 states and governments are part of La Francophonie, which promotes values of democracy, multilingualism and cultural diversity. France has been a key member of this global organisation since its inception in 1970.
The European Parliament in Strasbourg, near the border with (Germany). France is a founding member of all EU institutions.
Examples of France's military. Clockwise from top left: nuclear aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle; a Dassault Rafale fighter aircraft; French Chasseurs Alpins patrolling the valleys of Kapisa province in Afghanistan; a Leclerc tank
La Défense (as seen from the Eiffel Tower) was in 2017 ranked by Ernst & Young as the leading Central business district in continental Europe, and the fourth in the world.
Composition of the French economy (GDP) in 2016 by expenditure type
Champagne is from the Champagne region in Northeast France.
The Eiffel Tower is the world's most-visited paid monument, an icon of both Paris and France.
The Château de Marqueyssac, featuring a French formal garden, is one of the Remarkable Gardens of France.
Belleville Nuclear Power Plant. France derives most of its electricity from nuclear power, the highest percentage in the world.
A TGV Duplex crossing the Cize–Bolozon viaduct. The train can reach a maximum speed of 360 km/h.
Air France is one of the biggest airlines in the world.
France is in 2020 the biggest national financial contributor to the European Space Agency, which conceived the Ariane rocket family, launched from French Guiana (Ariane 5 pictured).
The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble
Population density in France by arrondissement. The main urban areas are visible, notably the Paris (centre-north), Lille (north), Marseille (southeast) and Lyon (centre-southeast) urban areas.
Notre-Dame de Reims is the Roman Catholic cathedral where the Kings of France were crowned until 1825.
The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, a teaching hospital in Paris, is one of Europe's largest hospitals.
The École normale supérieure (ENS) in Paris, established in the end of the 18th century, produces more Nobel Prize laureates per capita than any other institution in the world.
Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People (1830) portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. Since Liberty is part of the motto "Liberté, égalité, fraternité", as the French put it, this painting has become the primary symbol of the French Republic.
The Louvre Museum, widely recognised as one of the finest art museums in the world, was in 2019 both the largest and the most-visited museum in the world.
Claude Monet, founder of the Impressionist movement
Le Penseur by Auguste Rodin (1902), Musée Rodin, Paris
Saint Louis's Sainte-Chapelle represents the French impact on religious architecture.
Place de la Bourse in Bordeaux, an example of French baroque architecture
The Capitole de Toulouse hosts Toulouse City Hall.
French literary figures. Clockwise from top left: Molière is the most played author in the Comédie-Française; Victor Hugo is one of the most important French novelist and poet; 19th-century poet, writer and translator Charles Baudelaire; 20th-century philosopher and novelist Jean-Paul Sartre
René Descartes, founder of modern Western philosophy
Claude Debussy
Serge Gainsbourg, one of the world's most influential popular musicians
Daft Punk, pioneers of the French house movement
A Palme d'Or from the Cannes Film Festival, one of the "Big Three" film festivals alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival
Louis de Funès, often called "France's favourite actor", has played over 130 roles in film and over 100 on stage.
Chanel's headquarters on Place Vendôme, Paris
The Parisian headquarters of Agence France-Presse, one of the world's oldest and leading news agencies
Le Figaro was founded in 1826; many of France's most prominent authors have written in its columns over the decades, and it is still considered a newspaper of record.
Admittance of Germaine Tillion, Geneviève de Gaulle-Anthonioz, Pierre Brossolette and Jean Zay at the Pantheon, a mausoleum for distinguished French people, in 2015
Sculpture of Marianne, a common national personification of the French Republic
French wines are usually made to accompany French cuisine.
Some French cheeses with fruits
Starting in 1903, the Tour de France is the oldest and most prestigious of Grands Tours, and the world's most famous cycling race.
Pierre de Coubertin, father of the modern Olympic Games
Zidane was named the best European footballer of the past 50 years in a 2004 UEFA poll.

France borders Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Andorra, and Spain in Europe, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname, and Brazil in the Americas via its overseas territories in French Guiana and Saint Martin.

East Germany

The territory of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from its creation on 7 October 1949 until its dissolution on 3 October 1990
On the basis of the Potsdam Conference, the Allies jointly occupied Germany west of the Oder–Neisse line, later forming these occupied territories into two independent countries. Light grey: territories annexed by Poland and the Soviet Union; dark grey: West Germany (formed from the US, UK and French occupation zones, including West Berlin); red: East Germany (formed from the Soviet occupation zone, including East Berlin).
West Germany (blue) comprised the Western Allies' zones, excluding the Saarland (purple); the Soviet zone, East Germany (red) surrounded West Berlin (yellow).
GDR leaders: President Wilhelm Pieck and Prime Minister Otto Grotewohl, 1949
SED First Secretary, Walter Ulbricht, 1960
Erich Honecker, head of state (1971–1989)
Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) Helmut Schmidt, Chairman of the State Council of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) Erich Honecker, U.S. president Gerald Ford and Austrian chancellor Bruno Kreisky signing the Helsinki Act
Karl Marx monument in Chemnitz (renamed Karl-Marx-Stadt from 1953 to 1990)
Demonstration on Alexanderplatz in East Berlin on 4 November 1989
SED logotype: the Communist–Social Democrat handshake of Wilhelm Pieck and Otto Grotewohl, establishing the SED in 1946
GDR flag at the United Nations headquarters, New York City, 1973
The Palast der Republik, seat of the Volkskammer
Poster with the inscription "Berlin – Hauptstadt der DDR", 1967
Ernst Thälmann Pioneer Organisation Emblem (13 December 1948 – August 1990)
Ernst Thälmann Pioneer Organisation Parade
Ernst Thälmann Pioneer Organisation uniform
Emblem of the Free German Youth
FDJ Organisation Parade
East Berlin: XII Parliament of the FDJ During the opening in the Great Hall of the Palace of the Republic.
Pioneer choir "August Bebel" Zwickau of the pioneer house "Wilhelm Pieck" in Zwickau (Schwanenschloß)
Uniform of the FDJ
Members with the uniform of the FDJ
A woman and her husband, both medical students, and their triplets in East Germany in 1984. The GDR had state policies to encourage births among educated women.
Districts of the German Democratic Republic in 1952
Uni-Riese (University Giant) in 1982. Built in 1972, it was once part of the Karl-Marx-University and is Leipzig's tallest building.
East German Nationale Volksarmee changing-of-the-guard ceremony in East Berlin
Angola's José Eduardo dos Santos during his visit to East Berlin
Map of the East German economy
The Trabant automobile was a profitable product made in the German Democratic Republic.
A 1980 meeting between representatives of the BEK and Erich Honecker
Katholikentag, Dresden, 1987 (left to right) Bishop Karl Lehmann and Cardinals Gerhard Schaffran, Joseph Ratzinger (the future Pope Benedict XVI) and Joachim Meisner
The Oktoberklub in 1967
Pop singer Frank Schöbel (center) giving autographs in 1980
Playwright Bertolt Brecht (1898–1956)
The East German football team lining up before a match in June 1974
Karin Janz
Gerhard Behrendt with character from the stop-animation series Sandmännchen
Percentage of Zweitstimme for Die Linke in the 2017 federal election
Provisional coat of arms of the GDR
Provisional coat of arms of the GDR
Coat of arms of the GDR
Flag of the GDR
Commercial flag
Flag of the GDR
President Standard 1951–1953
President's Standard 1953–1955
Standard of the President 1955–1960
Standard of the Chairman of the Council of State 1960–1990
Service flag of the National People's Army
Service flag for combat ships and boats of the People's Navy
Service flag for auxiliary ships and boats of the People's Navy
alt=Service flag|Deutsche Post (1955–1973)
Service flag for ships and boats of the Border Brigade Coast
Service flag of the border troops
Flag of the Ministry of State Security (Stasi), East Germany, until 1990
Emblem of the Ministry of State Security (MfS) (Stasi) of the GDR (until 1990)
Coat of arms of National People's Army of the German Democratic Republic (from 1956 until 1990)
Emblem of the Ground Forces of National People's Army (1956-1990)
The coat of arms of the People's Navy with the Order of Karl Marx (between 1956 and 1990)
Emblem of Air Force of the National People's Army of the German Democratic Republic before 1959 (until 1956 the People's Police Air of the GDR)
Emblem of aircraft of National People's Army of the German Democratic Republic (1959–1990)
Emblem of the Grenztruppen used for vehicles (1949–1990)
The national ensign of the GDR Volkspolizei-Bereitschaften (from 1962 to 1990)
Combat Groups of the Working Class coat of arms of the fighting groups of the working class, without oak leaves (between 1953 and 1990)
Logo of the Organization of the Warsaw Pact (14 May 1955)
Emblem of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (1950–1990)
Flag of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (1950–1990)
Emblem of the Free German Youth
Ernst Thälmann Pioneer Organisation Flag (13 December 1948 – August 1990)

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik,, DDR, ), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in middle Germany as part of the Eastern Bloc in the Cold War.